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Week 38 Introduction Thread: Yemeni

2020.09.18 05:12 dharmaticate Week 38 Introduction Thread: Yemeni

Yemeni food is delicious and, unfortunately, not often talked about. Here are a few examples to get you started.
Before you explore its wonderful food, take a moment to educate yourself on the current state of Yemen. From UNICEF:
What’s happening in Yemen?
Yemen is the largest humanitarian crisis in the world, with more than 24 million people – some 80 per cent of the population – in need of humanitarian assistance, including more than 12 million children. Since the conflict escalated in March 2015, the country has become a living hell for the country’s children.
With COVID-19 now spreading rapidly, Yemen is facing an emergency within an emergency. Sanitation and clean water are in short supply. Only half of health facilities are functioning, and many that remain operational lack basic equipment like masks and gloves, let alone oxygen and other essential supplies to treat the coronavirus. Many health workers are receiving no salaries or incentives, and 10.2 million children don't have access to basic healthcare.
Meanwhile, economic shocks, conflict, floods, desert locusts and now COVID-19 are creating a perfect storm that could reverse hard-earned food security gains.
How is the crisis affecting children?
Children continue to be killed and maimed in the conflict, while the damage and closure of schools and hospitals has disrupted access to education and health services, leaving children even more vulnerable and robbing them of their futures.
Before COVID-19, around 2 million children were out of school. Now, because of the pandemic, schools have been closed around the country, leaving some 7.8 million children unable to access education. As the coronavirus spreads, tens of thousands more children could develop life-threatening severe acute malnutrition over the next six months, while the overall number of malnourished children under the age of five could increase to a total of 2.4 million.
Learn more here. If you have any other recipes, resources related to the crisis, or suggestions regarding how to help, please comment below!
submitted by dharmaticate to 52weeksofcooking [link] [comments]


2020.06.21 08:10 Ralts_Bloodthorne First Contact - TOTAL WAR - 216 (Foxtrot-Nine-Two)

[first] [prev] [Last Night Terror] [SOMEONE PLEASE WAKE ME UP!] [next]
The massive ship shuddered again, throwing Mukstet against Vankal, both of them nearly falling in the hallway as the lights in the corridor flickered and the artificial gravity stuttered. They both threw themselves forward, boot shod feet pounding against the floor plates as they hurried. The lift was out so they both headed down the stairs, joining the Terrans, Treana'ad, Mantid, Rigellians, and even a few A'antellians heading for their deployment.
Vankal was almost knocked over the railing and a Rigellian grabbed him, her great strength letting her pick him up and carry him for two long steps even as she pulled him back over the railing. "I got you, Marine," she rumbled, her voice deep and sure.
BAY NINE came into view and both Mukstet and Vankal both peeled off from the crowd. The bay was full of techs running from ship to ship, undogging hoses and pulling ammo carts away from the assault hovercraft. The massive bay door to space was open, the permeable force field designed to keep atmosphere inside while allowing vessels through holding back the vacuum of space. A craft flashed by, lasers seeking it from the massive ship.
"Betty Boop's getting hammered," Vankal panted as they ran across the bay, nimbly dodging mechanics, ordnance loaders, and fuel technicians.
"We dropped into the middle of a Precursor formation," Mukstet said, pointing outside.
The Precursor vessels were so close the pair of Telkans could make out details on their hulls. See the patchwork armor, the glowing engines, the weapon mounts vomiting up death at the CSFN Betty Boop at extreme close range. Even the point defense weapon systems of the combating ships could be brought into play to fire directly at the enemy vessels.
"There it is," Mukstet yelled, angling toward the assault hovercraft.
"Donning armor," Vankal called out, angling toward the back row. Half of the armored Marine Light Scout armor was gone, but Vankal could see his suit.
Mukstet climbed onboard, one of the armored Marines grabbing his hand and pulling him in. He hurried through the short 'hallway' to the cockpit. He followed his training, ignoring the thick fear that rose up in him, attaching his atmospheric hoses first, then synching up his systems to the hovercraft. Data started streaming by his vision as the vehicle ran through the startup checks.
"Control, this is Foxtrot-Nine-Two, co-pilot onboard, seventy percent of scout crew onboard," he intoned.
"Fox-Nine-Two, this is Betty Boop Combat Control Auxiliary, you're clear for takeoff as soon as your loaded or if that bay gets too hot," an unfamiliar voice said.
Auxiliary? Boop must be getting hammered, Mukstet thought to himself even as he answered. "Uh, negative, Control, we're exo-atmosphere, this is a intra-atmosphere multi-role hovercraft."
There was silence and a new voice came on. "You're Telkan? First deployment?"
"Yes, sir," Mukstet said. He didn't need to know the rank to know someone with that much authority was probably an officer.
"OK, here's what you do. Make sure all your armor troops are sealed, your flight crew sealed and on internal atmosphere. You launch, use the Boop for repellant mass. You get clear, let the planet's gravitational pull yank you down. You might have to pull a few orbits, but you can't stay up here," the voice said.
"What about our drop cradle?" Mukstet asked. He breathed a sigh of relief as Vankal and Arlek's icons went from red to green, meaning both the Telkan had gotten loaded. He was only missing Chief Warrant Officer Two Nessark and he'd be fully crewed.
"The Boop's in bad shape. You might not get one. Listen, and listen close, kid. I've done a few of these. We're going to roll the Boop in a couple of minutes. Just hover off the deck, when you see the planet, slam the power to max," the voice said.
A missile detonated on the permeable forcefield and a gout of explosive belched into the far side of the bay. Mukstet looked over in time to see the entire back wall on the far side explode inward then belch out fire.
"I don't have my Chief Pilot," Mukstet said.
"All Bay Nine: Prepare to Launch with current loads" flashed in his vision.
Reflexed kicked in and Mukstet slammed down the troop-bay hatches, ignoring the protests over the internal com-system.
The ship rolled and Mukstet panicked for a second. He had no idea where Chief Nessark was. He'd only done solo-flight in training and in simulators, never in something like...
His hands and reflexes kept moving even as his mind panicked. Check the telltales to make sure he wasn't hooked up to any umbilicals or had any open hatches. Fire the reactors, activate the graviton drives, activate the anti-gravity systems, activate the strike hovercraft's systems except for the weapons and ECM.
The strike craft shivered as it lifted a foot off the deck.
Mukstet could feel the Boop roll, pointing at damage to the artificial gravity systems. A counter appeared in the middle of his vision, mostly transparent, rapidly counting down.
"Mukstet, you there, kid?" It was Chief Nessark.
"Chief, thank the Gods, where are you, we have to launch in less than 10 seconds!" Mukstet yelled even as his hands and feet got ready.
"I ain't gonna make it, kid. It's up to you," the lanky Terran said. He coughed. "Boop's done for, out of the fight at least. Get our boys off her, just like you were taught."
"But," Mukstet started.
LAUNCH appeared in his visit.
"Good luck, kid, and may the Omnimessiah watch over you," the Chief's voice dwindled away as Mukstet threw full power into forward momentum, engaging the atmospheric afterburners that was normally used to 'squirt' forward to escape air defense systems. A missile went by, close enough that Mukstet could swear he could see the markings on it, and then...
Space.
All his systems went haywire. The magnetic nagivation system was completely confused, the mass reaction system detected three masses in the millions of tons, atmospheric warnings went off, radiation warnings spiked as the strike hovercraft was exposed to the unshielded rays of the nearby yellow star, and both afterburners suddenly went out. Both cold and heat warnings started wailing. The warbois and the VI, which had started to wake up, immediately locked back down into their shielded Farraday cages.
Mukstet used the mass repellant anti-grav/graviton system to push himself away from the three ships, which were still locked in combat at less than four miles from one another.
One of the Precursor ones took a full broadside of dropship missiles and broke in half as the dropship hangars passed it. It didn't die alone, its return fire causing fire, shrapnel that had been dropships, and a few intact dropships to spew from the destroyed bays.
Mukstet could see the wreckage of at least five other Precursors surrounding the Betty Boop, the larger chunks still shooting.
Mukstet ignored the babbling of fear and concern and confusion over the intra-ship com-link, slapping it off and concentrating.
"Kanpuk, try to raise up the rest of the strike wing," Mukstet ordered. "See who made it out. Tell them to try to orient on me, we're going to try an unpowered reentry until we hit enough mass and atmosphere to get our systems online."
"Roger," Technical Private Kanpuk replied, glad for something to do beyond gape in horror as one of the Boop's engines exploded even as she kept firing at her foes.
It was difficult. The mass from the planet was tenuous according to his instruments and his systems, but he found if he feathered the controls carefully he could use the mass of the planet as reaction mass (not the fuel type) for his drives. He slowly rolled, aligned, and reconfigured his instruments.
--ok?-- came the question from 793, the leader of the six man green mantid engineer team. The mantid was excited, null-gee launch into medium orbit space above a planet while under attack was exactly the kind of story the egg tenders sang to an entire lineage of engineer grubs.
"I'm all right, how's the ship?" Mukstet asked.
--reconfiguring battlescreens and particle screens for space-- the green mantid said. --201 rewriting software right now on fly--
"But how's the ship?" Mukstet repeated.
--no damage good ship tough ship-- 793 answered, flashing icons of satisfaction and pride. --not a spaceship but engineer team is working we will endure-- The green mantid felt a surge of pride in his team as 837 informed him that he was able to increase the mass detection and mass reaction systems to allow the attack ship to use the planet and the orbiting moon as reaction mass. 793 ordered 605 to pass the data onto the other engineer teams.
The situation was dire there was engineering glory for every green mantid present.
Glory to the first bladearm to wind a wire
Mukstet was completely unaware of the engineering team's efforts or conversations, concentrating on lightly feathering the controls to slowly bring the strike craft into alignment. Belly down, nose slightly lifted. The rest of Foxtrot-Nine all lined up on him, with his craft being the point of the wedge. He did a quick count and saw only three of the twenty-four striker craft were missing. It was supposed to be four wings of six strikers each.
"Kanpuk, see who had their human get here," Mukstet said.
There was silence for a moment.
"Nobody. Cantet said he heard the Terran pilot barracks bay took a direct hit from a near-C velocity cannon," Kanpuk said. "No matter what happened, none of the Terrans made it."
Mukstet thought for a long time. "Find out who's highest ranking."
There was a long moment. "Sergeant Kuplo, one our dismount team. He's a veteran of the Second Telkan War. You're highest ranking of the co-pilots, not including your experience as a wall-gunner during Second Telkan."
Mukstet closed his eyes and made himself relax, push back the panic trying to overwhelm him.
"All right, inform everyone I'm taking Squadron Command. Find out the rankings of the others, go rank, date of rank, time in service, birthday," he said.
--have idea-- 793 said, flashing icons of excitement.
"Go ahead, 793," Mukstet said.
--ok sounds scary but is doable-- the mantid said. In the small engineering space was quivering with excitement. --reconfigure systems. take propellant from missiles, reroute fusion reactor reaction mass tank to afterburners. reconfigure afterburners. use atmosphere. make fuel. use afterburners as thrusters to adjust orbit. reconfigure battlescreens to pull power from reentry heat. simple simple. like plasma, reroute heat to energy to nano-forges and systems. take... oh... 3 hours maybe six--
Mukstet checked his instruments. Speed 18,420 miles per hour, about twenty times recommended max speed. Orbit time: eighty-nine minutes. Number of orbits till reentry: 14.
"We got nothing but time. You're the engineers. How do we handle atmosphere though? We gotta breathe," Mukstet said.
--run symbiosis with scouts. they power armor, not armored vac-suit like crew. send 551 and 377 to hook everyone up. should work-- 793 said.
"All right. Do it," Mukstet said. If he was wrong, Space Force Marine Corps and the Telkan Marine Corps could recover his corpse and court martial it. He opened a channel to the back. "Sergeant Kuplo, it's Mukstet."
"I read you, sir," Kuplo said. He knew Mukstet was only a Private First Class, but he was the pilot, which, as far as Kuplo was concerned, made Mukstet 'sir'.
"Need one man up here, one man at each crew station. The greenies are going to umbilical us so we can breathe off of your atmospheric systems. I want you in the back with the rest of the fire team. We're going to be up here a while, most of a day, unless the greenies figure something out," Mukstet said.
"Oorah, sir," the other Telkan said and cut the link.
In the engineering spaces the six mantids got close enough they could talk rapidly, their bladearms out so they could all touch, heads leaned forward close enough to hear one another. The computations sped by, suggestions integrated or rejected without ego, all of them excited to be part of it. Only in dangerous professions did wrench-ful glory arrive to the faithful engineer and all of them were excited to have their own numbers and formulae names attached to the emergency rigging they were doing. While the Telkans sat and waited the little green engineers planned until the job assignments started to be handed out. They'd break into three teams of two. Team One would start working on the afterburners. Team Two would run software creation and alteration. Team Three would first hook the Telkan up to life support and then start making the adjustments to screens then the tanks. They all recited the formula dealing with the splitting of a hydrogen atom and them broke, scurrying toward their jobs, all of them humming their favorite songs.
Mukstet was glad it was only about twenty minutes before two of the mantids came up and connected him to Private Jekib. He still had two hours of atmosphere to go, but he had started becoming obsessed with staring at his O2 level.
--breathe deep breathe steady we turn wrenches we save day-- 551 said, flashing emojis of a gasping face that suddenly smiled.
"Thanks," Mukstet said.
"You OK? I run my O2 a little rich since I'm heavy weapons," Pvt Jekib said through the commo link.
"Better now. I had a few hours left on my bottle but I was starting to get the gasps," Mukstet answered.
"Think we're gonna make it?" Jekib asked.
"Either way, we'll be recorded in the Corps database," Mukstet answered, chuckling. "Either as the ballseyest hover-striker launch and deployment or as 'those poor sad bastards who died in orbit' that'll be taught in striker pilot classes."
Jekib chuckled and they both sat silently. A few times the instruments came on, changed, rebooted, shut down, then came back. The forward viewport, smart-armaglass, kept updating and rebooting. Once the text was upside down and backwards and it reboot almost immediately.
"Man, those little guys know their stuff," Jekib commented.
"Heard they can actually read molycircs just by touching them and can communicate with VI's at their own speed if they're touching a hardware port," Mukstet answered.
"Mukstet? Kanput here. The other guys are starting to get worried," came the commo-tech's voice. "The flashing instruments are freaking them out."
"Open me up a channel to the rest of the squadron," Mukstet said, wracking his brain quickly to think of what to say.
"Channels open," Kanput said.
"All right, Foxtrot-Nine. We're in a sticky situation, I'm not going to lie, but we're not taking fire, the big boys are interested in each other not us, and we've didn't encounter ground fire. We're too small to really read from the ground unless they're looking for us, and we're stealth strikers anyway," he said.
"All together, we've got one hundred and twenty-six green mantid engineers. That's over five hundred combined years of engineering experience, all working to get us ground-side. Just take this as a relaxation period. We follow our training, we stick to doctrine, and we'll be fine," Mukstet said, feeling more confident.
"I doubt anyone's made an unpowered insertion from orbit," Pv2 Lutmin snorted.
--not true. human made near-orbit jump with O2 bottle and parachute-- 042 broke in.
"Yeah, but he was SUDS'd and probably had a grav chute," Pv2 Ilknup scoffed.
--no. pre-SUDS pre-graviton. jumped with cloth chute and metal bottle with O2. fell from near orbit to set record. fun fun-- 042 answered.
"You know, sometimes I think the humans just ain't all there," Pvt Hekak laughed.
That got laughter across the channel.
"Did they invent SUDS just so that they didn't go extinct from doing suicidal things just to do them?" Pvt Bempet laughed.
--yes-- 406 added with laughing icons.
773 sent an image of a human and a fur covered feline with huge fangs and claws, the feline roaring angrily and the human looking at the feline thoughtfully and thinking "On one hand I could die" and then "On the other hand, cool story, bro" with "And that's how I ended up with my thumb in a tiger's ass!" at the bottom.
That made all the pilots laugh.
"Well, either way, we're going to be the first Telkans to orbit this planet in a striker," Pvt Hekak said.
"All Fire Team Leaders, ensure morale is high and non-mission chatter is permitted," Mukstet said on the separate channel.
For several hours the group sat in their seats, strapped in, while the mantids rewrote computer cable, ran leads and pipes, and made modifications. Once they had to stop while the nano-forges cooled off. At one time Mukstet asked 793 to use the sensor systems to map the planet below as best they could without attracting missiles or ground fire.
Three times they had to sit and do nothing but watch as they orbited past ground-fire and return fire. Once they threaded, luckily, through a launch of drop-pods directly into ground-fire. Another time they went underneath where a dozen Precursor ships were being broken apart by the fire from Confederate Space Force Naval vessels. All they could do was watch, hold onto the controls, and pray for the best.
Each time Mukstet breathed a sigh of relief to hear that none of his tiny craft had been damaged by the clash between titans.
Finally 793 broke into the conversation about who was better: The Red Cosmic Knight or Korgod the Bold, the Demi-God Rigellian Female.
--we're taking local control. test together so not separated-- 793 said. --drop team already secured--
"Roger that. All pilots, HANDS UP!" Mukstet snapped, raising his own hands up and grabbing the 'oh shit' handle above his head.
All of the squadron's striker craft suddenly rolled counter-clockwise then clockwise, then tumbled 'forward' then 'backwards' before leveling off. The afterburners suddenly fired, all of the ships lunged forward, speeding up. The afterburners cut out.
--fire tests done. computer systems ready-- 793 said. --going to add some ablative heat coating and some air brakes. two more hours--
"All right, boys. 793 Just told me we have three hours. Let's start running reentry angles. Everyone combine our topography data and meteorological data. Give us an idea of what we're going to be hitting," Mukstet said.
"We're going to make it, aren't we?" Jekib said suddenly.
"To planetside? More than likely. Through whatever hell is down there against the Precursors? I don't know," Mukstet answered. "But we're going to get these crates into atmosphere."
The Marine Armored Scout just nodded.
Finally Mukstet leaned back and opened the channel. "OK, in two more hours we'll be between the planet and the moon. We use the moon as a repellent reaction mass and the planet as an attraction reaction mass. We'll orient, fire the afterburners, and follow the reentry flight plan. The greenies will have two men on you to help with the flight profiles and pass on any failures to the other four, who will be in position near the equipment most likely to fail. We'll run out of fuel at roughly 450k meters, but our angle will be changed enough we'll enter atmosphere less than an hour afterwards.
"I'm not going to lie, that's going to be the roughest part. If you tumble, try to correct. Remember, if worse comes to worse, try to get ass forward, the armor's thick enough back there and they've redone the battle-screens to handle the thermal overload. If the absolute worst happens and you break up, have the strike team jump, you punch out. Hard light chute opening at 2,000 feet, activate your beacons, we'll come looking for you," Mukstet said.
Saying it out loud sounds like podlings making up stories, Mukstet thought.
"Any questions?" he asked.
"Yeah, who invented liquid soap and why?" someone, who wasn't broadcasting their ID, asked.
"At ease that shit," came Sergeant Kuplo stern voice. "All strike team Marines, prepare for high altitude drop chute deployment."
"Here... we... go..." Mukstet said.
The moon, which had broken metal debris around it and crashed on the surface, slowly got larger and larger. Mukstet watched his mass readings slowly rise. He frowned, looked again, and ordered a tighter graviton scan.
There was an eddy in the gravity interaction between the planet and the moon. A small one, probably compensated for automatically by space going vessels, but the gravity increased by almost 0.25G and pushed down and forward.
We can use that like a chute, he thought to himself. It was small, tiny, almost unnoticable.
On a stellar scale.
The eddy was 'small' at two hundred miles wide, the opening sixteen miles wide and the exit nearly three miles wide. A tiny little gravitational flux.
"973, do you see this?" Mukstet asked, highlighting it with a blink and a tap of a muscle he'd only recently trained to use.
--see it. computing-- 973 answered. A half second went by. --use it. sorry for delay. triple check and updates--
"No problem. Good work," Mukstet said. He opened the channel back up to the pilots. "All right, Foxtrot Nine-Two taking the lead. We'll go in in a wedge. Data is uploading," he said. "Good luck, men."
"May the Digital Omnimessiah protect us," Pv2 Dintin said softly.
Mukstet watched the HUD, orienting when it said to, bringing up the systems in order. While an autopilot could do it he needed to bring the systems up. Part of him was tempted to let the autopilot do it, but something could come up outside the autopilot's abilities and this was way outside of normal operation.
"All pilots, mark countdown," he ordered. He breathed deep, pretending it was a close air support under fire run. "Perform afterburner check. If green, signal. We do this all together or come back on another orbit," he said. The ship-icons all went green. He reset them. "Perform graviton and anti-grav checks. Signal green on good." Again, all the icons went green and he reset them. "Battle and particle screen check. Signal green on good." The icons went green. "Squadron is green. Entering final countdown."
When it hit zero he hit the afterburners, feeling the ship, not designed for this kind of abuse, start to vibrate. Hitting the eddy almost spun his striker craft but he got it under control. He only had a five second lead but it was time enough for 973 to warn the other engineers and let them compensate for it. Within seconds the whole world was vibrating and Mukstet was vaguely aware he'd probably filled his catheter bag. He gritted his teeth and ignored the way the vibrations made his arms go numb and his shoulders ache, how the way he had to adjust the thrust with the pedals and the vibration combined to make his knees and ankles ache even as his feet and pelvis went numb.
It was like trying to skate an iron skillet across a wave of molasses while wearing oven mitts. Speed was dropping even as the angle increased to more than they would have been able to achieve under the afterburners.
The afterburners cut off, out of fuel, just the howling of the graviton and anti-grav systems being operated beyond their tolerances. The ship was still vibrating, just at a different harmonic. Mukstet's vision kept blurring and it was slightly painful to look at different sections of the HUD.
All of the squadron read green.
Finally they were through, the graviton and anti-grav systems cut out, and they were drifting.
Falling.
The planet below them, the pilots waited. Mukstet tabbed up a piece of gum to chew as the HUD reset with new reentry vectors and a new timer.
"Open the channel," he ordered. When it was open he cleared his throat. "All right, twenty-two minutes to the top of the atmosphere. Have your engineers run checks and go green for good. Nine-Two out."
Then it was waiting. The port-side secondary graviton generator was damaged but the engineers got it repaired in time. Two Marines had vomited from the vibration but were fine, their armor's systems cleaning the interior of the armor.
One by one the icons, including his own, went green.
Mukstet closed his eyes for a moment. He couldn't believe they were all still alive. His brain replayed the terrifying launch from the bay of the Betty Boop and the way flames exploded out with them as missiles got through the screen.
Mukstet wondered if the big beautiful ship had survived.
"Thirty seconds. Go green if ready," Mukstet said. One by one the other strikers came back green.
His hands hurt, he was gripping the controls so hard. He felt like he was going to vomit or start laughing or both as the ship started to vibrate slightly. He punched up the graviton systems and the vibration got worse. The port-side secondary wailed, but kept up output within necessary levels.
The battlescreens and particle screens shifted frequency and began to sparkle and snarl as the atmosphere went from stray particles to gasses. He kept the belly up, watching the speed first raise, then start to lower. The engineers had considered hard-light drag-chutes but had ran the computations and found out the airframe couldn't take the stress, that the strikers would have broken up.
It was air-braking or nothing.
The screens were snarling, absorbing the heat. Power levels were rising as the shields drained the energy into the system for re-use. The vibration got even worse, making Mukstet feel like his bones were going to vibrate out of skin. The timer was counting down, the estimates by the engineers for when the atmosphere would be thick enough and the speed low enough for the strikers to make a shallow dive curve.
He was fifteen seconds away when the port-side graviton generators both went out in an explosion that scattered striker armor out in a scythe of shrapnel. The ship whipped around, going into a flat spin, and only training kept Mukstet from puking. He felt like he was going to black out as his flight-suit squeezed him, forcing the blood out of his legs and arms and back up into his brain.
--we're in a flat spin. engines out. trying to wet-start-- 973 reported.
"Don't!" Mukstet barked, cutting the power to the starboard graviton generators and the central line primary graviton thrusters then killing the anti-grav systems.
--all you brother--
PARE PARE PARE he thought to himself desperately.
Mukstet kept breathing, despite the crushing weight on his chest. Jekib was limp in the seat, passed out from the high-G spin. Once the striker was 'idling' he hit the mechanicals and felt the 'squishy' feeling hit his controls. He took the ailerons to neutral, fighting the port-side ones. He counted to two, then brought the opposite rudder to max and held it. He fought with the elevator for a moment, then got his nose down.
The striker slowed then bobbled, before coming in level. He dropped the rudder and leveled out, hitting the power to the center-line graviton systems and the craft roared to life.
The three striker Marines that had gone amber went back green suddenly and the two amber mantid icons went green.
--port graviton is gone need to refab-- 973 reported.
Mukstet could tell by the way the striker wanted to pull to port that he had a big gaping slash down his side.
The rest of the squadron was still green and according to his HUD were only three miles ahead.
The lights went green as the craft finally had enough of the planet's gravity well for the systems to work normally.
"All craft, go to manual and hard reset your controls," Mukstet ordered.
"Thought we lost you, sir," Pv2 Dintin said.
"Good training," Mukstet said. "On the clock," he ordered, and punched up a five second timer. "Now!"
The green mantids reset the computer system, wiping out the RAM and reverting to the package loaded before launch to reset. The stick went dead, mushy in his hand, then suddenly everything came back to life.
He had HUD warnings his portside graviton flight systems were out and thumbed off the alert.
The rest of the squadron slowed and let him take the lead.
He breathed a sigh of relief.
"All right, Kuplo, get our commo together, let's see who needs Foxtrot-Nine," Mukstet said.
"Roger, scanning the net now," Kuplo said. "Heavy jamming, but I'll suss it out."
"I'M AWAKE!" Jekib yelled, jerking in his seat.
Mukstet almost choked on his gum trying not to laugh.
[first] [prev] [Last Night Terror] [SOMEONE PLEASE WAKE ME UP!] [next]
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2020.06.20 16:07 bigbear0083 Wall Street Week Ahead for the trading week beginning June 22nd, 2020

Good Saturday morning to all of you here on smallstreetbets. I hope everyone on this sub made out pretty nicely in the market this past week, and is ready for the new trading week ahead.
Here is everything you need to know to get you ready for the trading week beginning June 22nd, 2020.

The stock market is running out of steam with reopening trades fading and economic data ‘uneven’ - (Source)

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell is expected to reassure markets next week the central bank will do whatever it takes to help the economy heal. That should be enough to keep investors moving into stocks that benefit from an economic rebound and push the S&P 500 into the green for 2020.
The stock market, so eager to put the entire blow from the pandemic behind it, is now coming to terms that a “V-shaped” recovery might be too rosy a scenario.
With recent spikes in coronavirus cases and fluctuations in the economic data, the market seems to be stuck in a range amid elevated volatility. Market analysts said investors should expect more turbulence ahead because the economic recovery is most likely to be bumpy.
“The market was priced for a continuation of improvement and I think that’s overstating what’s going to happen,” said Brian Levitt, Invesco’s global market strategist. “We are going to have episodes of cases rising. We are going to have a very slow and uneven improvement in the jobs market.”
After soaring more than 40% from the March lows, the S&P 500 turned sideways in the past two weeks, trading at similar levels to early June. The market, which used to turn a blind eye to disastrous news on the thinking that the economy had already bottomed, has become more vulnerable to negative economic headlines as the data begins to give a read on the shape of the recovery.
Stocks came under pressure earlier this week after data showed weekly jobless claims rose more than expected last week, and the number stayed above 1 million for the 13th consecutive week.
And on the virus front, California, Texas, Florida and Arizona have reported an uptick in new infections and hospitalizations amid the reopening. Apple said Friday that it’s again closing some stores in Florida, North Carolina and Arizona due to the spikes in coronavirus cases, which sparked a sell-off in the market, especially among retail stocks.
“The economy is going to need more help to bounce back in months to come,” said Matt Miskin, co-chief investment strategist at John Hancock Investment Management. “For now, volatility and choppy markets remain our base case as an uneven economic recovery likely unfolds.”

‘Rolling Ws’

The rally in those popular reopening trades — airlines, cruise lines and hotels — is seemingly losing steam. Shares of American Airlines and Delta posted their second straight weekly losses. So did Carnival, Norwegian Cruise and MGM Resorts. Those stocks were once the high-beta leaders of the market comeback as investors bet that a successful reopening would take hold.
“Although the stock market was suggesting a V-shaped recovery, the more likely scenario is rolling Ws,” Liz Ann Sonders, chief investment strategist at Charles Schwab, said in a note.
A similar market pattern happened during the financial crisis, pointed out by Nicholas Colas, co-founder of DataTrek Research. After stocks rallied nearly 40% from the 2009 bottom, the market was range-bound for about seven weeks so the fundamentals could catch up, Colas noted.
From a technical perspective, Matthew Maley, chief market strategist at Miller Tabak, is watching if the S&P 500 can break above its recent high of 3,232 or drop below the 3,000 threshold or its 200-day moving average of 3,018 as of Friday.
“Whichever way it breaks...should be an very important development in trying to determine how this critical juncture in the stock market will be resolved,” Maley said in a note.

Fed can’t prevent volatility

While the flattening virus curve played a big role in the market rebound, it’s no denying that the Federal Reserve’s unprecedented stimulus has been a key driver in lifting stocks from the coronavirus slump. The central bank unleashed another weapon in its arsenal this week, saying it will start buying individual corporate bonds.
As comforting as it is to have the Fed’s support, the central bank can only do so much to ease investor fears.
“The Fed can’t prevent the volatility we’re seeing in stocks,” Lindsey Bell, chief investment strategist at Ally Invest, said in a note. “It will likely take years for the economy to fully recover and there remain other uncertainties on the path ahead. As such, investors may continue to struggle with this mismatch between markets and the economy before seeing the case for new highs.”
Fed Chairman Jerome Powell reminded investors again this week in his semiannual testimony before Congress that “significant uncertainty remains about the timing and strength of the recovery.”
Many on Wall Street have also warned that extended policy measures including injection of trillions of cheap money would lead to problems down the road such as hyperinflation.

This past week saw the following moves in the S&P:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL S&P TREE MAP FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Indices for this past week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR INDICES FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Futures Markets as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR FUTURES INDICES AS OF FRIDAY!)

Economic Calendar for the Week Ahead:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL ECONOMIC CALENDAR FOR THE WEEK AHEAD!)

Percentage Changes for the Major Indices, WTD, MTD, QTD, YTD as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

S&P Sectors for the Past Week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Major Indices Pullback/Correction Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!

Major Indices Rally Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Most Anticipated Earnings Releases for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Here are the upcoming IPO's for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Friday's Stock Analyst Upgrades & Downgrades:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #2!)

100 Days

100 days ago today on March 11th, the WHO made it official and declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. Markets were already under a lot of pressure before the WHO declared the pandemic, but the 100 days since will probably go down as some of the craziest 100 days we'll ever experience, not only in the market but in general society as well. More than enough ink and pixels have been spent discussing the societal impact at large, so we'll spare you and just focus on the markets.
While much of the declines were already in the rearview mirror by the time the WHO made its announcement, equities still had a steep decline in the immediate aftermath. The large-cap Russell 1000, for example, fell another 19% to its March 23rd closing low, but after the rebound, the net change since the pandemic was officially declared > has been a gain of 14.3%.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
As impressive as the Russell 1000's gain has been in the face of the global pandemic, many stocks have done a lot better than that. The table below lists the 25 stocks in the index that have seen the biggest gains so far during this pandemic. Topping the list is Wayfair (W) which has rallied more than 350%. If there is one thing Americans must have realized while they were stuck at home under lockdown it was that they needed some new furniture! Behind Wayfair, two other stocks have more than tripled and both were beaten down stocks from the Energy sector that were trading at less than $2 per share on March 11th. A number of familiar names standout including Moderna (MRNA), Twilio (TWLO), DocuSign (DOCU), Beyond Meat (BYND), and Etsy (ETSY), but looking through the list, there's really a diverse group of names ranging from bombed-out stocks from the Energy sector (8 stocks), Consumer names (7 stocks), and the ever-popular software stocks from the Technology sector (6 stocks). It's definitely been a rocky road for the markets over the last 100 days, but for anyone who had these names in their portfolio, they aren't complaining. Click here to view Bespoke's premium membership options for access to our weekly Bespoke Report which includes an update to our Stocks for the COVID economy portfolio that was released on March 11th.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

S&P 500 Industry Group Breadth Remains Positive

Equity markets have become a bit wobbly in the last week or so, but breadth, in terms of large-cap industry groups, still remains pretty robust. Relative to their 50-DMAs, all 24 S&P 500 industry groups still have rising 50-DMAs. When you consider the fact that the 50-day window spans the period going back to early April, a period encompassing most of what was one of the strongest 50-day rallies on record, the fact that every industry group has a rising 50-DMA isn't all that surprising.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Even though all their 50-DMAs are rising, not every industry group is currently trading above its 50-DMA. While the reading briefly reached 100% in late May and early June, two industry groups have since pulled back below their 50-DMAs, putting the percentage at a still impressive 91.7%.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
The table below summarizes industry group performance showing YTD performance, where each one is trading relative to its 50-DMA, as well as where the group is trading relative to its 52-week high.
As mentioned above, all but two groups (Drugs & Biotech and Food & Staples Retail) remain above their 50-DMAs, and another four are less than 2% above their 50-DMA. If Friday's sell-off deepens into next week, the percentage of industry groups above their 50-DMAs has the potential to quickly sink as low as 75%. Of the 22 industry groups that are above their 50-DMAs, Autos and Tech Hardware are the only two greater than 10% above.
On a YTD basis, the S&P 500 is down less than 4%, but for the vast majority of industry groups, performance has been worse than that. Of the 24 groups shown, 16 are down more than 4% YTD, including eleven that are down over 10%. The worst performers of these losers include Energy, Banks, and Autos. While Energy gets most of the attention for being so weak, Banks are essentially down just as much! On the upside, just two industry groups are up over 10% (Retailers, which is basically Amazon, and Software & Services). Retailing is also the one industry group that is within 1% of a 52-week high and one of seven that is within 4% of a 52-week high.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Credit Market Reversals

We've noted in detail the massive reversals seen in global equities over the last three months, but outside of equities, we've also seen some other massive moves. One example is credit spreads between the yields of corporate and high yield bonds relative to Treasuries.
The top chart below shows the spread in yields between the B of A Corporate Index relative to Treasuries going back to 1997, and below that, we show the 50-day rate of change in the spread. Heading into the COVID-crash, spreads on corporate bonds were less than 100 basis points (bps), meaning the corporate bond index was yielding only 1 percentage point more than comparable Treasury yields. In the span of less than two months, though, spreads surged by more than 300 bps to over 400 bps. Not since the depths of the credit crisis in 2009 had we seen spreads widen out more than they did in March. Just as notable as the level is the fact that the speed with which spreads widened during the COVID-crash was similar to the pace during the credit crisis.
While spreads were quick to spike during both crises, they narrowed nearly as fast both times. Going back to 1997, the most corporate spreads have ever narrowed over a 50-day period was in June 2009. Coming in at a close second place, though, the 50-day period ending in early June was nearly as extreme.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Similar to spreads on corporate bonds, the movement in spreads on high yield (junk) credit has been nearly as extreme. While spreads on the B of A High Yield Master Index widened out by only half as much during the COVID-crash as they did during the Financial Crisis, the 50-day move ending in late March was easily more extreme than any other period outside of the credit crisis.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
A shown in both charts above, the only time both corporate and high yield spreads narrowed by an amount anywhere close to the amount they narrowed from late March through early June was back in early June of 2009. The chart below of the S&P 500 shows that point from the perspective of the S&P 500. That period in June 2009 was right in the early stages of what turned out to be a multi-year bull market. Given the similar tightening in the credit market now versus back then, should we assume a similar move for equities going forward?
After the last five months, we'll be the first to say that anything is possible. However, while there are plenty of similarities between the moves in credit markets over the last three months versus the first half of 2009, there are also important distinctions. The most important of these has to do with where the S&P 500 is trading right now. The second chart below shows the historical levels the S&P 500 has traded at relative to its all-time high. Even after the initial narrowing of credit spreads from March through early June 2009, the S&P 500 was still more than 40% off its all-time highs, and therefore still had a lot of climbing to do to get out of the hole. Back in June 2009, to get back to its all-time high from October 2007, the S&P 500 still had to rally another 75%. Today, it's a much different picture as the S&P 500 is already within 10% of its February 2020 all-time high. Could we be in the earlier stages of what turns out to be another long-term bull market? Sure. Will the magnitude of the gains be anything like the gains early on in the bull market that began in 2009? It's unlikely.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

The Very Slow Recovery In Economic Activity Is Continuing

As economies around the country slowly recover from COVID-19 and reopenings proceed, economic activity is slowly recovering. For the hardest-hit sectors, though, the recovery is only inching forward. Security checkpoint volumes at US airports are still down 80% YoY, and the trend of improvement is only set to return travel activity to 50% of 2019 levels in September.
For restaurants, OpenTable data shows covers down by two-thirds from last year, though some of that is because many restaurants remain closed. Among reopened establishments, the number of seated customers are still down almost 40% YoY. About half of restaurants remain closed per the OpenTable data. We discussed this chart and other retail enthusiasm indicators in last night's Closer report, which is available to Bespoke Institutional members.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Leading Indicators Turn Positive

Yesterday, The Conference Board released last month’s reading for its Leading Economic Index (LEI), a composite of leading data series, which showed a month-over-month increase of 2.8%. As seen in the LPL Chart of the Day, the return to positive territory follows three straight months of negative monthly growth.
”We noted that the pace of the LEI’s deterioration slowed in the April report, potentially suggesting a bottom forming in the US economy,” said LPL Financial Senior Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “Yesterday’s print was one of several positive economic data surprises we’ve observed recently, bolstering our optimistic view for economic growth in the second half of the year.”
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
While the economy still has a ways to go in order to recover from the damage of the prior three months, the composition of May’s LEI advance encourages us. We noted a disconnect in April’s readout in which the financial market indicators tended to be net positive contributors while the “real economy” indicators detracted. May’s release saw a reversal of that trend whereby the economic subindexes played catch-up. Seven of the 10 components were positive contributors led by an improvement in average weekly initial unemployment claims, average weekly manufacturing hours, and building permits. The three negative contributors were the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) New Orders Index, average consumer expectations for business conditions, and the Leading Credit Index.
The most recent LEI release reinforces our view that an economic bottom is likely behind us. Workers starting to return to jobs that they were unable to do remotely had material effects on May’s readout, and if that trend continues, a stock market trading at stretched valuations would have a stronger foundation under it.

3 Charts That Have Our Attention

Stocks have shaken off the 5.9% S&P 500 Index drop last Thursday by gaining three days in a row before yesterday’s modest weakness. While researching and reading this week, three charts stood out that tell us quite a good deal about how investors have reacted during this volatile market and what could be next.
“Incredibly, we saw nearly a third of all investors over 65 years old sell their full equity holdings,” explained LPL Financial Senior Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “With stocks now back near highs, this is yet another reason to have a plan in place before trouble comes, as making decisions when under duress can lead to the exact wrong decision.”
As shown in the LPL Chart of the Day, according to data from Fidelity Investments, nearly 18% of all investors sold their full equity holdings between February and May, while a much higher percentage that were closer to retirement (or in retirement) sold. Some might have bought back in, but odds are that many are feeling quite upset with the record bounce back in stocks here.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Along these same lines, investors have recently moved to cash at a record pace. In fact, there is now nearly $5 trillion in money market funds, almost twice the levels we saw this time only five years ago. Also, the past three months saw the largest three-month change ever, as investors ran to the safety of cash. If you were looking for a reason stocks could continue to go higher over the longer term, there really is a lot of cash on the sidelines right now.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Last, we noted last week that the extreme overbought nature of stocks here is actually consistent with the start of a new bull run, not a bear market bounce, or the end of a bull market. Adding to this, the spread between the number of stocks above their 50-day moving average and 200-day moving average was near the highest level ever. Think about it; with the 45% bounce in the S&P 500, many stocks were above their 50-day moving average, but not nearly as many were above their 200-day moving average. So from a longer-term perspective, there could still be gains to be had.
Sure enough, looking at other times that had wide spreads, they took place near the start of major bull markets. Near-term the potential is there for a well-deserved pullback, but going out 6 to 12 months, stocks have consistently outperformed.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Election Year July Performance Tepid

July historically is the best performing month of the third quarter however, the mostly negative results in August and September tend to make the comparison easy. Two “hot” Julys in 2009 and 2010 where DJIA and S&P 500 both gained greater than 6% and a strong performance in 2013 and 2018 have boosted July’s average gains since 1950 to 1.2% and 1.1% respectively. Such strength inevitability stirs talk of a “summer rally”, but beware the hype, as it has historically been the weakest rally of all seasons (page 74, Stock Trader’s Almanac 2020).
July begins NASDAQ’s worst four months and is the third weakest performing NASDAQ month since 1971, posting a 0.5% average gain. Dynamic trading often accompanies the first full month of summer as the beginning of the second half of the year brings an inflow of new capital. This creates a bullish beginning, a soft week after options expiration and some strength towards the end.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Election year Julys rank in the bottom half of all election year months. DJIA: 0.5%, 6th worst; S&P 0.4% 6th worst; NASDAQ (since 1972): -0.7% 3rd worst; Russell 2000 (since 1980): -0.2% 3rd worst.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Here are the most notable companies (tickers) reporting earnings in this upcoming trading week ahead-
  • $NKE
  • $RAD
  • $DRI
  • $WGO
  • $MKC
  • $WTI
  • $INFO
  • $ACN
  • $KBH
  • $SOHO
  • $FDS
  • $BB
  • $AVAV
  • $LZB
  • $XAIR
  • $CAAS
  • $MCF
  • $BWAY
  • $SNX
  • $GMS
  • $WOR
  • $QMCO
  • $AFMD
  • $EPAC
  • $WUBA
  • $USAT
  • $NG
  • $PDCO
  • $APOG
  • $PRGS
  • $FUL
  • $AEMD
  • $AIH
  • $YRD
  • $STAF
  • $UFAB
  • $CAMP
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S MOST NOTABLE EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S HIGHEST VOLATILITY EARNINGS RELEASES!)
Below are some of the notable companies coming out with earnings releases this upcoming trading week ahead which includes the date/time of release & consensus estimates courtesy of Earnings Whispers:

Monday 6.22.20 Before Market Open:

([CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Monday 6.22.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 6.23.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 6.23.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 6.24.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 6.24.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 6.25.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 6.25.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 6.26.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 6.26.20 After Market Close:

([CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Nike Inc $95.78

Nike Inc (NKE) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:15 PM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.03 per share on revenue of $8.35 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.10 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 50% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 95.16% with revenue decreasing by 18.01%. Short interest has decreased by 0.8% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 19.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.9% above its 200 day moving average of $92.17. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Thursday, June 11, 2020 there was some notable buying of 7,691 contracts of the $102.00 call expiring on Friday, July 10, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 6.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Darden Restaurants, Inc. $70.27

Darden Restaurants, Inc. (DRI) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $1.78 per share on revenue of $1.25 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($1.68) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 28% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 201.14% with revenue decreasing by 43.92%. Short interest has increased by 33.2% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 108.3% from its open following the earnings release to be 27.4% below its 200 day moving average of $96.86. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Tuesday, June 9, 2020 there was some notable buying of 3,882 contracts of the $70.00 call and 814 contracts of the $80.00 put expiring on Friday, July 17, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 9.9% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 8.1% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Rite Aid Corp. $12.41

Rite Aid Corp. (RAD) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.38 per share on revenue of $5.60 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.35) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 60% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 171.43% with revenue increasing by 4.23%. Short interest has increased by 11.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 0.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 1.6% below its 200 day moving average of $12.61. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Monday, June 15, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,617 contracts of the $14.00 call expiring on Friday, June 26, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 18.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 21.4% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Winnebago Industries, Inc. $68.36

Winnebago Industries, Inc. (WGO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.41 per share on revenue of $325.94 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.35) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 70% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 135.96% with revenue decreasing by 38.38%. Short interest has increased by 12.4% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 156.7% from its open following the earnings release to be 46.4% above its 200 day moving average of $46.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, June 19, 2020 there was some notable buying of 583 contracts of the $55.00 put expiring on Friday, July 17, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 13.5% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 10.3% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

McCormick & Company, Incorporated $172.20

McCormick & Company, Incorporated (MKC) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.14 per share on revenue of $1.29 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.18 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 52% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 1.72% with revenue decreasing by 0.91%. Short interest has decreased by 27.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 23.1% from its open following the earnings release to be 7.4% above its 200 day moving average of $160.35. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 4.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.5% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

W&T Offshore Inc. $2.57

W&T Offshore Inc. (WTI) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:45 PM ET on Monday, June 22, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.03 per share on revenue of $129.93 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.01 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 69% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 40.00% with revenue increasing by 11.93%. Short interest has increased by 95.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 3.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 33.8% below its 200 day moving average of $3.88. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. The stock has averaged a 5.1% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

IHS Markit Ltd. $72.03

IHS Markit Ltd. (INFO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:00 AM ET on Tuesday, June 23, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.67 per share on revenue of $1.05 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.68 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 55% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 5.63% with revenue decreasing by 7.53%. Short interest has decreased by 27.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 44.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.4% above its 200 day moving average of $69.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 9.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 6.7% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Accenture Ltd. $201.55

Accenture Ltd. (ACN) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:45 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.84 per share on revenue of $10.94 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.89 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 53% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 4.66% with revenue decreasing by 1.44%. Short interest has increased by 20.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 33.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 5.6% above its 200 day moving average of $190.94. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, June 5, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,740 contracts of the $190.00 put expiring on Friday, August 21, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 6.8% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 2.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Sotherly Hotels Inc. $2.96

Sotherly Hotels Inc. (SOHO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.16 per share on revenue of $16.30 million. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 26% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 48.39% with revenue decreasing by 65.60%. Short interest has increased by 2,813.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted lower by 43.4% from its open following the earnings release to be 39.4% below its 200 day moving average of $4.88. The stock has averaged a 3.0% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

KB Home $32.29

KB Home (KBH) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:10 PM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.57 per share on revenue of $1.17 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.49 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 59% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 11.76% with revenue increasing by 14.50%. Short interest has decreased by 2.1% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 65.5% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.6% above its 200 day moving average of $31.18. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 9.7% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.2% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

DISCUSS!

What are you all watching for in this upcoming trading week?
I hope you all have a wonderful weekend and a great trading week ahead smallstreetbets.
submitted by bigbear0083 to smallstreetbets [link] [comments]


2020.06.20 16:01 bigbear0083 Wall Street Week Ahead for the trading week beginning June 22nd, 2020

Good Saturday morning to all of you here on stocks. I hope everyone on this sub made out pretty nicely in the market this past week, and is ready for the new trading week ahead.
Here is everything you need to know to get you ready for the trading week beginning June 22nd, 2020.

The stock market is running out of steam with reopening trades fading and economic data ‘uneven’ - (Source)

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell is expected to reassure markets next week the central bank will do whatever it takes to help the economy heal. That should be enough to keep investors moving into stocks that benefit from an economic rebound and push the S&P 500 into the green for 2020.
The stock market, so eager to put the entire blow from the pandemic behind it, is now coming to terms that a “V-shaped” recovery might be too rosy a scenario.
With recent spikes in coronavirus cases and fluctuations in the economic data, the market seems to be stuck in a range amid elevated volatility. Market analysts said investors should expect more turbulence ahead because the economic recovery is most likely to be bumpy.
“The market was priced for a continuation of improvement and I think that’s overstating what’s going to happen,” said Brian Levitt, Invesco’s global market strategist. “We are going to have episodes of cases rising. We are going to have a very slow and uneven improvement in the jobs market.”
After soaring more than 40% from the March lows, the S&P 500 turned sideways in the past two weeks, trading at similar levels to early June. The market, which used to turn a blind eye to disastrous news on the thinking that the economy had already bottomed, has become more vulnerable to negative economic headlines as the data begins to give a read on the shape of the recovery.
Stocks came under pressure earlier this week after data showed weekly jobless claims rose more than expected last week, and the number stayed above 1 million for the 13th consecutive week.
And on the virus front, California, Texas, Florida and Arizona have reported an uptick in new infections and hospitalizations amid the reopening. Apple said Friday that it’s again closing some stores in Florida, North Carolina and Arizona due to the spikes in coronavirus cases, which sparked a sell-off in the market, especially among retail stocks.
“The economy is going to need more help to bounce back in months to come,” said Matt Miskin, co-chief investment strategist at John Hancock Investment Management. “For now, volatility and choppy markets remain our base case as an uneven economic recovery likely unfolds.”

‘Rolling Ws’

The rally in those popular reopening trades — airlines, cruise lines and hotels — is seemingly losing steam. Shares of American Airlines and Delta posted their second straight weekly losses. So did Carnival, Norwegian Cruise and MGM Resorts. Those stocks were once the high-beta leaders of the market comeback as investors bet that a successful reopening would take hold.
“Although the stock market was suggesting a V-shaped recovery, the more likely scenario is rolling Ws,” Liz Ann Sonders, chief investment strategist at Charles Schwab, said in a note.
A similar market pattern happened during the financial crisis, pointed out by Nicholas Colas, co-founder of DataTrek Research. After stocks rallied nearly 40% from the 2009 bottom, the market was range-bound for about seven weeks so the fundamentals could catch up, Colas noted.
From a technical perspective, Matthew Maley, chief market strategist at Miller Tabak, is watching if the S&P 500 can break above its recent high of 3,232 or drop below the 3,000 threshold or its 200-day moving average of 3,018 as of Friday.
“Whichever way it breaks...should be an very important development in trying to determine how this critical juncture in the stock market will be resolved,” Maley said in a note.

Fed can’t prevent volatility

While the flattening virus curve played a big role in the market rebound, it’s no denying that the Federal Reserve’s unprecedented stimulus has been a key driver in lifting stocks from the coronavirus slump. The central bank unleashed another weapon in its arsenal this week, saying it will start buying individual corporate bonds.
As comforting as it is to have the Fed’s support, the central bank can only do so much to ease investor fears.
“The Fed can’t prevent the volatility we’re seeing in stocks,” Lindsey Bell, chief investment strategist at Ally Invest, said in a note. “It will likely take years for the economy to fully recover and there remain other uncertainties on the path ahead. As such, investors may continue to struggle with this mismatch between markets and the economy before seeing the case for new highs.”
Fed Chairman Jerome Powell reminded investors again this week in his semiannual testimony before Congress that “significant uncertainty remains about the timing and strength of the recovery.”
Many on Wall Street have also warned that extended policy measures including injection of trillions of cheap money would lead to problems down the road such as hyperinflation.

This past week saw the following moves in the S&P:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL S&P TREE MAP FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Indices for this past week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR INDICES FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Futures Markets as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR FUTURES INDICES AS OF FRIDAY!)

Economic Calendar for the Week Ahead:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL ECONOMIC CALENDAR FOR THE WEEK AHEAD!)

Percentage Changes for the Major Indices, WTD, MTD, QTD, YTD as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

S&P Sectors for the Past Week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Major Indices Pullback/Correction Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!

Major Indices Rally Levels as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Most Anticipated Earnings Releases for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Here are the upcoming IPO's for this week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Friday's Stock Analyst Upgrades & Downgrades:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #2!)

100 Days

100 days ago today on March 11th, the WHO made it official and declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. Markets were already under a lot of pressure before the WHO declared the pandemic, but the 100 days since will probably go down as some of the craziest 100 days we'll ever experience, not only in the market but in general society as well. More than enough ink and pixels have been spent discussing the societal impact at large, so we'll spare you and just focus on the markets.
While much of the declines were already in the rearview mirror by the time the WHO made its announcement, equities still had a steep decline in the immediate aftermath. The large-cap Russell 1000, for example, fell another 19% to its March 23rd closing low, but after the rebound, the net change since the pandemic was officially declared > has been a gain of 14.3%.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
As impressive as the Russell 1000's gain has been in the face of the global pandemic, many stocks have done a lot better than that. The table below lists the 25 stocks in the index that have seen the biggest gains so far during this pandemic. Topping the list is Wayfair (W) which has rallied more than 350%. If there is one thing Americans must have realized while they were stuck at home under lockdown it was that they needed some new furniture! Behind Wayfair, two other stocks have more than tripled and both were beaten down stocks from the Energy sector that were trading at less than $2 per share on March 11th. A number of familiar names standout including Moderna (MRNA), Twilio (TWLO), DocuSign (DOCU), Beyond Meat (BYND), and Etsy (ETSY), but looking through the list, there's really a diverse group of names ranging from bombed-out stocks from the Energy sector (8 stocks), Consumer names (7 stocks), and the ever-popular software stocks from the Technology sector (6 stocks). It's definitely been a rocky road for the markets over the last 100 days, but for anyone who had these names in their portfolio, they aren't complaining. Click here to view Bespoke's premium membership options for access to our weekly Bespoke Report which includes an update to our Stocks for the COVID economy portfolio that was released on March 11th.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

S&P 500 Industry Group Breadth Remains Positive

Equity markets have become a bit wobbly in the last week or so, but breadth, in terms of large-cap industry groups, still remains pretty robust. Relative to their 50-DMAs, all 24 S&P 500 industry groups still have rising 50-DMAs. When you consider the fact that the 50-day window spans the period going back to early April, a period encompassing most of what was one of the strongest 50-day rallies on record, the fact that every industry group has a rising 50-DMA isn't all that surprising.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Even though all their 50-DMAs are rising, not every industry group is currently trading above its 50-DMA. While the reading briefly reached 100% in late May and early June, two industry groups have since pulled back below their 50-DMAs, putting the percentage at a still impressive 91.7%.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
The table below summarizes industry group performance showing YTD performance, where each one is trading relative to its 50-DMA, as well as where the group is trading relative to its 52-week high.
As mentioned above, all but two groups (Drugs & Biotech and Food & Staples Retail) remain above their 50-DMAs, and another four are less than 2% above their 50-DMA. If Friday's sell-off deepens into next week, the percentage of industry groups above their 50-DMAs has the potential to quickly sink as low as 75%. Of the 22 industry groups that are above their 50-DMAs, Autos and Tech Hardware are the only two greater than 10% above.
On a YTD basis, the S&P 500 is down less than 4%, but for the vast majority of industry groups, performance has been worse than that. Of the 24 groups shown, 16 are down more than 4% YTD, including eleven that are down over 10%. The worst performers of these losers include Energy, Banks, and Autos. While Energy gets most of the attention for being so weak, Banks are essentially down just as much! On the upside, just two industry groups are up over 10% (Retailers, which is basically Amazon, and Software & Services). Retailing is also the one industry group that is within 1% of a 52-week high and one of seven that is within 4% of a 52-week high.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Credit Market Reversals

We've noted in detail the massive reversals seen in global equities over the last three months, but outside of equities, we've also seen some other massive moves. One example is credit spreads between the yields of corporate and high yield bonds relative to Treasuries.
The top chart below shows the spread in yields between the B of A Corporate Index relative to Treasuries going back to 1997, and below that, we show the 50-day rate of change in the spread. Heading into the COVID-crash, spreads on corporate bonds were less than 100 basis points (bps), meaning the corporate bond index was yielding only 1 percentage point more than comparable Treasury yields. In the span of less than two months, though, spreads surged by more than 300 bps to over 400 bps. Not since the depths of the credit crisis in 2009 had we seen spreads widen out more than they did in March. Just as notable as the level is the fact that the speed with which spreads widened during the COVID-crash was similar to the pace during the credit crisis.
While spreads were quick to spike during both crises, they narrowed nearly as fast both times. Going back to 1997, the most corporate spreads have ever narrowed over a 50-day period was in June 2009. Coming in at a close second place, though, the 50-day period ending in early June was nearly as extreme.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Similar to spreads on corporate bonds, the movement in spreads on high yield (junk) credit has been nearly as extreme. While spreads on the B of A High Yield Master Index widened out by only half as much during the COVID-crash as they did during the Financial Crisis, the 50-day move ending in late March was easily more extreme than any other period outside of the credit crisis.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
A shown in both charts above, the only time both corporate and high yield spreads narrowed by an amount anywhere close to the amount they narrowed from late March through early June was back in early June of 2009. The chart below of the S&P 500 shows that point from the perspective of the S&P 500. That period in June 2009 was right in the early stages of what turned out to be a multi-year bull market. Given the similar tightening in the credit market now versus back then, should we assume a similar move for equities going forward?
After the last five months, we'll be the first to say that anything is possible. However, while there are plenty of similarities between the moves in credit markets over the last three months versus the first half of 2009, there are also important distinctions. The most important of these has to do with where the S&P 500 is trading right now. The second chart below shows the historical levels the S&P 500 has traded at relative to its all-time high. Even after the initial narrowing of credit spreads from March through early June 2009, the S&P 500 was still more than 40% off its all-time highs, and therefore still had a lot of climbing to do to get out of the hole. Back in June 2009, to get back to its all-time high from October 2007, the S&P 500 still had to rally another 75%. Today, it's a much different picture as the S&P 500 is already within 10% of its February 2020 all-time high. Could we be in the earlier stages of what turns out to be another long-term bull market? Sure. Will the magnitude of the gains be anything like the gains early on in the bull market that began in 2009? It's unlikely.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

The Very Slow Recovery In Economic Activity Is Continuing

As economies around the country slowly recover from COVID-19 and reopenings proceed, economic activity is slowly recovering. For the hardest-hit sectors, though, the recovery is only inching forward. Security checkpoint volumes at US airports are still down 80% YoY, and the trend of improvement is only set to return travel activity to 50% of 2019 levels in September.
For restaurants, OpenTable data shows covers down by two-thirds from last year, though some of that is because many restaurants remain closed. Among reopened establishments, the number of seated customers are still down almost 40% YoY. About half of restaurants remain closed per the OpenTable data. We discussed this chart and other retail enthusiasm indicators in last night's Closer report, which is available to Bespoke Institutional members.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Leading Indicators Turn Positive

Yesterday, The Conference Board released last month’s reading for its Leading Economic Index (LEI), a composite of leading data series, which showed a month-over-month increase of 2.8%. As seen in the LPL Chart of the Day, the return to positive territory follows three straight months of negative monthly growth.
”We noted that the pace of the LEI’s deterioration slowed in the April report, potentially suggesting a bottom forming in the US economy,” said LPL Financial Senior Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “Yesterday’s print was one of several positive economic data surprises we’ve observed recently, bolstering our optimistic view for economic growth in the second half of the year.”
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
While the economy still has a ways to go in order to recover from the damage of the prior three months, the composition of May’s LEI advance encourages us. We noted a disconnect in April’s readout in which the financial market indicators tended to be net positive contributors while the “real economy” indicators detracted. May’s release saw a reversal of that trend whereby the economic subindexes played catch-up. Seven of the 10 components were positive contributors led by an improvement in average weekly initial unemployment claims, average weekly manufacturing hours, and building permits. The three negative contributors were the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) New Orders Index, average consumer expectations for business conditions, and the Leading Credit Index.
The most recent LEI release reinforces our view that an economic bottom is likely behind us. Workers starting to return to jobs that they were unable to do remotely had material effects on May’s readout, and if that trend continues, a stock market trading at stretched valuations would have a stronger foundation under it.

3 Charts That Have Our Attention

Stocks have shaken off the 5.9% S&P 500 Index drop last Thursday by gaining three days in a row before yesterday’s modest weakness. While researching and reading this week, three charts stood out that tell us quite a good deal about how investors have reacted during this volatile market and what could be next.
“Incredibly, we saw nearly a third of all investors over 65 years old sell their full equity holdings,” explained LPL Financial Senior Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “With stocks now back near highs, this is yet another reason to have a plan in place before trouble comes, as making decisions when under duress can lead to the exact wrong decision.”
As shown in the LPL Chart of the Day, according to data from Fidelity Investments, nearly 18% of all investors sold their full equity holdings between February and May, while a much higher percentage that were closer to retirement (or in retirement) sold. Some might have bought back in, but odds are that many are feeling quite upset with the record bounce back in stocks here.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Along these same lines, investors have recently moved to cash at a record pace. In fact, there is now nearly $5 trillion in money market funds, almost twice the levels we saw this time only five years ago. Also, the past three months saw the largest three-month change ever, as investors ran to the safety of cash. If you were looking for a reason stocks could continue to go higher over the longer term, there really is a lot of cash on the sidelines right now.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Last, we noted last week that the extreme overbought nature of stocks here is actually consistent with the start of a new bull run, not a bear market bounce, or the end of a bull market. Adding to this, the spread between the number of stocks above their 50-day moving average and 200-day moving average was near the highest level ever. Think about it; with the 45% bounce in the S&P 500, many stocks were above their 50-day moving average, but not nearly as many were above their 200-day moving average. So from a longer-term perspective, there could still be gains to be had.
Sure enough, looking at other times that had wide spreads, they took place near the start of major bull markets. Near-term the potential is there for a well-deserved pullback, but going out 6 to 12 months, stocks have consistently outperformed.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Election Year July Performance Tepid

July historically is the best performing month of the third quarter however, the mostly negative results in August and September tend to make the comparison easy. Two “hot” Julys in 2009 and 2010 where DJIA and S&P 500 both gained greater than 6% and a strong performance in 2013 and 2018 have boosted July’s average gains since 1950 to 1.2% and 1.1% respectively. Such strength inevitability stirs talk of a “summer rally”, but beware the hype, as it has historically been the weakest rally of all seasons (page 74, Stock Trader’s Almanac 2020).
July begins NASDAQ’s worst four months and is the third weakest performing NASDAQ month since 1971, posting a 0.5% average gain. Dynamic trading often accompanies the first full month of summer as the beginning of the second half of the year brings an inflow of new capital. This creates a bullish beginning, a soft week after options expiration and some strength towards the end.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Election year Julys rank in the bottom half of all election year months. DJIA: 0.5%, 6th worst; S&P 0.4% 6th worst; NASDAQ (since 1972): -0.7% 3rd worst; Russell 2000 (since 1980): -0.2% 3rd worst.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)
Here are the most notable companies (tickers) reporting earnings in this upcoming trading week ahead-
  • $NKE
  • $RAD
  • $DRI
  • $WGO
  • $MKC
  • $WTI
  • $INFO
  • $ACN
  • $KBH
  • $SOHO
  • $FDS
  • $BB
  • $AVAV
  • $LZB
  • $XAIR
  • $CAAS
  • $MCF
  • $BWAY
  • $SNX
  • $GMS
  • $WOR
  • $QMCO
  • $AFMD
  • $EPAC
  • $WUBA
  • $USAT
  • $NG
  • $PDCO
  • $APOG
  • $PRGS
  • $FUL
  • $AEMD
  • $AIH
  • $YRD
  • $STAF
  • $UFAB
  • $CAMP
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S MOST NOTABLE EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S HIGHEST VOLATILITY EARNINGS RELEASES!)
Below are some of the notable companies coming out with earnings releases this upcoming trading week ahead which includes the date/time of release & consensus estimates courtesy of Earnings Whispers:

Monday 6.22.20 Before Market Open:

([CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Monday 6.22.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 6.23.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 6.23.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 6.24.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 6.24.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 6.25.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 6.25.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 6.26.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 6.26.20 After Market Close:

([CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Nike Inc $95.78

Nike Inc (NKE) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:15 PM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.03 per share on revenue of $8.35 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.10 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 50% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 95.16% with revenue decreasing by 18.01%. Short interest has decreased by 0.8% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 19.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.9% above its 200 day moving average of $92.17. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Thursday, June 11, 2020 there was some notable buying of 7,691 contracts of the $102.00 call expiring on Friday, July 10, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 6.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Darden Restaurants, Inc. $70.27

Darden Restaurants, Inc. (DRI) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $1.78 per share on revenue of $1.25 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($1.68) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 28% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 201.14% with revenue decreasing by 43.92%. Short interest has increased by 33.2% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 108.3% from its open following the earnings release to be 27.4% below its 200 day moving average of $96.86. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Tuesday, June 9, 2020 there was some notable buying of 3,882 contracts of the $70.00 call and 814 contracts of the $80.00 put expiring on Friday, July 17, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 9.9% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 8.1% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Rite Aid Corp. $12.41

Rite Aid Corp. (RAD) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.38 per share on revenue of $5.60 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.35) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 60% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 171.43% with revenue increasing by 4.23%. Short interest has increased by 11.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 0.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 1.6% below its 200 day moving average of $12.61. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Monday, June 15, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,617 contracts of the $14.00 call expiring on Friday, June 26, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 18.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 21.4% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Winnebago Industries, Inc. $68.36

Winnebago Industries, Inc. (WGO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.41 per share on revenue of $325.94 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.35) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 70% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 135.96% with revenue decreasing by 38.38%. Short interest has increased by 12.4% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 156.7% from its open following the earnings release to be 46.4% above its 200 day moving average of $46.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, June 19, 2020 there was some notable buying of 583 contracts of the $55.00 put expiring on Friday, July 17, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 13.5% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 10.3% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

McCormick & Company, Incorporated $172.20

McCormick & Company, Incorporated (MKC) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.14 per share on revenue of $1.29 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.18 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 52% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 1.72% with revenue decreasing by 0.91%. Short interest has decreased by 27.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 23.1% from its open following the earnings release to be 7.4% above its 200 day moving average of $160.35. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 4.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.5% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

W&T Offshore Inc. $2.57

W&T Offshore Inc. (WTI) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:45 PM ET on Monday, June 22, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.03 per share on revenue of $129.93 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.01 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 69% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 40.00% with revenue increasing by 11.93%. Short interest has increased by 95.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 3.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 33.8% below its 200 day moving average of $3.88. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. The stock has averaged a 5.1% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

IHS Markit Ltd. $72.03

IHS Markit Ltd. (INFO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:00 AM ET on Tuesday, June 23, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.67 per share on revenue of $1.05 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.68 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 55% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 5.63% with revenue decreasing by 7.53%. Short interest has decreased by 27.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 44.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.4% above its 200 day moving average of $69.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 9.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 6.7% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Accenture Ltd. $201.55

Accenture Ltd. (ACN) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:45 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.84 per share on revenue of $10.94 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.89 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 53% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 4.66% with revenue decreasing by 1.44%. Short interest has increased by 20.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 33.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 5.6% above its 200 day moving average of $190.94. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, June 5, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,740 contracts of the $190.00 put expiring on Friday, August 21, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 6.8% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 2.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Sotherly Hotels Inc. $2.96

Sotherly Hotels Inc. (SOHO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.16 per share on revenue of $16.30 million. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 26% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 48.39% with revenue decreasing by 65.60%. Short interest has increased by 2,813.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted lower by 43.4% from its open following the earnings release to be 39.4% below its 200 day moving average of $4.88. The stock has averaged a 3.0% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

KB Home $32.29

KB Home (KBH) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:10 PM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.57 per share on revenue of $1.17 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.49 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 59% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 11.76% with revenue increasing by 14.50%. Short interest has decreased by 2.1% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 65.5% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.6% above its 200 day moving average of $31.18. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 9.7% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.2% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

DISCUSS!

What are you all watching for in this upcoming trading week?
I hope you all have a wonderful weekend and a great trading week ahead stocks.
submitted by bigbear0083 to stocks [link] [comments]


2020.06.20 15:58 bigbear0083 Wall Street Week Ahead for the trading week beginning June 22nd, 2020

Good Saturday morning to all of you here on StockMarket. I hope everyone on this sub made out pretty nicely in the market this past week, and is ready for the new trading week ahead.
Here is everything you need to know to get you ready for the trading week beginning June 22nd, 2020.

The stock market is running out of steam with reopening trades fading and economic data ‘uneven’ - (Source)

Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell is expected to reassure markets next week the central bank will do whatever it takes to help the economy heal. That should be enough to keep investors moving into stocks that benefit from an economic rebound and push the S&P 500 into the green for 2020.
The stock market, so eager to put the entire blow from the pandemic behind it, is now coming to terms that a “V-shaped” recovery might be too rosy a scenario.
With recent spikes in coronavirus cases and fluctuations in the economic data, the market seems to be stuck in a range amid elevated volatility. Market analysts said investors should expect more turbulence ahead because the economic recovery is most likely to be bumpy.
“The market was priced for a continuation of improvement and I think that’s overstating what’s going to happen,” said Brian Levitt, Invesco’s global market strategist. “We are going to have episodes of cases rising. We are going to have a very slow and uneven improvement in the jobs market.”
After soaring more than 40% from the March lows, the S&P 500 turned sideways in the past two weeks, trading at similar levels to early June. The market, which used to turn a blind eye to disastrous news on the thinking that the economy had already bottomed, has become more vulnerable to negative economic headlines as the data begins to give a read on the shape of the recovery.
Stocks came under pressure earlier this week after data showed weekly jobless claims rose more than expected last week, and the number stayed above 1 million for the 13th consecutive week.
And on the virus front, California, Texas, Florida and Arizona have reported an uptick in new infections and hospitalizations amid the reopening. Apple said Friday that it’s again closing some stores in Florida, North Carolina and Arizona due to the spikes in coronavirus cases, which sparked a sell-off in the market, especially among retail stocks.
“The economy is going to need more help to bounce back in months to come,” said Matt Miskin, co-chief investment strategist at John Hancock Investment Management. “For now, volatility and choppy markets remain our base case as an uneven economic recovery likely unfolds.”

‘Rolling Ws’

The rally in those popular reopening trades — airlines, cruise lines and hotels — is seemingly losing steam. Shares of American Airlines and Delta posted their second straight weekly losses. So did Carnival, Norwegian Cruise and MGM Resorts. Those stocks were once the high-beta leaders of the market comeback as investors bet that a successful reopening would take hold.
“Although the stock market was suggesting a V-shaped recovery, the more likely scenario is rolling Ws,” Liz Ann Sonders, chief investment strategist at Charles Schwab, said in a note.
A similar market pattern happened during the financial crisis, pointed out by Nicholas Colas, co-founder of DataTrek Research. After stocks rallied nearly 40% from the 2009 bottom, the market was range-bound for about seven weeks so the fundamentals could catch up, Colas noted.
From a technical perspective, Matthew Maley, chief market strategist at Miller Tabak, is watching if the S&P 500 can break above its recent high of 3,232 or drop below the 3,000 threshold or its 200-day moving average of 3,018 as of Friday.
“Whichever way it breaks...should be an very important development in trying to determine how this critical juncture in the stock market will be resolved,” Maley said in a note.

Fed can’t prevent volatility

While the flattening virus curve played a big role in the market rebound, it’s no denying that the Federal Reserve’s unprecedented stimulus has been a key driver in lifting stocks from the coronavirus slump. The central bank unleashed another weapon in its arsenal this week, saying it will start buying individual corporate bonds.
As comforting as it is to have the Fed’s support, the central bank can only do so much to ease investor fears.
“The Fed can’t prevent the volatility we’re seeing in stocks,” Lindsey Bell, chief investment strategist at Ally Invest, said in a note. “It will likely take years for the economy to fully recover and there remain other uncertainties on the path ahead. As such, investors may continue to struggle with this mismatch between markets and the economy before seeing the case for new highs.”
Fed Chairman Jerome Powell reminded investors again this week in his semiannual testimony before Congress that “significant uncertainty remains about the timing and strength of the recovery.”
Many on Wall Street have also warned that extended policy measures including injection of trillions of cheap money would lead to problems down the road such as hyperinflation.

This past week saw the following moves in the S&P:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL S&P TREE MAP FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Indices for this past week:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR INDICES FOR THE PAST WEEK!)

Major Futures Markets as of Friday's close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE MAJOR FUTURES INDICES AS OF FRIDAY!)

Economic Calendar for the Week Ahead:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE FULL ECONOMIC CALENDAR FOR THE WEEK AHEAD!)

Percentage Changes for the Major Indices, WTD, MTD, QTD, YTD as of Friday's close:

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S&P Sectors for the Past Week:

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Major Indices Pullback/Correction Levels as of Friday's close:

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Major Indices Rally Levels as of Friday's close:

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Most Anticipated Earnings Releases for this week:

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Here are the upcoming IPO's for this week:

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Friday's Stock Analyst Upgrades & Downgrades:

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #1!)
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART LINK #2!)

100 Days

100 days ago today on March 11th, the WHO made it official and declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic. Markets were already under a lot of pressure before the WHO declared the pandemic, but the 100 days since will probably go down as some of the craziest 100 days we'll ever experience, not only in the market but in general society as well. More than enough ink and pixels have been spent discussing the societal impact at large, so we'll spare you and just focus on the markets.
While much of the declines were already in the rearview mirror by the time the WHO made its announcement, equities still had a steep decline in the immediate aftermath. The large-cap Russell 1000, for example, fell another 19% to its March 23rd closing low, but after the rebound, the net change since the pandemic was officially declared > has been a gain of 14.3%.
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As impressive as the Russell 1000's gain has been in the face of the global pandemic, many stocks have done a lot better than that. The table below lists the 25 stocks in the index that have seen the biggest gains so far during this pandemic. Topping the list is Wayfair (W) which has rallied more than 350%. If there is one thing Americans must have realized while they were stuck at home under lockdown it was that they needed some new furniture! Behind Wayfair, two other stocks have more than tripled and both were beaten down stocks from the Energy sector that were trading at less than $2 per share on March 11th. A number of familiar names standout including Moderna (MRNA), Twilio (TWLO), DocuSign (DOCU), Beyond Meat (BYND), and Etsy (ETSY), but looking through the list, there's really a diverse group of names ranging from bombed-out stocks from the Energy sector (8 stocks), Consumer names (7 stocks), and the ever-popular software stocks from the Technology sector (6 stocks). It's definitely been a rocky road for the markets over the last 100 days, but for anyone who had these names in their portfolio, they aren't complaining. Click here to view Bespoke's premium membership options for access to our weekly Bespoke Report which includes an update to our Stocks for the COVID economy portfolio that was released on March 11th.
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S&P 500 Industry Group Breadth Remains Positive

Equity markets have become a bit wobbly in the last week or so, but breadth, in terms of large-cap industry groups, still remains pretty robust. Relative to their 50-DMAs, all 24 S&P 500 industry groups still have rising 50-DMAs. When you consider the fact that the 50-day window spans the period going back to early April, a period encompassing most of what was one of the strongest 50-day rallies on record, the fact that every industry group has a rising 50-DMA isn't all that surprising.
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Even though all their 50-DMAs are rising, not every industry group is currently trading above its 50-DMA. While the reading briefly reached 100% in late May and early June, two industry groups have since pulled back below their 50-DMAs, putting the percentage at a still impressive 91.7%.
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The table below summarizes industry group performance showing YTD performance, where each one is trading relative to its 50-DMA, as well as where the group is trading relative to its 52-week high.
As mentioned above, all but two groups (Drugs & Biotech and Food & Staples Retail) remain above their 50-DMAs, and another four are less than 2% above their 50-DMA. If Friday's sell-off deepens into next week, the percentage of industry groups above their 50-DMAs has the potential to quickly sink as low as 75%. Of the 22 industry groups that are above their 50-DMAs, Autos and Tech Hardware are the only two greater than 10% above.
On a YTD basis, the S&P 500 is down less than 4%, but for the vast majority of industry groups, performance has been worse than that. Of the 24 groups shown, 16 are down more than 4% YTD, including eleven that are down over 10%. The worst performers of these losers include Energy, Banks, and Autos. While Energy gets most of the attention for being so weak, Banks are essentially down just as much! On the upside, just two industry groups are up over 10% (Retailers, which is basically Amazon, and Software & Services). Retailing is also the one industry group that is within 1% of a 52-week high and one of seven that is within 4% of a 52-week high.
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Credit Market Reversals

We've noted in detail the massive reversals seen in global equities over the last three months, but outside of equities, we've also seen some other massive moves. One example is credit spreads between the yields of corporate and high yield bonds relative to Treasuries.
The top chart below shows the spread in yields between the B of A Corporate Index relative to Treasuries going back to 1997, and below that, we show the 50-day rate of change in the spread. Heading into the COVID-crash, spreads on corporate bonds were less than 100 basis points (bps), meaning the corporate bond index was yielding only 1 percentage point more than comparable Treasury yields. In the span of less than two months, though, spreads surged by more than 300 bps to over 400 bps. Not since the depths of the credit crisis in 2009 had we seen spreads widen out more than they did in March. Just as notable as the level is the fact that the speed with which spreads widened during the COVID-crash was similar to the pace during the credit crisis.
While spreads were quick to spike during both crises, they narrowed nearly as fast both times. Going back to 1997, the most corporate spreads have ever narrowed over a 50-day period was in June 2009. Coming in at a close second place, though, the 50-day period ending in early June was nearly as extreme.
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Similar to spreads on corporate bonds, the movement in spreads on high yield (junk) credit has been nearly as extreme. While spreads on the B of A High Yield Master Index widened out by only half as much during the COVID-crash as they did during the Financial Crisis, the 50-day move ending in late March was easily more extreme than any other period outside of the credit crisis.
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A shown in both charts above, the only time both corporate and high yield spreads narrowed by an amount anywhere close to the amount they narrowed from late March through early June was back in early June of 2009. The chart below of the S&P 500 shows that point from the perspective of the S&P 500. That period in June 2009 was right in the early stages of what turned out to be a multi-year bull market. Given the similar tightening in the credit market now versus back then, should we assume a similar move for equities going forward?
After the last five months, we'll be the first to say that anything is possible. However, while there are plenty of similarities between the moves in credit markets over the last three months versus the first half of 2009, there are also important distinctions. The most important of these has to do with where the S&P 500 is trading right now. The second chart below shows the historical levels the S&P 500 has traded at relative to its all-time high. Even after the initial narrowing of credit spreads from March through early June 2009, the S&P 500 was still more than 40% off its all-time highs, and therefore still had a lot of climbing to do to get out of the hole. Back in June 2009, to get back to its all-time high from October 2007, the S&P 500 still had to rally another 75%. Today, it's a much different picture as the S&P 500 is already within 10% of its February 2020 all-time high. Could we be in the earlier stages of what turns out to be another long-term bull market? Sure. Will the magnitude of the gains be anything like the gains early on in the bull market that began in 2009? It's unlikely.
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The Very Slow Recovery In Economic Activity Is Continuing

As economies around the country slowly recover from COVID-19 and reopenings proceed, economic activity is slowly recovering. For the hardest-hit sectors, though, the recovery is only inching forward. Security checkpoint volumes at US airports are still down 80% YoY, and the trend of improvement is only set to return travel activity to 50% of 2019 levels in September.
For restaurants, OpenTable data shows covers down by two-thirds from last year, though some of that is because many restaurants remain closed. Among reopened establishments, the number of seated customers are still down almost 40% YoY. About half of restaurants remain closed per the OpenTable data. We discussed this chart and other retail enthusiasm indicators in last night's Closer report, which is available to Bespoke Institutional members.
(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Leading Indicators Turn Positive

Yesterday, The Conference Board released last month’s reading for its Leading Economic Index (LEI), a composite of leading data series, which showed a month-over-month increase of 2.8%. As seen in the LPL Chart of the Day, the return to positive territory follows three straight months of negative monthly growth.
”We noted that the pace of the LEI’s deterioration slowed in the April report, potentially suggesting a bottom forming in the US economy,” said LPL Financial Senior Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “Yesterday’s print was one of several positive economic data surprises we’ve observed recently, bolstering our optimistic view for economic growth in the second half of the year.”
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While the economy still has a ways to go in order to recover from the damage of the prior three months, the composition of May’s LEI advance encourages us. We noted a disconnect in April’s readout in which the financial market indicators tended to be net positive contributors while the “real economy” indicators detracted. May’s release saw a reversal of that trend whereby the economic subindexes played catch-up. Seven of the 10 components were positive contributors led by an improvement in average weekly initial unemployment claims, average weekly manufacturing hours, and building permits. The three negative contributors were the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) New Orders Index, average consumer expectations for business conditions, and the Leading Credit Index.
The most recent LEI release reinforces our view that an economic bottom is likely behind us. Workers starting to return to jobs that they were unable to do remotely had material effects on May’s readout, and if that trend continues, a stock market trading at stretched valuations would have a stronger foundation under it.

3 Charts That Have Our Attention

Stocks have shaken off the 5.9% S&P 500 Index drop last Thursday by gaining three days in a row before yesterday’s modest weakness. While researching and reading this week, three charts stood out that tell us quite a good deal about how investors have reacted during this volatile market and what could be next.
“Incredibly, we saw nearly a third of all investors over 65 years old sell their full equity holdings,” explained LPL Financial Senior Market Strategist Ryan Detrick. “With stocks now back near highs, this is yet another reason to have a plan in place before trouble comes, as making decisions when under duress can lead to the exact wrong decision.”
As shown in the LPL Chart of the Day, according to data from Fidelity Investments, nearly 18% of all investors sold their full equity holdings between February and May, while a much higher percentage that were closer to retirement (or in retirement) sold. Some might have bought back in, but odds are that many are feeling quite upset with the record bounce back in stocks here.
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Along these same lines, investors have recently moved to cash at a record pace. In fact, there is now nearly $5 trillion in money market funds, almost twice the levels we saw this time only five years ago. Also, the past three months saw the largest three-month change ever, as investors ran to the safety of cash. If you were looking for a reason stocks could continue to go higher over the longer term, there really is a lot of cash on the sidelines right now.
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Last, we noted last week that the extreme overbought nature of stocks here is actually consistent with the start of a new bull run, not a bear market bounce, or the end of a bull market. Adding to this, the spread between the number of stocks above their 50-day moving average and 200-day moving average was near the highest level ever. Think about it; with the 45% bounce in the S&P 500, many stocks were above their 50-day moving average, but not nearly as many were above their 200-day moving average. So from a longer-term perspective, there could still be gains to be had.
Sure enough, looking at other times that had wide spreads, they took place near the start of major bull markets. Near-term the potential is there for a well-deserved pullback, but going out 6 to 12 months, stocks have consistently outperformed.
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Election Year July Performance Tepid

July historically is the best performing month of the third quarter however, the mostly negative results in August and September tend to make the comparison easy. Two “hot” Julys in 2009 and 2010 where DJIA and S&P 500 both gained greater than 6% and a strong performance in 2013 and 2018 have boosted July’s average gains since 1950 to 1.2% and 1.1% respectively. Such strength inevitability stirs talk of a “summer rally”, but beware the hype, as it has historically been the weakest rally of all seasons (page 74, Stock Trader’s Almanac 2020).
July begins NASDAQ’s worst four months and is the third weakest performing NASDAQ month since 1971, posting a 0.5% average gain. Dynamic trading often accompanies the first full month of summer as the beginning of the second half of the year brings an inflow of new capital. This creates a bullish beginning, a soft week after options expiration and some strength towards the end.
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Election year Julys rank in the bottom half of all election year months. DJIA: 0.5%, 6th worst; S&P 0.4% 6th worst; NASDAQ (since 1972): -0.7% 3rd worst; Russell 2000 (since 1980): -0.2% 3rd worst.
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STOCK MARKET VIDEO: Stock Market Analysis Video for Week Ending June 19th, 2020

(CLICK HERE FOR THE YOUTUBE VIDEO!

STOCK MARKET VIDEO: ShadowTrader Video Weekly 6.21.20

(CLICK HERE FOR THE YOUTUBE VIDEO!)
Here are the most notable companies (tickers) reporting earnings in this upcoming trading week ahead-
  • $NKE
  • $RAD
  • $DRI
  • $WGO
  • $MKC
  • $WTI
  • $INFO
  • $ACN
  • $KBH
  • $SOHO
  • $FDS
  • $BB
  • $AVAV
  • $LZB
  • $XAIR
  • $CAAS
  • $MCF
  • $BWAY
  • $SNX
  • $GMS
  • $WOR
  • $QMCO
  • $AFMD
  • $EPAC
  • $WUBA
  • $USAT
  • $NG
  • $PDCO
  • $APOG
  • $PRGS
  • $FUL
  • $AEMD
  • $AIH
  • $YRD
  • $STAF
  • $UFAB
  • $CAMP
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S MOST NOTABLE EARNINGS RELEASES!)
(CLICK HERE FOR NEXT WEEK'S HIGHEST VOLATILITY EARNINGS RELEASES!)
Below are some of the notable companies coming out with earnings releases this upcoming trading week ahead which includes the date/time of release & consensus estimates courtesy of Earnings Whispers:

Monday 6.22.20 Before Market Open:

([CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Monday 6.22.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR MONDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 6.23.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Tuesday 6.23.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR TUESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 6.24.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Wednesday 6.24.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR WEDNESDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 6.25.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Thursday 6.25.20 After Market Close:

(CLICK HERE FOR THURSDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 6.26.20 Before Market Open:

(CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S PRE-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!)

Friday 6.26.20 After Market Close:

([CLICK HERE FOR FRIDAY'S AFTER-MARKET EARNINGS TIME & ESTIMATES!]())
NONE.

Nike Inc $95.78

Nike Inc (NKE) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:15 PM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.03 per share on revenue of $8.35 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.10 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 50% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 95.16% with revenue decreasing by 18.01%. Short interest has decreased by 0.8% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 19.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.9% above its 200 day moving average of $92.17. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Thursday, June 11, 2020 there was some notable buying of 7,691 contracts of the $102.00 call expiring on Friday, July 10, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 6.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Darden Restaurants, Inc. $70.27

Darden Restaurants, Inc. (DRI) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $1.78 per share on revenue of $1.25 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($1.68) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 28% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 201.14% with revenue decreasing by 43.92%. Short interest has increased by 33.2% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 108.3% from its open following the earnings release to be 27.4% below its 200 day moving average of $96.86. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Tuesday, June 9, 2020 there was some notable buying of 3,882 contracts of the $70.00 call and 814 contracts of the $80.00 put expiring on Friday, July 17, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 9.9% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 8.1% move in recent quarters.

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Rite Aid Corp. $12.41

Rite Aid Corp. (RAD) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.38 per share on revenue of $5.60 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.35) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 60% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 171.43% with revenue increasing by 4.23%. Short interest has increased by 11.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 0.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 1.6% below its 200 day moving average of $12.61. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Monday, June 15, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,617 contracts of the $14.00 call expiring on Friday, June 26, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 18.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 21.4% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Winnebago Industries, Inc. $68.36

Winnebago Industries, Inc. (WGO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 7:00 AM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus estimate is for a loss of $0.41 per share on revenue of $325.94 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is ($0.35) per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 70% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 135.96% with revenue decreasing by 38.38%. Short interest has increased by 12.4% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 156.7% from its open following the earnings release to be 46.4% above its 200 day moving average of $46.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, June 19, 2020 there was some notable buying of 583 contracts of the $55.00 put expiring on Friday, July 17, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 13.5% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 10.3% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

McCormick & Company, Incorporated $172.20

McCormick & Company, Incorporated (MKC) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.14 per share on revenue of $1.29 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.18 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 52% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 1.72% with revenue decreasing by 0.91%. Short interest has decreased by 27.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 23.1% from its open following the earnings release to be 7.4% above its 200 day moving average of $160.35. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 4.6% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.5% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

W&T Offshore Inc. $2.57

W&T Offshore Inc. (WTI) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:45 PM ET on Monday, June 22, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.03 per share on revenue of $129.93 million and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.01 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 69% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 40.00% with revenue increasing by 11.93%. Short interest has increased by 95.3% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 3.6% from its open following the earnings release to be 33.8% below its 200 day moving average of $3.88. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. The stock has averaged a 5.1% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

IHS Markit Ltd. $72.03

IHS Markit Ltd. (INFO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:00 AM ET on Tuesday, June 23, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.67 per share on revenue of $1.05 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.68 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 55% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 5.63% with revenue decreasing by 7.53%. Short interest has decreased by 27.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 44.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.4% above its 200 day moving average of $69.69. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 9.4% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 6.7% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Accenture Ltd. $201.55

Accenture Ltd. (ACN) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:45 AM ET on Thursday, June 25, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $1.84 per share on revenue of $10.94 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $1.89 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 53% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 4.66% with revenue decreasing by 1.44%. Short interest has increased by 20.0% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 33.2% from its open following the earnings release to be 5.6% above its 200 day moving average of $190.94. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. On Friday, June 5, 2020 there was some notable buying of 1,740 contracts of the $190.00 put expiring on Friday, August 21, 2020. Option traders are pricing in a 6.8% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 2.8% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

Sotherly Hotels Inc. $2.96

Sotherly Hotels Inc. (SOHO) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 6:30 AM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.16 per share on revenue of $16.30 million. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 26% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for earnings to decline year-over-year by 48.39% with revenue decreasing by 65.60%. Short interest has increased by 2,813.7% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted lower by 43.4% from its open following the earnings release to be 39.4% below its 200 day moving average of $4.88. The stock has averaged a 3.0% move on earnings in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

KB Home $32.29

KB Home (KBH) is confirmed to report earnings at approximately 4:10 PM ET on Wednesday, June 24, 2020. The consensus earnings estimate is $0.57 per share on revenue of $1.17 billion and the Earnings Whisper ® number is $0.49 per share. Investor sentiment going into the company's earnings release has 59% expecting an earnings beat. Consensus estimates are for year-over-year earnings growth of 11.76% with revenue increasing by 14.50%. Short interest has decreased by 2.1% since the company's last earnings release while the stock has drifted higher by 65.5% from its open following the earnings release to be 3.6% above its 200 day moving average of $31.18. Overall earnings estimates have been revised lower since the company's last earnings release. Option traders are pricing in a 9.7% move on earnings and the stock has averaged a 4.2% move in recent quarters.

(CLICK HERE FOR THE CHART!)

DISCUSS!

What are you all watching for in this upcoming trading week?
I hope you all have a wonderful weekend and a great trading week ahead StockMarket.
submitted by bigbear0083 to StockMarket [link] [comments]


2020.06.14 19:18 skertskertbangpow Breaking Apartment Lease

Need Help.
I have been renting with the same company for 3 years.
I have put in multiple work requests and nothing has been fixed. (kitchen sink backing up, broken closet door, smoking stove)

Anyways it wasn't planned but me and the GF bought a house. I want out of the lease with no penalty.

Any ideas?

I know this is a morally grey area, but according to me moral code, they weren't good landlords anyway so i don't feel bad trying to weasel out of this one.

I have attached the lease for review.

Lease was transcribed from PDF, so there might be some strange words or letters.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  1. TERM: The term shall commence on the 1st day of October 2016 and shall end at 9:00 AM on the 30th day of September 2017
(unless sooner terminated under the provisions hereof) or renewed or extended as hereinafter provided. If tenant chooses to
terminate this agreement prior to the expiration of the 12-month lease, a penalty fee will be assessed to the account in the amount
of $1 , I 00. Either party hereto, without cause, may terminate this Lease Agreement at the end of the primary term hereof or of any
term by giving to the other party not less than sixty (60) days written notice prior to such expiration; provided, however, that only
thirty (30) days prior written notice need be given if the tenancy is on a month-to-month basis. ff no such written notification
shall be given by either party, then the term of this Lease Agreement shall be automatically renewed upon the same terms and
conditions for another year and so on from year to year.
  1. RENT: Tenant shall pay to Lessor as rent for the leased premises for the primary term hereof the total sum of$6,930.00 payable
in advance without prior demand in equal monthly installments of$577.50, on the first day of each month during the term hereof.
All rent payable hereunder shall be paid at the office of Lessor above set forth or at such places as Lessor may designate from
time to time by written notice to Tenant. Checks shall be made payable to: REDACTED at the above address.
  1. RENTAL CREDIT: Tenant, if not delinquent in the payment of rent, shall be entitled to a rental credit of Twenty-seven and
50/100 Dollars ($27.50) per month if said monthly installment of rent is paid on or before the fifth (5th) day of the month in
which it is due, thus making Tenant's net monthly rental obligation the sum of $550.00 if entitled to this rental credit. This
provision, however, shall not otherwise affect the obligation of Tenant to pay rent due.
  1. UTILITIES AND SERVICES: All of the following utilities and services shall be provided and paid for by Lessor: Cold Water,
Sewer and Janitor (as to common areas only). All other utilities and services shall be supplied by Tenant at Tenant's expense.
Tenant is responsible for electric & gas. In the event that Lessor pays for any such utilities or services and the same are used
unreasonably by Tenant, then Tenant shall pay as additional rent a charge for such excessive use. Such charge shall not affect the
operation of the applicable rental credit provisions of Par. 3 hereof. Lessor shall not be responsible for failure to provide or for
delay in providing any utilities or services insofar as that failure is occasioned by circumstances beyond the control of Lessor.
  1. USE OF PREMISES: The leased premises shall be used and occupied as a private residential apartment only and for no other
purpose by not more than two persons, consisting of Tenant and such persons as des ignated on Tenant's rental application.
Tenant shall not use the leased premises for any disorderly or immoral purpose nor commit any waste therein or permit any
nuisance in or above the leased premises. Also Tenant shall not do or suffer anything to be done in and about the leased premises,
which will violate any laws or increase the rate of fire or other insurance or jeopardize of the same.
  1. SECURITY DEPOSIT:
(a) Amount: Tenant shall, upon the execution hereof, pay to Lessor and shall keep on deposit with Lessor the sum of$550.00 as a
Security Deposit for the payment of damages to the leased premises or default in rent.
(b) Application: If there shall be damages to the leased premises for which Tenant is responsible or default in rent, Lessor may
apply or retain the whole or part of the Security Deposit to the extent required to reimburse Lessor for the said damages to the
TENANT LEASE AGREEMENT
leased premises and/or default in rent. However, Lessor shall not be limited to or required to so apply or retain the whole or any
potion of said Security Deposit, but on the contrary, may look to Tenant directly and independently for reimbursement for any
damages by Tenant or for payment of delinquent rentals.
( c ) Maintenance At Original Amount: If the whole or any part of the said Security Deposit is so applied or retained. Tenant
shall upon demand immediately deposit with Lessor the amount so applied or retained to the end that Tenant shall at all times
have and maintain on deposit with Lessor the full amount of said Security Deposit as aforesaid. Said amount if not expended by
Lessor as herein provided, shall upon the expiration of the Leases Agreement or any renewal, be returnable to Tenant with any
interest due thereon. It is understood, however, that Security Deposit is not to be considered as the last monthly rental installment
under this Lease Agreement and shall not be so applied except upon the approval of Lessor.
( d ) Notice of Deposit; Reimbursement: Within thirty ( 30 ) days after execution of this Lease Agreement, Lessor shall give
Tenant written notice as to the name and address of the financial institution in which the Security Deposit has been deposited, the
amount thereof and the name of the account in which carried. Lessor shall not commingle the same with Lessor's general funds.
As reimbursement for administrative expenses, Lessor shall be entitled to a sum equal to I% per annum of any such Security
Deposit, if held at interest, which sum may be withdrawn by Lessor annually as it accrues. The balance of accrued interest shall
first be paid to Tenant upon the third anniversary of the commencement of this Lease Agreement and annually thereafter upon
each such anniversary date; provided, however, that interest shall not be payable on a Security Deposit of $100.00 or less.
(e) Managing Agent: If Lessor id represented by real estate broker as its Managing Agent, the Security Deposit shall be held by
such Managing Agent in escrow pursuant to applicable law.
( f) Forwarding Address: TENANT SHALL PROVIDE LESSOR IN WRITING WITH A FORWARDING ADDRESS UPON
SURRENDER AND ACCEPTANCE BY LESSOR OF THE LEASED PREMISES AS PROVIDED FOR IN SECTION 512 OF
THE LANDLORD AND TENANT ACT of 1951, 68 P.S. 205.512
( g ) List of Damages; Liability: Within thirty ( 30 ) days after termination of this Lease Agreement or upon surrender and
acceptance of the Leased premises ( whichever first occurs ), Lessor shall provide Tenant with a written list of all damages to the
premises for which Lessor claims Tenant is responsible. At that time, Lessor shall pay to Tenant the difference, if any, by which
the amount of the Security Deposit and accrued interest thereon exceeds the aggregate total dollar value of such damages. Failure
on the patt of Lessor to deliver to Tenant such written list of damages within said (30) day period shall effect a forfeiture of
Lessor's right to withhold any potion of the funds held in the Security Deposit and Lessor shall thereupon be responsible to
deliver to Tenant the full amount of the Security Deposit plus accrued interest thereon. Failure of Lessor to deliver to Tenant the
difference between the Security Deposit and the accrued interest thereon and the actual damages to the premises caused by
Tenant, within said ( 30 ) day period, shaJI cause Lessor to be responsible in a contract action for double the amount by which the
Security Deposit and accrued interest thereon, exceeds the actual damages to the premises caused by Tenant, as determined by
any court of record or not of record having jurisdiction in Civil Actions at Law. In any proceeding at law the burden of proof of
actual damages caused by tenant shall be borne by Lessor. Tenant shall not be responsible for normal wear and tear to the
premises or damages by accidental fire or casualty occurring without the fault or negligence of Tenant. Any payments made by
Lessor to Tenant hereunder shall be paid to Tenant personally or shall be mailed to Tenant at the forwarding address provided by
Tenant as above required.
( h) Transfer to Successor in Interest: Within ( 30) days after termination of Lessor's interest in the premises, whether by sale,
assignment, appointment of a receiver or otherwise, Lessor shall transfer the Security Deposit and accrued interest and shall give
written notice to Tenant of such transfer, the amount transferred and the name and address of the transferee. Thereupon Lessor
shall be relieved of all liability in connection with said Security Deposit and accrued interest thereon.
  1. POSSESSION: Lessor shall not be held liable if for any reason beyond Lessor's control, Lessor is unable to deliver possession of
the premises at the commencement of the term here; provided, however, as follows : (a) that the rental herein reserved shall be
abated from the date if commencement of the term until the date possession is tendered to Tenant; (b) that Lessor shall give
prompt notice to Tenant specifying the cause for such delay as soon as Lessor becomes aware of the same; and (c) that upon
receipt of such notice or at the conclusion of the fifth day following the commencement of the term, and prior to the tender of
possession. Tenant may terminate and cancel this Lease Agreement by giving written notice of such intent to Lessor. If
applicable, any monies deposited with Lessor shall be returned to Tenant within five ( 5 ) days of receipt of Tenant's notice.
Absent such notice by Tenant, Tenant's obligations hereunder shall remain in full force and effect.
  1. MISREPRESENTATION fN APPLICATION: Any material misrepresentation in Tenant's application for the premises, whether
intentional or otherwise, may be treated by Lessor, at its sole option, as an act of default hereunder and all remedies available to
Lessor in the event of other defaults shall likewise be available to Lessor in such case.
TENANT LEASE AGREEMENT 2
  1. LESSOR OBLIGATIONS: Lessor shall:
(a) Comply with all State, County and/or Municipal Building, Fire Prevention, Health, Housing and Sanitation Codes applicable
to Lessor.
(b) Make all repairs and do whatever is necessary to keep the premises in a fit and habitable condition.
(c) Maintain in good and safe working order and condition all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating, ventilation, air
conditioning, elevators and other facilities and appliances supplied or required to be supplied by Lessor by law of this Lease
Agreement.
(d) Keep all common areas of the premises in a clean and safe condition.
( e) Supply all necessary receptacles for the removal of refuse.
The obligation of Lessor under sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) above shall not apply in the case of Tenant's violation of his
obligation under Par. I 0 hereof.
  1. TENANT'S OBLIGATIONS: Tenant shall:
(a) Comply with all State, County and/or Municipal Building, Fire Prevention, Health, Housing, and Sanitation Codes
applicable to tenants.
(b) Keep clean that part of the premises, which Tenant occupies, and dispose of all rubbish, garbage and other waste in a clean
and safe manner.
(c) Use in a reasonable manner all utilities or fuel for which Lessor is responsible and all electrical, plumbing, sanitary, heating,
ventilating, air conditioning, elevators and other facilities and appliances in the premises.
(d) Not permit any person on the premises with Tenant's permission to willfully or wantonly destroy, deface, damage, impair or
remove any part of the structure or dwelling unit, or the facilities, equipment or appurtenances thereto or used in common,
nor shall Tenant do any such thing.
(e) Not permit any person on the premises with his permission to willfully or wantonly disturb the peaceful enjoyment of the
premises by other Tenants and neighbors nor shall Tenant do any such thing.
(F) Surrender quiet and peaceable possession upon termination of this Lease Agreement including the giving up of all keys,
plastic cards, electronic door openers and any other personal property of Lessor entrusted to Tenant, prior to the refund of the
Security Deposit.
(G) Tenant is responsible for having all carpets cleaned at move-out by a professional carpet cleaning company. Tenant must
provide Lessor with a copy of the receipt at move-out. If a professional company's receipt is not received at move-out, carpet
cleaning will be deducted from the security deposit.
  1. RULES AND REGULATIONS: Tenant and all other persons visiting the premises at the invitation of Tenant shall comply with
all Rules and Regulations adopted by Lessor and with such changes therein or additional Rules and Regulations as Lessor may
from time to time reasonably adopt. A copy of the applicable Rules and Regulations shall be delivered to all Tenants. Failure of
Tenant or such other persons to observe and comply with these Rules and Regulations shall constitute an act of default under this
Lease Agreement.
  1. ASSIGNMENT; SUBLETTING: Tenant shall not sublet or rent the premises or any part thereof, nor transfer possession or
occupancy thereof to any person, corporation, partnership or association, nor advertise same in any newspaper or other place, nor
transfer or encumber this Lease Agreement without the prior written consent of Lessor; nor shall any assignment hereof be
effected by operation of law or otherwise without such consent. Any such consent, if given by Lessor, shall not release Tenant
from any if Tenant's obligation under this Lease Agreement (unless so specified) nor shall it serve as a waiver of the need for
written consent in all future cases.
  1. ALTERATION: Tenant shall not make any alterations, additions or improvements, nor do any painting or wallpapering without
the prior written consent of Lessor. Any alterations, additions or improvements made shall become the property of Lessor and
shall remain in and be surrendered with the premises at the end of the term thereof, without disturbance, molestation or injury.
Only Lessor's workmen or contractors shall be permitted to make repairs or alterations in the premises, unless otherwise
previously agreed to in writing by Lessor; provided that the foregoing shall not limit the Tenant's right to repair and deduct
because of any breach by the Lessor of the implied warranty of habitability under Pennsylvania law.
  1. TENANT'S INSURANCE: Tenant shall be responsible to provide insurance coverage on Tenants contents and personal property
in and about the premises as well as for comprehensive liability insurance to protect Tenant against claims of Tenant's guests and
invitees in and about premises.
  1. DAMAGES BY FIREOROTHERCASUALTY:
(a) Partial Damage: If through no fault or negligence of Tenant, his family, servants, agents, employees or visitors, the premises
or the building of which it is a part shall be partially damaged by fire or other casualty but not to such extent as to render the
same wholly untenantable, repairs shall be made by Lessor as soon as reasonably may be done and the rent thereafter payable
TENANT LEASE AGREEMENT 3
shall be equitably apportioned according to the areas of the premises rendered unusable from the date of such fire or casualty
until the same are restored.
(b) Total Damage: Jn the event that the damage by fire or other casualty shall be so extensive as to render the premises wholly
untenantable, the rent shall cease until such time as the premises are restored and rendered tenantable. Further, in the event of
such total damage, Lessor and Tenant shall each have the option to terminate this Lease Agreement. In the event of such
termination, Lessor shall refund to Tenant any rent allocable ro the period subsequent to the occurrence of said fire or other
casualty as well as any Security Deposit including any accrued interest held by Lessor. Tenant shall thereupon surrender
possession of the premises and all keys and personal property as aforesaid to Lessor.
(c) Tenant shall notify Lessor or Lessor's agent of any damage to the premises by fire or other casualty and also of any dangerous
or defective condition within the premises immediately upon the occurrence of such fire or other casualty or discovery of such
condition. Except as affected by the giving or failure to give such notice, nothing herein contained shall be deemed to limit or
enlarge the respective rights and liabilities of either party arising from the negligent acts or conduct of the other.
  1. ACCESS:
(a) Emergency: Lessor or its authorized representative may enter the premises at any time without the consent of Tenant in case
of emergency.
(b) Non-Emergency: Tenant shall not unreasonably withhold consent to Lessor or its authorized representative to enter into the
premises in order to inspect the same, make necessary or agreed repairs, decorations, alterations or improvements, supply
necessary or agreed services, or exhibit the premises to prospective or actual purchasers, mortgagees, tenants contractors,
workmen, insurers or appraisers. Lessor shall give Tenant at least 24 hours notice (oral or written) of Lessor's intention to
enter the premises specifying the purpose of the entry, and may enter only at reasonable times.
( c) Harassment: Lessor shall not abuse the right of access or use it to harass Tenant.
(d) Change of Lock; Special Locks: ( i) By Tenant: Tenant may not change the lock or locks on entrance doors or install a
special lock without the prior written approval of Lessor and, if such approval is given, Tenant hereby agrees to deliver to
Lessor a key to the new lock or locks in order that Lessor may be enabled to gain access to the Premises as aforesaid. Failure
of Lessor to comply with sub-paragraph (c) above shall constitute a defense to non-compliance with this subsection by
Tenant. (ii) By Lessor: Lessor may change locks on the premises only after notice toTenant, and Lessor shall deliver to
Tenant a key to the new lock or locks.
  1. DEFAULTCLAUSE:
(a) Jn the event of any non-compliance by Tenant with the terms and provisions of this Lease Agreement or of said Rules and
Regulations, Lessor shall deliver a written notice to Tenant specifying the act or acts of default and notifying Tenant that this
Lease Agreement will terminate upon a date not less than thirty (30) days after receipt of such notice unless such act or acts
are reasonably corrected within fourteen (14) days after receipt of such notice. If Tenant corrects the act or acts specified in
the notice within the said fourteen (14) day period or commences a bona fide effort to do so and pursues the same with
reasonable diligence, this Lease Agreement and all rights and obligations of the parties hereunder shall remain in full force
and effect. Should Tenant fai I or refuse to surrender quiet and peaceable possession of the premises or cure the act or acts of
default specified within such period or to commence a bona fide effort to do so as aforesaid, Lessor may file a complaint to
evict Tenant immediately following such termination date, seek any monies due under the Lease Agreement and court cost in
accordance with applicable law. Not withstanding the above, when the act of default specified is non-payment of rent,
Tenant may remedy such default by paying the amount in arrears, plus any current rentals due, and any court costs incun-ed
by Lessor prior to the execution of an Order for Possession directing a constable or sheriff to deliver possession of the
premises to Lessor by force if necessary.
(b) Subject as hereinafter provided, the following shall also constitute acts of default hereunder: (1) if Tenant shall make an
assignment or arrangement for the benefit of creditors; or (2) if a petition in bankruptcy, reorganization or solvency be filed
by or against Tenant; or (3) ifa receiver or trustee be appointed for any if Tenant's property; or (4) ifan execution be issued
against Tenant and is not dissolved within thirty (30) days thereafter. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed a waiver of
any automatic stay provisions of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 as the same may be amended from time to time. If the
foregoing default is based on the filing of a petition in bankruptcy, the Tenant may cure such default by reaffirming the
indebtedness to Lessor pursuant to the tenns of this Lease Agreement and the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 as it may be
amended from time to time.
( c) Failure by either Lessor or Tenant to exercise any of their respective rights hereunder upon non-performance by the other
party of any condition, covenant or provision herein contained shall not be construed as a waiver thereof, nor shall the
defective performance or waiver of non-performance of any such condition, covenant or provision by the other party be
construed as awaiver of the rights of the non-defaulting party as to any subsequent defective performance or nonperformance
hereunder.
TENANT LEASE AGREEMENT 4
(d) The acceptance by Lessor of delinquent rent with knowledge of a breach of any covenant herein shall not in and of itself be
deemed a waiver of such breach, and any pending eviction procedures may be further prosecuted without prejudice to Lessor
based on this occurrence alone.
  1. NOTICE: All notices. Requests, demands and other communications required or permitted under this Lease Agreement shall be
in writing, signed by or on behalf of the party giving such notice, and may be served in any one of the following manners and
shall be effective as of the time specified:
(a) If by Personal Service: (i) Upon Tenant: On the date of such personal service when served by an adult person upon Tenant
or an adult member of Tenant's household. (ii) Upon Lessor: On the date of such personal service when served by an adult
person upon Lessor or an adult member of Lessor's household. Where Lessor is a corporation or other legal entity, service
may be made upon any officer, director, general partner, registered agent or any person in charge of an office of Lessor is
represented by a Managing Agent, service may be made upon such Managing Agent either personally or by mail as herein
provided.
(b) If by Registered or Certified Mail: On the date of receipt of the same as evidenced by the Return Receipt. If the same is
returned by the U.S. Postal Service marked "Refused" or "Unclaimed" service shall be deemed to have been made on the first
business day following the date of mailing of same.
(c) If by Posting on the Premises: On the date of posting the same in a conspicuous place on the premises; provided however,
that if Tenant has submitted in writing a new address to Lessor or Lessor has personal knowledge ofa new address of Tenant,
then service shall also be made upon Tenant at such new address.
(d) Place of Service: (i) Lessor: Lessor may be served with any such notice at the office of Lessor or place where rental
payments are customarily made or by personal service at any other place. (ii) Tenant: Tenant may be served with any such
notice at the premises or if the Tenant has not as yet occupied the premises, at the address given to lessor by Tenant for this
purpose in the manner aforesaid or by personal service at any other place.
(e) Change of Address; The address of either party for purpose of service of notice may be changed from time to time by such
party giving written notice to the other of such new address.
(f) Waiver of Notice Clause: TENANT AGREES TO WAIVE CERTAIN LEGAL RIGHTS AS PROVIDED BY
PENNSYLVANIA LAW, SPECIFICALLY: (1) NOTICE OF RENT DUE AND DEMAND FOR THE SAME (PAR 2): (2)
NINETY (90)-DA Y NOTICE PRIOR TO TERMINATION WHEN A LEASE OF ONE YEAR OR MORE (PAR 1, PAR
17(a); AND (3) NOTICE OF TERMINATION SOLELY BY PERSONAL SERVICE OR POSflNG, THE TENANT
AGREEING TO SERVICE OF SUCH NOTICE BY REGISTERED OR CERTIFIED MAIL (PAR 18 (b) ).
  1. ABANDONMENT: Abandonment of the premises by Tenant shall be presumed where Tenant moves out all or substantially all
of Tenant's goods and personal property from the premises and (a) the rent is or becomes due and unpaid for ten (10) days or
more, or (b) the Lease is for a term of one year or more and the Tenant fails to obtain Lessor's written consent to remove such
property or to provide adequate assurance of continued performance under the terms of this Lease Agreement. Abandonment
pursuant to this clause shall itself be considered a default.
Upon abandonment of the premises by Tenant as aforesaid, Lessor shall make a good faith effort to serve written notice on Tenant
in accordance with Par. 18 hereof(to the effect that Lessor plans to re-enter the premises and take possession of the same and that
Lessor may dispose of any remaining goods and personal property remaining in the premises) and shall also post the premises,
both of which actions may be undertaken concurrently by Lessor.
At any time, five (5) days or more after posting the premises and subsequent to Lessor's good faith effort to serve written notice
on Tenant as aforesaid, Lessor may re-enter the leased premises and retake possession of the same (such action by Lessor,
however, shall not be deemed or construed to be an acceptance of any surrender thereof by Tenant).
Further, in the event of abandonment of the leased premises by Tenant as aforesaid, and following the above notice period, Lessor
may take possession of any goods and personal property of Tenant remaining in the leased premises, return such items to the
Tenant upon Tenant's demand, and at Tenant's expense, within ten (10) days of the end of said five (5) day posting period, or in
the absence of such demand, dispose of Tenant's property in a commercially reasonable manner. The proceeds received there
from shall be applied as a credit against any delinquent rental and the balance, if any, shall otherwise be returned to Tenant after
deducting reasonable expenses. Nothing herein set forth shall preclude Lessor or its Managing Agent from pursuing any other
remedy available to Lessor under this Lease Agreement or applicable law.
TENANT DOES HEREBY RELEASE AND DISCHARGE LESSOR AND MANAGING AGENT. IF ANY, FROM ANY,
FROM ANY AND ALL LIABILITY AND FROM ALL CLAIMS, DEMANDS, SUITS OR CAUSES OF ACTION IN LAW
OR EQUITY ARISING OUT OF OR IN ANY MANNER RELATED TO ACTION TAKEN BY LESSOR PURSUANT TO
THIS ABANDONMENT CLAUSE (Par. 19).
  1. TRANSFER CLAUSE: In the event that Tenant shall be transferred by his or her employer to a new location more than 50 miles
distant from the leased premises and written acknowledgement from Tenant's employer evidencing such transfer is received by
Lessor, Tenant may, upon thirty (30) days written notice to Lessor, terminate this Lease Agreement upon payment to Lessor of a
TENANT LEASE AGREEMENT 5
termination charge in an amount equal to two (2) month's rent. Tennination shall be effective as of the last days of the calendar
month following the end of the thirty-(30) day notice period.
  1. DEATH CLAUSE: ln the event of the death of Tenant or of Tenant's spouse, whoever shall be the principal wage earner or
income recipient of the family unit (both being in residence in the leased premises), the surviving spouse may upon thirty (30)
days written notice to Lessor, terminate this Lease Agreement upon payment to Lessor of a termination charge in an amount equal
to two (2) months rent. Termination shall be effective as of the last day of the calendar month following the end of the thirty-(30)
day notice period.
  1. QUIET ENJOYMENT: Lessor hereby warrants the quiet enjoyment of Tenant in the leased premises.
  2. SUBORDINATION: This Lease Agreement shall be subject and subordinate to the lien of all present or future mortgages, which
affect the leased premises, and to all renewals, modifications, replacements and extensions thereof. This clause shall be selfoperative
but in any event Tenant shall execute promptly any estoppel certificate or other assurances that Lessor may request in
furtherance hereof
  1. ENTIRE CONTRACT: This Lease Agreement constitutes the entire contract between the parties hereto and there are no other
understandings, promises, representations or warranties, oral or written, relating to the subject matter of this Lease Agreement,
which exist or bind any of the parties hereto, their respective heirs, executors, administrators, successors or assigns, except as set
forth herein. No amendment, change or addition to this Lease Agreement shall be binding upon Lessor and Tenant unless
reduced to writing and signed by both parties.
  1. SEVERABILITY CLAUSE: If any particular term, covenant or provision of this Lease Agreement shall be determined to be
invalid and unenforceable, the same shall not effect the remaining provisions of this Lease Agreement, which shall nevertheless
remain in ful I force and effect.
  1. (A) BINDING LESSOR: This Lease Agreement shall not be binding upon Lessor unless and until the same shall have been
signed by Lessor or its Managing Agent and delivered by Lessor to Tenant.
(B) BINDING ALL PARTIES: After this Lease Agreement shall have been fully signed and delivered by Lessor to Tenant,
however, the same shall be binding upon the said parties and upon their respective heirs, executors, administrators, successors and
assigns.
27.ADDITIONAL PROVISIONS: NO PETS.
28.NO SMOKING
REQUIRED NOTICE: "RATES OF COMMISSION OR OTHER FEES FOR THE SALE, OR MANAGEMENT OF REAL
ESTATE SHALL BE NEGOTIABLE BETWEEN BROKER AND HIS CLIENT."
WITNESS the due execution of this Lease Agreement in duplicate originals, as of the date and year first above written.
submitted by skertskertbangpow to legaladvice [link] [comments]


2020.06.10 06:15 dynwyrm [WTS] - Assortment of US and World. Some raw, some graded.

Howdy y'all. Got a wide variety of stuff I'm looking to move - should be something for just about everyone.
[Verification](https://imgur.com/Zet2lvK)
[Album images for your perusal](https://imgur.com/a/KussvAA)
Misc:
[Norfed Liberty Dollar Lot](https://imgur.com/eSQujQi) - $60 Lot includes everything you see pictured here: business card, pamphlet, a “$20” and “$50” coin. These were produced by Sunshine Mint for Bernard von NotHaus as a private currency in the 2000s, before Norfed was raided by the FBI and the Secret Service. Interesting story, for sure.
Please note that these are NOT currency, and are not meant to be used, spent, or passed as such. Do not attempt to spend t here as legal currency. I offer them for sale here only as an item of interest for the history on the hobby.
You can learn more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_dollar_(private_currency))
World
[Philippines Lot](https://imgur.com/hU2Lz2X) - $45 Philippines coins minted in the United States during U.S. occupation from 1903-1945. Lot includes 1907-S Peso, 1919-S 50 Centavos, 1921 20 Centavos, 2x 1944-D 20 Centavos, and 2x 1944-D 10 Centavos.
[Canada/Newfoundland Lot](https://imgur.com/MchMr7V) - $30. Lot includes 1857 Upper Canada Penny Bank Token, Newfoundland 1894 10 Cents and 1911 50 Cents, and 1943 5 cents.
[Austria 1854 Franz Joseph I Gulden](https://imgur.com/kd0nX0w) - $50 This coin commemorates the 1854 wedding of Franz Joseph and Elisabeth. Numista rarity index of 78: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces65023.html
[Slovakia 1944 50 Koruns](https://imgur.com/uN18O4J) - $30. Silver circulating commemorative coin with Joseph Tito on the reverse (https://imgur.com/VnZYPuN)
[Netherlands East Indies 1752 Silver Duit](https://imgur.com/WyyM1FS - $60. Reverse: https://imgur.com/6GznxCu Numista Rarity Index of 90: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces43831.html
[Teutonic Order Schilling, 1393-1407](https://imgur.com/EYJc52V) - $135. Crusader Silver, perfect for all your Europa Universalis lapping needs. Numista Rarity Index of 97: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces106796.html
[Sassanian Persian Drachm, Yazdgard II (438-457 AD) - $60. 1600 year old silver coin, rough contemporary of the Fall of Rome, for $60? Neat. Reverse image: https://imgur.com/pBTDrNZ Numista Rarity Index of 97: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces77645.html

[PCGS VF Details 1504-1555 Spanish Real](https://imgur.com/nmIhSWn) - $125. After the discovery of massive hordes of silver in the New World in the 1500s, the Spanish Real became an internationally significant coin for trade and commerce. This coin is from the rule of Juana and Carlos. Numista Rarity of 97: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces115287.html
PCGS Cert lookup + Truview: https://www.pcgs.com/cert/38602981

[NGC MS64 1753 Nurnberg 1 Pfennig](https://imgur.com/QgadcRe) - $55. This coin is from the Holy Roman Imperial Free City of Nurnberg. It is a uniface coin. Numista Rarity of 88 https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces111168.html
[NGC VF25 1875 Bavaria Ludwig II 5 Mark](https://imgur.com/FN0bTER) - $105. This coin was minted under the reign of Ludwig II, referred to as “Mad King Ludwig”. He’s noted for his construction of the ornate palace of Neuschwanstein (itself the inspiration for Disneyland’s famous castle). Ludwig was deposed, and allegedly assassinated.
US:

Dimes:
[1892-O Barber Dime](https://imgur.com/fulVhJq) - This coin is somewhere between Fine and a low Very Fine. Better date, even in this condition. $15 Reverse - https://imgur.com/iU1VUPN
[NGC 1941 MS67 Merc Dime](https://imgur.com/vuQDg98) - $45 Reverse: https://imgur.com/N1RvgCy
[NGC 1943 MS67 Merc Dime](https://imgur.com/0SabJ2R) - $50 Reverse :https://imgur.com/1bW0Ysc
[Lot of 2 PCGS Merc Dime Rattlers - 1944S MS64FB + 1945 MS65](https://imgur.com/GgL1hOt) - $70 Reverse - https://imgur.com/EROV19U
Quarters:
[Lot of 8 quarters - 7 Standing Liberty with dates, + 1 1932 Washington Quarter](https://imgur.com/BIwGLXY) - $33
[Lot of 4 quarters: 1941, unc 1946, proof 1956, proof 1964](https://imgur.com/Sx5a7Zf) - $24
Half Dollars:
[Lot of 3 Walking Liberty Half dollars: 1928-S, 1929-S, Unc 1941](https://imgur.com/uLL6FVT) - $60. Reverse: https://imgur.com/EiG58vz
[PCGS 1938 XF40 Walking Liberty](https://imgur.com/RFR97pu) - $13
[PCGS 1935 AU50 Walking Liberty](https://imgur.com/U7w1cT1) - $25 (Reverse: https://imgur.com/OW7dFHK)
[PCGS 1936 MS66 Walking Liberty](https://imgur.com/hukHYO6) - $216 (Reverse: https://imgur.com/DCPvBh4)
[PCGS 1938-D VF30](https://imgur.com/9NOh1L2) - $90. Semi-Key Date coin. Reverse: https://imgur.com/PVjzRzd
[NGC MS64 CAC 1942 D/D Walking Liberty Repunched Die variety](https://imgur.com/EUUYJu8) - $125 (Reverse: https://imgur.com/KqyQFeB)
[Raw 1962 Franklin Half Dollar](https://imgur.com/kRmp29A) - $9 Reverse: https://imgur.com/nF606T0
[Raw 1955 Franklin Half Dollar](https://imgur.com/nF606T0) - $12 Reverse:
Dollars:
[1978 Silver Ike Dollar in Softpak](https://imgur.com/PiCKL8f) - $9
[2000 Painted ASE](https://imgur.com/SBuSeyb) - $22
[1883 CC Morgan - Carson City Collection](https://imgur.com/8gziACJ) - $88. Reverse: https://imgur.com/8gziACJ
[2014-W PCGS PR70DCAM First Strike](https://imgur.com/g6gK0Zx) - $65 Reverse: https://imgur.com/cazM08h
Shipping - All items ship through USPS First Class or USPS Priority. First class is $3.75, Priority is $7. Insurance etc available at cost.
Payment - Through PayPal (preferred) or Google Wallet only.
If you have any questions, want more pics, etc, just let me know. Please note - I have a slightly larger list with base metal coins up on /coins4sale right now.
submitted by dynwyrm to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]


2020.06.10 06:13 dynwyrm [WTS] - Assortment of US and World. Some raw, some graded.

Howdy y'all. Got a wide variety of stuff I'm looking to move - should be something for just about everyone.

[Verification](https://imgur.com/Zet2lvK)

[Album images for your perusal](https://imgur.com/a/KussvAA)

Misc:
[Norfed Liberty Dollar Lot](https://imgur.com/eSQujQi) - $60 Lot includes everything you see pictured here: business card, pamphlet, a “$20” and “$50” coin. These were produced by Sunshine Mint for Bernard von NotHaus as a private currency in the 2000s, before Norfed was raided by the FBI and the Secret Service. Interesting story, for sure.

Please note that these are NOT currency, and are not meant to be used, spent, or passed as such. Do not attempt to spend t here as legal currency. I offer them for sale here only as an item of interest for the history on the hobby.

You can learn more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberty_dollar_(private_currency))

World
[Misc. World Lot](https://imgur.com/XeGIaGB) - Lot of 5 coins. Includes an Austrian coin from 1881, Angola 1948, Spain 1953, Chile 1933, and an unknown but probably Indian coin. - $2

[Philippines Lot](https://imgur.com/hU2Lz2X) - $45 Philippines coins minted in the United States during U.S. occupation from 1903-1945. Lot includes 1907-S Peso, 1919-S 50 Centavos, 1921 20 Centavos, 2x 1944-D 20 Centavos, and 2x 1944-D 10 Centavos.

[Canada/Newfoundland Lot](https://imgur.com/MchMr7V) - $30. Lot includes 1857 Upper Canada Penny Bank Token, Newfoundland 1894 10 Cents and 1911 50 Cents, and 1943 5 cents. 1857

[Austria 1854 Franz Joseph I Gulden](https://imgur.com/kd0nX0w) - $50 This coin commemorates the 1854 wedding of Franz Joseph and Elisabeth. Numista rarity index of 78: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces65023.html

[Gibraltar 1842/1 2 Quarts](https://imgur.com/dI7FWCa) - $40 Slightly less than one gallon. No, I have no idea what a quart is.https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces17866.html

[Slovakia 1944 50 Koruns](https://imgur.com/uN18O4J) - $30. Silver circulating commemorative coin with Joseph Tito on the reverse (https://imgur.com/VnZYPuN)

[Netherlands East Indies 1752 Silver Duit](https://imgur.com/WyyM1FS - $60. Reverse: https://imgur.com/6GznxCu Numista Rarity Index of 90: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces43831.html
[Teutonic Order Schilling, 1393-1407](https://imgur.com/EYJc52V) - $135. Crusader Silver, perfect for all your Europa Universalis lapping needs. Numista Rarity Index of 97: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces106796.html

[Sassanian Persian Drachm, Yazdgard II (438-457 AD) - $60. 1600 year old silver coin, rough contemporary of the Fall of Rome, for $60? Neat. Reverse image: https://imgur.com/pBTDrNZ Numista Rarity Index of 97: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces77645.html
[NGC AU Roman Empire, Constantine the Great, 307-337 AD](https://imgur.com/QIS02V8) - $30. Constantine the Great was the first Roman ruler to convert to Christianity.

[PCGS VF Details 1504-1555 Spanish Real](https://imgur.com/nmIhSWn) - $125. After the discovery of massive hordes of silver in the New World in the 1500s, the Spanish Real became an internationally significant coin for trade and commerce. This coin is from the rule of Juana and Carlos. Numista Rarity of 97: https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces115287.html
PCGS Cert lookup + Truview: https://www.pcgs.com/cert/38602981

[NGC VF35 1797 SOHO Great Britain](https://imgur.com/g9UAxUI) -$150 Reverse - https://imgur.com/h8evfp5

[NGC MS64 1753 Nurnberg 1 Pfennig](https://imgur.com/QgadcRe) - $55. This coin is from the Holy Roman Imperial Free City of Nurnberg. It is a uniface coin. Numista Rarity of 88 https://en.numista.com/catalogue/pieces111168.html

[NGC VF25 1875 Bavaria Ludwig II 5 Mark](https://imgur.com/FN0bTER) - $105. This coin was minted under the reign of Ludwig II, referred to as “Mad King Ludwig”. He’s noted for his construction of the ornate palace of Neuschwanstein (itself the inspiration for Disneyland’s famous castle). Ludwig was deposed, and allegedly assassinated.


US:
Cents:
[1857 Flying Eagle Cent](https://imgur.com/NjoijW1) - $40
[1943 NGC MS65 Steel Cent](https://imgur.com/mQGWgwb) - $18
[1945-S PCGS MS66RD Lincoln Cent](https://imgur.com/H1zn8yG) - $12

Nickels:

[PCGS 1913 MS64](https://imgur.com/H51uNre) - $60 Reverses for all 3 : https://imgur.com/a/UZFo5LA

[ANACS 1938-D/S MS64](https://imgur.com/H51uNre) - $110

[NGC 1951 PF66 DDO](https://imgur.com/H51uNre) - $60

Dimes:

[1892-O Barber Dime](https://imgur.com/fulVhJq) - This coin is somewhere between Fine and a low Very Fine. Better date, even in this condition. $15 Reverse - https://imgur.com/iU1VUPN

[NGC 1941 MS67 Merc Dime](https://imgur.com/vuQDg98) - $45 Reverse: https://imgur.com/N1RvgCy

[NGC 1943 MS67 Merc Dime](https://imgur.com/0SabJ2R) - $50 Reverse :https://imgur.com/1bW0Ysc

[Lot of 2 PCGS Merc Dime Rattlers - 1944S MS64FB + 1945 MS65](https://imgur.com/GgL1hOt) - $70 Reverse - https://imgur.com/EROV19U

Quarters:

[Lot of 8 quarters - 7 Standing Liberty with dates, + 1 1932 Washington Quarter](https://imgur.com/BIwGLXY) - $33

[Lot of 4 quarters: 1941, unc 1946, proof 1956, proof 1964](https://imgur.com/Sx5a7Zf) - $24

Half Dollars:

[Lot of 3 Walking Liberty Half dollars: 1928-S, 1929-S, Unc 1941](https://imgur.com/uLL6FVT) - $60. Reverse: https://imgur.com/EiG58vz
[PCGS 1938 XF40 Walking Liberty](https://imgur.com/RFR97pu) - $13

[PCGS 1935 AU50 Walking Liberty](https://imgur.com/U7w1cT1) - $25 (Reverse: https://imgur.com/OW7dFHK)

[PCGS 1936 MS66 Walking Liberty](https://imgur.com/hukHYO6) - $216 (Reverse: https://imgur.com/DCPvBh4)

[PCGS 1938-D VF30](https://imgur.com/9NOh1L2) - $90. Semi-Key Date coin. Reverse: https://imgur.com/PVjzRzd

[NGC MS64 CAC 1942 D/D Walking Liberty Repunched Die variety](https://imgur.com/EUUYJu8) - $125 (Reverse: https://imgur.com/KqyQFeB)

[Raw 1962 Franklin Half Dollar](https://imgur.com/kRmp29A) - $9 Reverse: https://imgur.com/nF606T0

[Raw 1955 Franklin Half Dollar](https://imgur.com/nF606T0) - $12 Reverse:

Dollars:
[1978 Silver Ike Dollar in Softpak](https://imgur.com/PiCKL8f) - $9

[2000 Painted ASE](https://imgur.com/SBuSeyb) - $22

[1883 CC Morgan - Carson City Collection](https://imgur.com/8gziACJ) - $88. Reverse: https://imgur.com/8gziACJ

[2014-W PCGS PR70DCAM First Strike](https://imgur.com/g6gK0Zx) - $65 Reverse: https://imgur.com/cazM08h

Shipping - All items ship through USPS First Class or USPS Priority. First class is $3.75, Priority is $7. Insurance etc available at cost.
Payment - Through PayPal (preferred) or Google Wallet only.
If you have any questions, want more pics, etc, just let me know
submitted by dynwyrm to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]


2020.06.01 19:13 Papatus4u Windows Of Heaven

BIBLE STUDIES LESSON GUIDE( LESSON 19)
Windows Of Heaven
Jun 1, 2020
Jacob had never felt so destitute and alone -- and it was all because he had been devious and greedy. First Jacob had bribed Esau, his elder twin, into selling his birthright. Then, with his mother's help, he tricked his blind father, Isaac, into giving him the paternal blessing that rightfully belonged to Esau.
Now Jacob was fleeing from home, partly to escape the murderous threats of his offended brother. He bowed his head and cried when he thought of how all his grasping plans had backfired. Alone in the wilderness, with only a stone for a pillow and a stick for protection, Jacob tried to rest. He wondered if he would ever see his parents again and if God would forgive him. Exhausted, Jacob drifted off to sleep. Soon he found himself bathed in the brilliant glow of a vivid dream. He saw a blazing light streaming from the open heavens, with a beautiful stairway spanning from the glory above to the earth below. There were countless shimmering angels traveling up and down this ladder.
Then Jacob heard the Lord speak from heaven and promise to bless him in his journey. The Lord also confirmed with Jacob the same covenant He had made with Abraham and Isaac.
When he awoke, Jacob fell on his knees and made a vow to abandon his greedy ways. He promised, "Of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee." Genesis 28:22.
God accepted this vow and opened the windows of heaven so that when Jacob returned home 20 years later, he had become a very prosperous and generous man.
  1. Where Did Jacob Learn The Concept Of Returning A Tenth To God?
Genesis 14:18, 20. And Melchizedek ... was the priest of the most high God. ... And he [Abraham] gave him ______ of all.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: Tithe is one-tenth of a person's income. In fact, the word "tithe" simply means "a tenth." Jacob's grandfather, Abraham, set an example many years earlier by giving a tithe to God's priest, Melchizedek.
  1. What Portion Of Our Income Belongs To God?
Leviticus 27:30. All the ______ ... is the Lord's: it is holy unto the Lord.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: Technically, 100 percent of all we have belongs to God.
Psalms 24:1 The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.
But God asks us to acknowledge that we believe it all belongs to Him by returning a tithe, or 10 percent of our increase.
  1. What Does God Do With Our Tithe?
Numbers 18:21, 24. I have given the children of ____ all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their service which they serve. ... The tithes of the children of Israel, ... I have given to the __________tes to inherit. 1 Corinthians 9:13, 14 Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: In the Old Testament, God directed that the tithe be used to support the Levites, who were His ministers. In 1 Corinthians 9:13, God says that just as the priests of old were paid from the tithe of the temple, so gospel ministers today should be paid from tithe given through the church.
  1. Is The Tithing System Part Of Moses' Old Law, Which Ended At The Cross?
Genesis 28:20, 22. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, ... of all that thou shalt __________ me I will surely ____ the tenth unto thee.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: No! Both Abraham and Jacob gave a tenth of their income to God long before Moses' law was given. Because it pre-dated Sinai, we know that it was not part of the ceremonial law that ended at the cross. The law of tithing is God's plan for support of the ministry, and it remains in effect today.
  1. But Didn't Jesus Condemn The Tithing Plan?
Matthew 23:23. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithes of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ____ ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: No. Jesus saw that the miserly Pharisees were counting out individual leaves and tiny seeds for tithe instead of taking it to the temple by the bushel. Therefore He rebuked them for being so exact in tithe while failing in judgment, mercy, and faith. He did not condemn them for tithing, but for ignoring the other great principles of Christianity. That is why Jesus said, "These ought ye to have done [speaking of tithing], and not to leave the other undone."
  1. What Amazing Promise Does God Make About Tithing?
Malachi 3:10. Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, ... and _____ me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: God is saying: "If you are doubtful, try tithing as an experiment. Test Me, and see if I won't return to you a blessing too vast for you to receive." Hundreds of thousands of tithepayers will tell you that it is true. You cannot out-give God!
  1. God Tells His People To Bring All Of The Tithe Into The Storehouse. What Does That Mean?
Nehemiah 13:12. Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the new wine and the oil unto the ___________.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: The storehouse is the treasury of God's church. (The Bible margin equates "treasuries" with "storehouses".) In Malachi 3:10, God refers to the storehouse as "mine house," which means His church, or temple. Other texts that refer to the storehouse as the temple, or temple treasury, are 1 Chronicles 9:26 (see margin); 2 Chronicles 31:11, 12 (see margin); and Nehemiah 10:37, 38. So it is obvious that the storehouse is God's church treasury.
  1. When We Tithe, Who Really Receives Our Money?
Colossians 3:23. And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the ______, and not unto men.Hebrews 7:8 And here men that die receive tithes; but there he [Jesus] receiveth them.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: We need to always remember that we are not returning our tithe to people, but to God. It belongs to Him. We need not worry about how the tithe is used if we give it to God. He is big enough to take care of His own money and to properly handle anyone who may be irresponsible in managing His funds.
  1. In Addition To My Tithe, Which Belongs To God, What Else Does He Ask Of His People?
Psalms 96:8. Bring an _____, and come into his courts. Malachi 3:8 Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and _______s.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: The Lord asks us to give freewill offerings as an expression of our love for Him and our thanksgiving for His blessings.
  1. How Much Should We Give As Offerings?
2 Corinthians 9:7. Every man according as he purposeth in his _____, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: The Bible does not set a specific amount. Each person decides how much to give for freewill offerings, as God impresses.
 Please If you don't understand any thing concerning this bible studies lessons send your questions to this WhatsApp platform and we will help you to understand it. 
Follow this link to join my WhatsApp group: https://chat.whatsapp.com/DMxlE8qn1ANARbm01aEGEB
submitted by Papatus4u to AdventistStudent [link] [comments]


2020.06.01 19:12 Papatus4u Windows Of Heaven

BIBLE STUDIES LESSON GUIDE( LESSON 19)
Windows Of Heaven
Jun 1, 2020
Jacob had never felt so destitute and alone -- and it was all because he had been devious and greedy. First Jacob had bribed Esau, his elder twin, into selling his birthright. Then, with his mother's help, he tricked his blind father, Isaac, into giving him the paternal blessing that rightfully belonged to Esau.
Now Jacob was fleeing from home, partly to escape the murderous threats of his offended brother. He bowed his head and cried when he thought of how all his grasping plans had backfired. Alone in the wilderness, with only a stone for a pillow and a stick for protection, Jacob tried to rest. He wondered if he would ever see his parents again and if God would forgive him. Exhausted, Jacob drifted off to sleep. Soon he found himself bathed in the brilliant glow of a vivid dream. He saw a blazing light streaming from the open heavens, with a beautiful stairway spanning from the glory above to the earth below. There were countless shimmering angels traveling up and down this ladder.
Then Jacob heard the Lord speak from heaven and promise to bless him in his journey. The Lord also confirmed with Jacob the same covenant He had made with Abraham and Isaac.
When he awoke, Jacob fell on his knees and made a vow to abandon his greedy ways. He promised, "Of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee." Genesis 28:22.
God accepted this vow and opened the windows of heaven so that when Jacob returned home 20 years later, he had become a very prosperous and generous man.
  1. Where Did Jacob Learn The Concept Of Returning A Tenth To God?
Genesis 14:18, 20. And Melchizedek ... was the priest of the most high God. ... And he [Abraham] gave him ______ of all.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: Tithe is one-tenth of a person's income. In fact, the word "tithe" simply means "a tenth." Jacob's grandfather, Abraham, set an example many years earlier by giving a tithe to God's priest, Melchizedek.
  1. What Portion Of Our Income Belongs To God?
Leviticus 27:30. All the ______ ... is the Lord's: it is holy unto the Lord.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: Technically, 100 percent of all we have belongs to God.
Psalms 24:1 The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof; the world, and they that dwell therein.
But God asks us to acknowledge that we believe it all belongs to Him by returning a tithe, or 10 percent of our increase.
  1. What Does God Do With Our Tithe?
Numbers 18:21, 24. I have given the children of ____ all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, for their service which they serve. ... The tithes of the children of Israel, ... I have given to the __________tes to inherit. 1 Corinthians 9:13, 14 Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: In the Old Testament, God directed that the tithe be used to support the Levites, who were His ministers. In 1 Corinthians 9:13, God says that just as the priests of old were paid from the tithe of the temple, so gospel ministers today should be paid from tithe given through the church.
  1. Is The Tithing System Part Of Moses' Old Law, Which Ended At The Cross?
Genesis 28:20, 22. And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, ... of all that thou shalt __________ me I will surely ____ the tenth unto thee.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: No! Both Abraham and Jacob gave a tenth of their income to God long before Moses' law was given. Because it pre-dated Sinai, we know that it was not part of the ceremonial law that ended at the cross. The law of tithing is God's plan for support of the ministry, and it remains in effect today.
  1. But Didn't Jesus Condemn The Tithing Plan?
Matthew 23:23. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithes of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ____ ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: No. Jesus saw that the miserly Pharisees were counting out individual leaves and tiny seeds for tithe instead of taking it to the temple by the bushel. Therefore He rebuked them for being so exact in tithe while failing in judgment, mercy, and faith. He did not condemn them for tithing, but for ignoring the other great principles of Christianity. That is why Jesus said, "These ought ye to have done [speaking of tithing], and not to leave the other undone."
  1. What Amazing Promise Does God Make About Tithing?
Malachi 3:10. Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, ... and _____ me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: God is saying: "If you are doubtful, try tithing as an experiment. Test Me, and see if I won't return to you a blessing too vast for you to receive." Hundreds of thousands of tithepayers will tell you that it is true. You cannot out-give God!
  1. God Tells His People To Bring All Of The Tithe Into The Storehouse. What Does That Mean?
Nehemiah 13:12. Then brought all Judah the tithe of the corn and the new wine and the oil unto the ___________.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: The storehouse is the treasury of God's church. (The Bible margin equates "treasuries" with "storehouses".) In Malachi 3:10, God refers to the storehouse as "mine house," which means His church, or temple. Other texts that refer to the storehouse as the temple, or temple treasury, are 1 Chronicles 9:26 (see margin); 2 Chronicles 31:11, 12 (see margin); and Nehemiah 10:37, 38. So it is obvious that the storehouse is God's church treasury.
  1. When We Tithe, Who Really Receives Our Money?
Colossians 3:23. And whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the ______, and not unto men.Hebrews 7:8 And here men that die receive tithes; but there he [Jesus] receiveth them.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: We need to always remember that we are not returning our tithe to people, but to God. It belongs to Him. We need not worry about how the tithe is used if we give it to God. He is big enough to take care of His own money and to properly handle anyone who may be irresponsible in managing His funds.
  1. In Addition To My Tithe, Which Belongs To God, What Else Does He Ask Of His People?
Psalms 96:8. Bring an _____, and come into his courts. Malachi 3:8 Will a man rob God? Yet ye have robbed me. But ye say, Wherein have we robbed thee? In tithes and _______s.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: The Lord asks us to give freewill offerings as an expression of our love for Him and our thanksgiving for His blessings.
  1. How Much Should We Give As Offerings?
2 Corinthians 9:7. Every man according as he purposeth in his _____, so let him give; not grudgingly, or of necessity: for God loveth a cheerful giver.
Answer : ____________________
NOTE: The Bible does not set a specific amount. Each person decides how much to give for freewill offerings, as God impresses.
Please If you don't understand any thing concerning this bible studies lessons send your questions to this WhatsApp platform and we will help you to understand it. 
Follow this link to join my WhatsApp group: https://chat.whatsapp.com/DMxlE8qn1ANARbm01aEGEB
submitted by Papatus4u to bibletruthguide [link] [comments]


2020.03.25 09:57 alexander_sideris A list of active startup investors during this pandemic.

I went through every single funding round of February, which is when this pandemic started, and collected information for hundreds of investors.
I do this every month, so I’ll do it for March as well when this month ends, I think that will be even more interesting..
So far I didn’t see any major difference in February’s numbers compared to January’s.
The list contains ~200 investors. You can copy paste the output below and create a CSV file. Then, you can import it into Google Sheets, Airtable, whatever. It’s super easy.

Investor Name,Investor Description,Investor Type,Investor Location,Investment Activity,Last Investment Date,Last Investment Industry,Last Investment Stage,Last Investment Amount,Investor LinkedIn,Investor Twitter,Investor Email
Jaffray Woodriff,"Angel Investor located in Charlottesville, VA",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Advertising,Pre-Seed,$0.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jaffraywoodriff,https://twitter.com/JaffrayW,(Removed from this list)
Nat Goldhaber,Nat is the resident expert on mobile technology with a broad interest in areas such as mobile payments and social networking. His focus on t...,Partner,United States,Low,February 2020,eSports,Pre-Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/natgoldhaber,https://twitter.com/natgoldhaber,(Removed from this list)
Amy Morhaime,"Amy Morhaime - Sr. Global Director, Blizzard Esports @ Blizzard Entertainment",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,eSports,Pre-Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/amy-morhaime-76326b/,https://twitter.com/amyjchen,(Removed from this list)
Alex Poon,Alex Poon is a Co-founder and General Partner at UP2398.,Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,eSports,Pre-Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/alexpoon,,(Removed from this list)
Chris Sang,"General Partner, Chief Technology Officer, Venture Advisor, Global Angel Investor",Angel,Australia,Moderate,February 2020,eSports,Pre-Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/csang,,(Removed from this list)
Albert Lee,"Albert Lee is co-founders of MyFitnessPal, the leading free resource helping people improve their health. Over the course of his career, Alb...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,eSports,Pre-Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mralbertlee,https://twitter.com/albertlee,(Removed from this list)
Jon Runyan,"Jon Runyan is Okta's General Counsel. As GC, Jon oversees all of the company's legal affairs worldwide. In addition to running the legal dep...",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Finance,Seed,$6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jonathan-runyan-3868a6/,https://twitter.com/jtrunyan,(Removed from this list)
Abhinav Chhikara,Abhinav Chhikara - UI/UX Designer & Co-founder @ Lisn App,Angel,India,Low,February 2020,Education,Seed,$0.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/abhinavchhikara,https://twitter.com/abnux,(Removed from this list)
Ellen Levy,"Ellen is Managing Director of Silicon Valley Connect, working with organizations and entrepreneurs on opportunities for “networked innovatio...",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Artificial Intelligence,Seed,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/ellenlevy/,https://twitter.com/EllenLevy,(Removed from this list)
Didier Elzinga,"Didier previously co-founded technical academy award winning Rising Sun Research and is non-executive director at Tourism Australia, the Atl...",Angel,Australia,Moderate,February 2020,Consumer Research,Seed,$2.7M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/didierelzinga,https://twitter.com/didierelzinga,(Removed from this list)
Thomas Reardon,"Prior to joining WestView Capital Partners, Tom Reardon was a Director at CIBC Capital Partners, a private equity firm with $1.5 billion und...",Partner,United States,Low,February 2020,Artificial Intelligence,Seed,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/tom-reardon-1a7734/,,(Removed from this list)
Saurabh Srivastava,"Saurabh Srivastava is one of India’s leading IT entrepreneurs, angel investors and venture capitalists. He founded and chaired IIS Infotech ...",Angel,India,Moderate,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/saurabhsrivastava101,,(Removed from this list)
Daniel Gross,"Daniel Gross is an entrepreneur and investor. Daniel was born in Israel. He founded a company called Cue, an AI-powered search engine. Cue ...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Analytics,Seed,$3.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/dg271,https://twitter.com/danielgross,(Removed from this list)
Shervin Pishevar,"Shervin Pishevar is a Managing Director at Sherpa Capital, a San Francisco-based venture capital firm he co-founded with Scott Stanford in M...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Finance,Seed,$6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/shervinpishevar,https://twitter.com/shervin,(Removed from this list)
Greg Brockman,"Greg Brockman is the Co-founder and Chairman of OpenAI. He was formerly the CTO of Stripe, a leading Silicon Valley startup.",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Analytics,Seed,$3.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/thegdb/,https://twitter.com/gdb,(Removed from this list)
Krishna Visvanathan,Krishna Visvanathan was a Partner at DFJ Esprit from October 2009 to April 2015. Krishna has been a Venture Capital investor for over 10 yea...,Partner,United Kingdom,Moderate,February 2020,Retail Technology,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/krishnavisvanathan/,https://twitter.com/krishnav,(Removed from this list)
Mattias Danielsson,"Previously with Accenture, co-founder and CEO of Tradera (acquired by eBay), co-founder of Avito.ru. M.Sc. in Economics and Business, Stockh...",Angel,Sweden,Moderate,February 2020,Voice,Seed,$1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mattias-danielsson-187950/,,(Removed from this list)
Amit Ranjan,"Amit heads the team that is building SlideShare. Amit has a previous background in product marketing, sales & consumer research. His last...",Angel,India,High,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/amitranjanprofile,https://twitter.com/amitranjan,(Removed from this list)
Shishir Mehrotra,"Mr. Shishir Mehrotra is a Director of Spotify Technology S.A. since June 13, 2017 and served as Strategic Advisor to the Chief Executive Off...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Artificial Intelligence,Seed,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/shishirmehrotra,https://twitter.com/shishirmehrotra,(Removed from this list)
Prakash Ramamurthy,Prakash is a seasoned executive with over 20 years of experience leading product strategy and technology vision in startups and high growth ...,Partner,United States,Low,February 2020,Broadcasting,Seed,$1.2M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/prakashramamurthy/,,(Removed from this list)
Kyle Porter,"Kyle Porter is the co-founder and CEO of SalesLoft. SalesLoft generated explosive growth over the past two years, serving over 1,200 clients...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Robotics,Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/kyleporter,https://twitter.com/kyleporter,(Removed from this list)
Scott Sage,Scott co-founded Crane,Partner,United Kingdom,Moderate,February 2020,Retail Technology,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/scottsage,https://twitter.com/scott_sage,(Removed from this list)
Kevin Hartz,"Kevin is the Co-Founder & Chairman of Eventbrite and an EIR & Venture Partner at Founders Fund. Prior to joining the firm, Kevin was Co-Fo...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Education,Seed,$3.2M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/hartz/,https://twitter.com/kevinhartz,(Removed from this list)
Justin Alanis,Justin is the CEO of Rentlytics. He and Phil started the Company with the goal of harnessing the vast amounts of data within the multifamily...,Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Commercial Insurance,Seed,$2.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/justinalanis,https://twitter.com/justinralanis,(Removed from this list)
Manan Maheshwari,"Manan is a analytical and detail-oriented team player with a focus on creative problem solving, innovation, cross functional team work, cust...",Angel,India,Low,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mananmaheshwari/,https://twitter.com/m_manan,(Removed from this list)
Pei-fu Hsieh,"Pei-fu Hsieh is a venture partner at 01vc, focusing on investment opportunities in Southeast Asia. Pei-fu brings to 01VC extensive investmen...",Angel,India,Low,February 2020,Developer APIs,Seed,$1.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/pei-fu-hsieh-a214b24/,,(Removed from this list)
Kunal Shah,Kunal Shah is the founder and CEO of CRED. Kunal Shah graduated with Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from Wilson College in Mumbai an...,Angel,India,High,February 2020,Developer APIs,Seed,$1.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/kunalshah1/,https://twitter.com/kunalb11,(Removed from this list)
Steli Efti,"Steli is CEO and Co-Founder of Close.io (a platform that makes calls, sends emails, and conveniently automatically tracks all activity) and ...",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Podcast,Seed,$2M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/steliefti,https://twitter.com/steli,(Removed from this list)
Julia Hartz,Julia Hartz hopes to inspire people to live more by building the world's largest marketplace of live experiences. Since founding Eventbr...,Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Education,Seed,$3.2M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/juliahartz/,https://twitter.com/juliahartz,(Removed from this list)
Matt Lowe,"Mr. Lowe co-founded Swift Straw Il, LLC in October 2011, serving as Chief Executive Officer. His vision and leadership has elevated Swift St...",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Robotics,Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mattloweceo/,https://twitter.com/MattSwiftstraw,(Removed from this list)
Louis Beryl,"3X Founder of Earnest, SolidEnergy, and now working on the next one. Formerly a16z and YC. Active angel investor and board member.",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Insurance,Seed,$2.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/louisberyl/,https://twitter.com/louisberyl,(Removed from this list)
Eric Ries,Eric Ries is the founder and CEO of the Long-Term Stock Exchange (LTSE). The LTSE is building a new national securities exchange designed to...,Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Cloud Infrastructure,Seed,$6.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/eries/,https://twitter.com/ericries,(Removed from this list)
Phil Venables,Phil Venables,Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Cyber Security,Seed,$4.1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/philvenables/,https://twitter.com/philvenables,(Removed from this list)
Rafael Garrido,Rafael Garrido is a Co-Founder at eShop Ventures.,Angel,Spain,Low,February 2020,SaaS,Seed,$0.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/rafagarrido/,https://twitter.com/rafaelgarrido,(Removed from this list)
Christian Reber,Christian Reber​ is the founder and CEO of Pitch. The German entrepreneur previously founded the award-winning to-do app Wunderlist. After i...,Angel,Germany,Moderate,February 2020,Podcast,Seed,$2M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/christianrebe,https://twitter.com/christianreber,(Removed from this list)
James Beshara,"James has been pushing the group-funding envelope since 2007. Before co-founding Crowdtilt, he studied Development Economics in undergra...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Health Care,Seed,$1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jjbeshara/,https://twitter.com/jamesbeshara,(Removed from this list)
Allen Graber,"Allen has been instrumental in starting, growing, investing in and profitably exiting Internet and software companies for over a decade. ...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Robotics,Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/allengraber,https://twitter.com/agraber,(Removed from this list)
JD Ross,JD is a co-founder focused on developing better experiences for home sellers and buyers. He has led the company’s growth team and product te...,Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Commercial Insurance,Seed,$2.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/justindylanross,https://twitter.com/justindross,(Removed from this list)
Abhishant Pant,Abhishant Pant is a Mumbai based Fintech expert and has more than a decade of hands-on experience of payments landscape. He has spoken ab...,Angel,India,Moderate,February 2020,Developer APIs,Seed,$1.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/abhishantpant/,https://twitter.com/abhishantpant,(Removed from this list)
Hubert Thieblot,"Hubert Thieblot founded Curse, Inc. in 2005 and serves as its Chief Executive Officer.",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Developer Platform,Seed,$3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/hubertthieblot,https://twitter.com/hthieblot,(Removed from this list)
Marc Jalabert,Marc Jalabert,Angel,France,Moderate,February 2020,Artificial Intelligence,Seed,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/marcjalabert/,https://twitter.com/marcjalabert,(Removed from this list)
Daniel Dines,"Daniel Dines is Co-founder and CEO of UiPath, the fastest growing and leading provider of Robotic Process Automation (RPA) and AI software w...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Event Management,Seed,$6.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/danieldines/,https://twitter.com/danieldines,(Removed from this list)
Greg Badros,Greg is a well respected technology leader in the valley. Over the last 10 years he has held senior leadership positions at Facebook and Goo...,Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Artificial Intelligence,Seed,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/badros/,,(Removed from this list)
John Bonten,"John Bonten actively invests in various startups including Calm, Atoms, HeadSpin, Outdoor Voices, and more. He is a former member of a small...",Angel,The Netherlands,Moderate,February 2020,Music,Seed,$2.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/johnbonten/,https://twitter.com/johnbonten,(Removed from this list)
Jonathan Benhamou,"Jonathan Benhamou Co-Founded PeopleDoc, a leading provider of cloud-based HR Service Delivery solutions, in 2007 in France. In 2014, Jonath...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Internet,Seed,$3.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/pub/jonathan-benhamou/9/279/7a6,https://twitter.com/johnbenhamou,(Removed from this list)
Amrish Rau,"As the CEO of PayU India, India’s leading digital payment solution providers, B. Amrish Rau is at the forefront of driving digital transform...",Angel,India,High,February 2020,Developer APIs,Seed,$1.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/amrish-rau-4158339,https://twitter.com/amrishrau,(Removed from this list)
Rudy Karsan,Rudy Karsan is a technology entrepreneur and investor. Nothing excites him more than a great idea and a stellar team of executors who he can...,Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Financial Services,Seed,$10.1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/rudykarsan/,https://twitter.com/rudykarsan?lang=en,(Removed from this list)
Sidharth Rao,"Entrepreneur since 1998. Proud founder of a couple of really spectacular internet businesses in India. And then, at least 2x number of equal...",Angel,India,Moderate,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/sidharthrao,https://twitter.com/sidharthrao,(Removed from this list)
Gokul Rajaram,"Gokul Rajaram is the product engineering lead at Square, the commerce company based in San Francisco, CA, that offers local businesses a ful...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Video,Seed,$2.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/gokulrajaram1/,https://twitter.com/gokulr,(Removed from this list)
Ritesh Malik,"A medical doctor, who sold his startup Alive App to The Bennett and Coleman Group (Times of India) in 2013, has been instrumental in buildin...",Angel,India,Moderate,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/pub/dr-ritesh-malik/a/a87/877,https://twitter.com/drriteshmalik,(Removed from this list)
Clément Buyse,Clément Buyse - COO & Co-Founder @ PeopleDoc,Angel,France,Moderate,February 2020,Internet,Seed,$3.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/clementbuyse/,https://twitter.com/cbuyse,(Removed from this list)
Kevin Lin,"Lin is the COO of Twitch, the world’s leading social video platform and community for gamers. He was instrumental in the 2011 launch of the ...",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Developer Platform,Seed,$3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/kevinlin3/,https://twitter.com/vinlin,(Removed from this list)
Sunil Chhaya,"Sunil is a Vice President at NextWorld Capital, an enterprise focused venture capital firm focused on investing in Series A & B companies. H...",Partner,United States,Low,February 2020,Artificial Intelligence,Seed,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/sunil-chhaya-2a187030/,https://twitter.com/sunilchhaya,(Removed from this list)
Jesper Theil Thomsen,Jesper Theil Thomsen is the co-founder and CEO of SoundBoks.,Angel,Denmark,Low,February 2020,Music,Seed,$2.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jesper-theil-thomsen-9a08019b/,,(Removed from this list)
Paul Veugen,"Builder: Teams, product, engineering, and design. Founder of one of the first all-day activity trackers for the iPhone Human (acquired by ...",Angel,Netherlands,Low,February 2020,Fitness,Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/pveugen,https://twitter.com/pveugen,(Removed from this list)
Matt Clifford,Matt co-founded EF after being a consultant at McKinsey & Co. Prior to EF Matt spent his time studying at MIT fuelled by an obsession with R...,Partner,United Kingdom,Moderate,February 2020,Retail Technology,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mattcliffordef/,https://twitter.com/matthewclifford,(Removed from this list)
Jitendra Gupta,"Jitendra was Founder and CEO of Citrus Pay, a leading digital payments company in India. Post acquisition of Citrus Pay by Naspers, he leads...",Angel,India,High,February 2020,Developer APIs,Seed,$1.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/guptajiten,https://twitter.com/guptajiten,(Removed from this list)
Tim Draper,"Timothy Draper is founding partner of leading venture capital firms Draper Associates and DFJ. Tim's original suggestion to use ""viral marke...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Blockchain,Seed,$1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/timothydraper,https://twitter.com/TimDraper,(Removed from this list)
Matt MacInnis,"Matt MacInnis is the Co-Founder and CEO of Inkling Systems, the world’s first end-to-end platform for mobile learning content.",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Commercial Insurance,Seed,$2.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/macinnis,https://twitter.com/stanine,(Removed from this list)
Niloo R. Howe,Niloo Howe is the Chief Strategy Officer at RSA. She was previously Chief Strategy Officer of Endgame. She has a quarter century of expe...,Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Cyber Security,Seed,$4.1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/niloofarhowe/,https://twitter.com/NiloofarHowe,(Removed from this list)
Christian Heinrich,Christian Heinrich is the Co-Founder of Scoutbee.,Angel,Germany,Low,February 2020,Document Management,Seed,$4.6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/prof-christian-heinrich-79ab3437/,,(Removed from this list)
Carlos Gonzalez- Cadenas,Carlos Gonzalez-Cadenas is Chief Product and Technology Officer (CPO/CTO) at GoCardless.,Angel,United Kingdom,Moderate,February 2020,Event Management,Seed,$6.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/carlosgonzalezcadenas/,https://twitter.com/gonzalezcarlos,(Removed from this list)
Moritz Zimmermann,Moritz co-founded hybris in 1997 with an idea for a highly innovative packaged e-commerce application that has now evolved into a leading pl...,Angel,Germany,Low,February 2020,Document Management,Seed,$4.6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/moritzzimmermann/,https://twitter.com/moritzzimmerman,(Removed from this list)
Sky Dayton,"Sky has a long history as a successful entrepreneur in the Internet industry, having founded, co-founded, and helped build companies with a ...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Finance,Seed,$6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/skydayton/,https://twitter.com/skydayton,(Removed from this list)
Elad Gil,"Elad Gil is a serial entrepreneur, operating executive, and investor or advisor to private companies including AirBnB, Pinterest, Square, an...",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Analytics,Seed,$3.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/eladgil,https://twitter.com/eladgil,(Removed from this list)
Fabian Heinrich,Fabian Heinrich is the Co-Founder and Managing Director of Scoutbee.,Angel,Germany,Low,February 2020,Document Management,Seed,$4.6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/fabianheinrich,,(Removed from this list)
Ilkka Paananen,"Ilkka Paananen is the CEO and co-founder of Supercell, the Helsinki-based mobile games developer behind Clash of Clans and Hay Day. In Octob...",Partner,Finland,Moderate,February 2020,Event Management,Seed,$6.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/ilkkapaananen/,https://twitter.com/ipaananen,(Removed from this list)
Vlad Ionescu,Full Stack Marketer and Growth Hacking at UiPath,Angel,Romania,Moderate,February 2020,Digital Marketing,Seed,$0.8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/vladionescu/,https://twitter.com/vladdione,(Removed from this list)
Clarke Miyasaki,"Clarke has a history of success in start-up and early-stage investment environments. Most recently, Clarke served as the Global Vice Presid...",Partner,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Consumer Electronics,Seed,$4.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/pub/clarke-miyasaki/2/b47/723,https://twitter.com/cmiyasaki,(Removed from this list)
Jeff Danley,"Jeff is a founder and Managing Partner of Peak Capital Partners, LLC and is responsible for managing the firm’s activities throughout the Un...",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Consumer Electronics,Seed,$4.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/pub/jeff-danley/0/736/b83,https://twitter.com/jeffdanley1,(Removed from this list)
Meghna Agarwal,Meghna Agarwal - Co Founder @ IndiQube,Angel,India,Low,February 2020,Building Material,Seed,$1.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/meghna-agarwal-13685a/,,(Removed from this list)
Hemanshu Jain,Hemanshu Jain is a Founder at Preggers.,Angel,India,Low,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/hemanshujain,https://twitter.com/hemanshujain,(Removed from this list)
Aakash Goel,"Aakash Goel is a Vice President with BVP India in Mumbai. He has ~8 years of experience across investing, consulting and entrepreneurship. ...",Partner,India,Low,February 2020,Building Material,Seed,$1.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/aakashgoel/,,(Removed from this list)
Des Traynor,"Des is the Co-Founder of Intercom, the platform for all customer interaction needs from marketing to support to product development. Previou...",Angel,Ireland,Moderate,February 2020,Event Management,Seed,$6.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/destraynor,https://twitter.com/destraynor,(Removed from this list)
Nicholas Shekerdemian,Nicholas Shekerdemian is the co-founder and executive chairman at Headstart.,Angel,United Kingdom,Low,February 2020,Music,Seed,$2.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/nshekerdemian/,https://twitter.com/nshekerdemian,(Removed from this list)
Scooter Braun,"Scooter Braun is one of the entertainment industry’s biggest entrepreneurs and innovators and the founder of SB Projects, a diversified ente...",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Developer Platform,Seed,$3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/scooterbraun,https://twitter.com/scooterbraun,(Removed from this list)
Andrey Khusid,Andrey Khusid is the CEO and founder of Miro.,Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Event Management,Seed,$6.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/khusid,https://twitter.com/Khusya,(Removed from this list)
Shankar Narayanan,Shankar Narayanan is a Managing Director advising leading growth capital investments in India. He is based in Mumbai. Since joining Carly...,Angel,India,Moderate,February 2020,Health Care,Seed,$1.1M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/shankar-narayanan-m-ab65ba7,,(Removed from this list)
Mike Lee,"Mike Lee is Co-Founder of MyFitnessPal, the leading free resource helping people improve their health. Prior to founding MyFitnessPal, M...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Fitness,Seed,$3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mikeslee28,https://twitter.com/mikeslee,(Removed from this list)
Renaud Visage,"Renaud Visage is the technical co-founder & CTO of Eventbrite, the largest live experience platform in the world by the number of events and...",Angel,France,Moderate,February 2020,Internet,Seed,$3.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/renaudvisage,https://twitter.com/renaudvisage,(Removed from this list)
Vikram Chachra,Vikram Chachra - Co-Founder & COO @ Eight Capital,Angel,India,Moderate,February 2020,Developer APIs,Seed,$1.4M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/vchachra,https://twitter.com/lemonandice,(Removed from this list)
Anand Chandrasekaran,"Anand brings a passion for product, deep mobile ecosystem expertise, and entrepreneurial success to Storm. He currently drives mobile produc...",Angel,India,High,February 2020,Video,Seed,$2.5M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/anandc/,https://twitter.com/anandc,(Removed from this list)
Naval Ravikant,Naval Ravikant is the CEO and a co-founder of AngelList. He previously co-founded Epinions (which went public as part of Shopping.com) and V...,Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Finance,Seed,$6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/navalr,https://twitter.com/naval,(Removed from this list)
Alok Mittal,"He holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science and Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi and a Master's degree in Com...",Partner,India,High,February 2020,Content,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/alok-mittal-590a/,https://twitter.com/alokmittal001,(Removed from this list)
Michael Pennington,One of the UK's leading tech angel investors. Active seed and pre-seed stage angel investor in UK based disruptive tech. Prefers businesses ...,Angel,United Kingdom,High,February 2020,Retail Technology,Seed,$0.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/michael-pennington-35b2a71,https://twitter.com/PenningtonM,(Removed from this list)
Jim Breyer,"Jim is the Founder and Chief Executive Officer at Breyer Capital since July 2006. Co-Chairman at IDG Capital, Jim is Founder and CEO of Brey...",Partner,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Commercial Real Estate,Series A,$8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jim-breyer-361900b2/,https://twitter.com/jimihendrixlive,(Removed from this list)
James Tamplin,"James has founded 4 startups. His last one, Firebase, was acquired by Google, where he leads product for Firebase as a part of Google Cloud ...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Cloud Infrastructure,Series A,$9.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jamest/,https://twitter.com/jamestamplin,(Removed from this list)
Nick Green,"Nick is the co-founder and co-CEO of Thrive Market, an online wholesale buying club on a mission to make healthy living easy and affordable ...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Manufacturing,Series A,$9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/nicholasgreen,,(Removed from this list)
David Helgason,"David is a technologist, the founder of Unity Technologies, non-exec director to others, and a restless entrepreneur with a passion for crea...",Partner,Denmark,High,February 2020,Financial Services,Series A,$6.6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/davidhelgason,https://twitter.com/davidhelgason,(Removed from this list)
Sam Lambert,Sam Lambert is the Director of Systems at GitHub. He is an experienced engineer that focuses on growing the technical organization responsib...,Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Cloud Infrastructure,Series A,$9.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/isamlambert/,https://twitter.com/isamlambert,(Removed from this list)
Matt Price,"Matt is responsible for growing and supporting the Zendesk customer community in Europe, Middle East and Africa. Since starting his caree...",Angel,United States,Low,February 2020,Analytics,Series A,$8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/growthspecialist/,https://twitter.com/_matt_price,(Removed from this list)
Brian Pokorny,"Brian Pokorny is a General Partner of SV Angel. Prior to this, he was at Airbnb, where he joined via an acquisition of DailyBooth/Batch. Dai...",Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Apps,Series A,$8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/brpokorny/,https://twitter.com/brianp,(Removed from this list)
Michael Mignano,Michael Mignano - Co-Founder and CEO @ Anchor,Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Advertising,Series A,$6M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/mmignano/,https://twitter.com/mignano,(Removed from this list)
Felix Ruiz,"Félix Ruiz, founder of Tuenti and president of Jobandtalent. He has invested in startups Jobandtalent, Syltek, Vitcord, Fudeat, Glovo or Dep...",Angel,Spain,Moderate,February 2020,Content,Series A,$4.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/felix-ruiz-hernandez-694ba113/,https://twitter.com/felixruiz,(Removed from this list)
Kunal Bahl,"Kunal is the co-founder and CEO of Snapdeal Private Limited, India's largest no-frills, value focused marketplace. Previously, he has also w...",Angel,India,High,February 2020,Fleet Management,Series A,$8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/kunalbahl,https://twitter.com/1kunalbahl,(Removed from this list)
Taavet Hinrikus,"Taavet Hinrikus is co-founder and CEO of TransferWise. Prior to starting TransferWise, Taavet was Skype’s director of strategy until 2008, s...",Partner,United Kingdom,High,February 2020,Fitness,Series A,$10M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/taavethinrikus,https://twitter.com/taavet,(Removed from this list)
Eric Roza,"Eric led the transformation of Datalogix into the marketing industry’s leading big data company, culminating in its sale to Oracle in Januar...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Developer APIs,Series A,$10.3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/ericroza,https://twitter.com/rozaeric,(Removed from this list)
Ambarish Raghuvanshi,"Ambarish Raghuvanshi has studied at St Xaviers’ College, Calcutta where he pursued and received a Bachelors degree in Commerce, with Honours...",Partner,India,Moderate,February 2020,B2B,Series A,$3M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/ambarish-raghuvanshi-9b7720,,(Removed from this list)
Bobby Goodlatte,Angel investor in 40+ startups. Early product designer at u/Facebook & former Designer in Residence at u/Greylock Partners,Partner,United States,High,February 2020,Apps,Series A,$8M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/bobbygoodlatte,https://twitter.com/rsg,(Removed from this list)
Sachin Sinha,"Engineer, Entrepreneur, passionate about data, ML and AI. Author of one of the fastest and robust NoSQL databases, BangDB and founder of IQL...",Angel,India,Low,February 2020,Payments,Series A,$8M,https://in.linkedin.com/in/sachinsi,https://twitter.com/sachin_sinha1,(Removed from this list)
Jen Rubio,"Jen Rubio is the co-founder and Chief Brand Officer of Away, a global lifestyle brand that’s working to transform the entire travel experien...",Angel,United States,Moderate,February 2020,Manufacturing,Series A,$9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/jenrubio/,https://twitter.com/jennifer,(Removed from this list)
Michael Stoppelman,"Michael joined Yelp in 2007 as a software engineer to help to rebuild the search engine. Over the years, Michael was promoted to more senior...",Angel,United States,High,February 2020,Cloud Infrastructure,Series A,$9.9M,https://www.linkedin.com/in/michaelstoppelman/,https://twitter.com/stopman,(Removed from this list)

I reached the character limit and couldn't add them all in this post. If want them all, you can click “Download CSV” from this airtable sheet. https://www.angelstep.co/active-investors
submitted by alexander_sideris to Entrepreneur [link] [comments]


2020.02.05 00:36 PkFreezeAlpha Help! Amazoness.com ~ CEO Crisis 2020~: Delivery 20

Prologue
Delivery 10

Delicious! The Genius Patisserie and the Dangerous Sweetness

Another 10 deliveries means another adventure.
Mash:
Let’s see. So once again, why is Mrs. Beauty traveling alongside Master and CEO’s delivery group?
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:
As we’re in jointly operating, unfit workers would be a matter of life-and-death for my company. If I assist them directly, there will be no issues.
Amazoness CEO:
We’ve managed fine until now, yet this will likely allow us to surpass difficult issues that may arise.
We took in Chaldea for times like those, but I thought it would be good for Mrs. Egyptian to be here as well.
Apologies for relying on you like this.
But by the way, something’s been bothering me. I wish to ask another question to you: how did you know of our situation?
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:
I utilized the aid of my company’s superb intelligence network to --- well, I’m repeating myself, so I’d like to compliment what I said.
You may not believe it, but just a little while ago, a rumor was circulating through the entire business world.
About the present state of Amazoness.com.
Fou:
Fou?
[How all the workers vanished?] / [How the CEO was alone?]
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:
Indeed. After that, I acted at the chance to know what truth there was to be had in that claim.
Amazoness CEO:
Hmph. That’s strange.
It’s a big problem that they all vanished, but it’s well known that if you can find openings in this world, they’re taken as-is.
Of course, I hadn’t discussed this matter with anyone else. Even though it was a problem, I didn’t lodge a report with the Galaxy police for it to become a recent rumor.
Mash:
So whoever’s involved with this incident was intent on spreading the information…but for what purpose?
Da Vinci:
Let’s keep thinking on it. I mean, that is our end goal here.
Amazoness CEO:
Perhaps…they were someone who has a disdain for Amazoness.com, and wanted to stir up trouble.
The rapid growth of my company has led to many enemies. That’s certainly a potential to keep in mind.
Like how Beauty thought, it’d be nothing but a blessing for me to be dead---
A company takeover wouldn’t be off the table either.
As we expect more deliveries from hereon, the culprit could be thoroughly devising traps to ensure us in.
Be on your guard, [Guda]!
We move forward with our delivery, winding up in a town made entirely of sweets.
Amazoness CEO:
Our next delivery is here. To a customer named “Sweet Witch”.
I believe their shop is a single building…
A door slams open!
???: (Medea Lily)
Oh, there you are! Finally! You’re Amazoness.com, right!
Amazoness CEO:
Indeed. Are you Ms. Sweet Witch? Please, just sign right here---
Sweet Witch:
Sign? You want me to sign? Are you that shameless? You didn’t make it in time!
Amazoness CEO:
We…didn’t make it?
Sweet Witch:
I mean as I say. I was relying on you to bring those pancake ingredients to my shop.
And your delivery was so late that we ran out of stock entirely!
I was even more careful about this than any other day, since today’s extra special…!
Amazoness CEO:
I-I’m terribly sorry. Please, wait a moment. Here, the sales slip…
Sweet Witch:
This store, “Lily-can’s Wonderland”, is a locally based pancake shop.
Until now, reliably and in minute-detail, we’ve gained the trust of everyone here.
With that prestige, we were entrusted to have “A birthday celebration for all the kids in the orphanage” today…
Now miss cat-ears will be make a dejected face…I’ll have to sincerely apologize…
Once a week, someone in several light-years near me won’t be able to eat my pancakes, and turn into a pig.
The Fancy Fantasy curse will still be dispersed, but without a way to dispel the grief…
Osakabehime:
Are you saying that kind of terror is commonplace?
Sweet Witch:
It’s how we show our love.
Osakabehime:
Love…love…???
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:
That might be against the Galaxy Unfair Competition Prevention Act! (Shine!)
Sweet Witch:
Dispelling grief is cute! Anyways, why didn’t you get here sooner!?
Amazoness CEO:
…Huh? We didn’t exceed the delivery date.
Sweet Witch:
Wha-, it should have…!?
Amazoness CEO:
No, to be precise, we are only over the scheduled delivery time.
However, according to the prior-mail we received, this should already be understood.
Sweet Witch:
Please, don’t give me that. I don’t remember sending any mail like that!
Amazoness CEO:
Let me check. Erm…
Yes, in regards to the potentially late shipping of our items, I dispatched an e-mail with an apology, and asked if you minded.
To which you replied, “That’s no problem, anytime’s cool!”
In other words, I hypothesized that this was within said delivery limits. We are not late!
Sweet Witch:
I-I never replied to that!
Osakabehime:
Hmhmm.
There really is a reply, but it doesn’t sound like Sweet Witch…
Amazoness CEO:
Hmm. In regards to this current matter; while unfortunately being due to a communication error and causing an inevitably weighted issue, there is something I can say about this unfortunate happenstance…
I highly recommend for you to get our Premium Plan.
This subscription is offered at a small monthly fee, and because it was created with an intention for user friendliness, next-day delivery is an option, or potentially same-day shipping dependent on the area---
[That’s the indomitable, merchant’s spirit of our amazing CEO!]
Fou:
Fou…
Sweet Witch:
I-I had no idea that was a thing, so I didn’t know to pick it! Please don’t tell me about something I have no clue about!
Since it’s come to this…!
Sweet Witch quickly moves over and signs, regardless.
Amazoness CEO:
A quick acceptance and signature. Just what I hope for from a customer.
However, as we can’t validate the contents in this confusion, we are not liable for a mis-delivery---
Sweet Witch:
Take this, and this, and this, and this!
With a cute wave of her wand, Sweet Witch summons a monstrous demon-pillar pancake!
Mash:
This is bad, Senpai! I’m picking up some sort of threat bursting through the shop!
[It’s giving off a really good smell though] / [Is that…a pan…cake…? Uuugh, my head…]
Amazoness CEO:
Well now…
Sweet Witch:
I missed out on the chance for them, but these are my number one best-selling pancakes!
You’ll be purchasing all of them! But you’ll be fine, since it tastes as good as it smells!
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:
Oh my. I figured you were a complainer, but from a business perspective, you’ve got guts.
Amazoness CEO:
However, I am a battle hardened CEO. The rules of high pressure, counter sales battles are naturally something I’ve mastered.
If you don’t know the saying, let me tell it to you.
“When a CEO sells things, the recipient gets power through the stock prices of the CEO!”
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
You fight back the Sweet Witch, and a pancake-demon pillar she spawned.
Sweet Witch:
Sniff…it was a difference in capital strength…
I still wasn’t able to see everyone’s smiles…
My pancakes entwined their hopes and dreams, no, they wished to be immersed in them…
…They would’ve feasted outside my shop like sweet piggies…
Osakabehime:
Pig…pigs…um, Sweet Witch-san?
Sweet Witch:Yes, what is it?
Osakabehime:
Is your place, maybe, under joint management?
Sweet Witch:
Yes, of course. The Dragon Tooth Soldiers being in charge of sales isn’t enough.
My aunt, Ms. Kykeon, is always helping out, and---
……….
???: (Circe)
I’m baaack!
Whew, the neighborhood piggies were popular, and a handful, again today.
But it was nothing to me, because I’m Doc Kykeon! The genius Caster of this century who discovered Kykeon particles!
Oh, what’s all this?
Sweet Witch:
Auntie.
You didn’t reply to mail sent to my address on your own, did you?
Doc Kykeon:
You don’t have to keep calling me Auntie! Call me big sis Kykeon instead!
But well, now that you mention it, Sweet Witch.
When I heard the ingredients would be late, I became angry with rage…
But the Amazoness company apologized by giving me this apology set!
So I instantly thanked them in your email at once.
Amazoness CEO:
Incidentally, our Amazoness apology set includes additional Tapioca and Konjac jelly balls.
And because of its wonderful volume to compression ratios, it gets delivered one step ahead of the rest through Galaxy Letter Packaging.
Sweet Witch:
That means the culprit is Auntie! Weren’t you worried about the pancake ingredients?
Doc Kykeon:
W-what!?
Sweet Witch:DON’T EVEN ARGUE!
With another cute wave of her wand, Lily blasts Circe with a magic star.
Doc Kykeon:
Hey! I still have some Konjac left over, y’know!
All the tapioca got turned into Kykeon and eaten though! How about some konjac milk tea!?
Sweet Witch:
Aaah, jeez! Auntie, you’re so dumb---!
Amazoness CEO:……….
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:What’s the matter?
Amazoness CEO:
THAT’S THE SPIRIT!
[Huh!??]
Sweet Witch:W-what?
Amazoness CEO:
The strength to make ideas to try and change tight situations is the same as the strength to stay light on your feet.
What’s more, your pancakes taste better than anything.
And I say that as someone who thinks sweets are idiotic, and throws them out with a grumble.
Sweet Witch:
You really like them? Ehehe…thanks.
Amazoness CEO:
This erratic energy comes at a high nutritional price.
And these outstanding goods are located in a sole remote shop, covered in an air of importance.
What I’m getting at, is that I want to make you a proposal.
Would you like to offer your company’s pancakes through Amazoness.com?
With my company as an outlet, you could surely sell them throughout the galaxy. Watched closely as a guard dog.
Sweet Witch:
Oh…but…
Amazoness CEO:
Don’t worry about the “best sold by” date.
With my company’s speedy delivery service, they can be transported anywhere in the galaxy within that timeframe.
Sweet Witch:
…I’m a little lost on such a hard offer…you said I’m good in tight situations, right?
I think it’s good, and we were just fighting about an agreement on goods.
Maybe I should follow this example to be in merchant sales…
Amazoness CEO:
Justifiable. For that’s why I am a CEO! After all.
Doc Kykeon:
Oho. May I get in on this too?
[It’d be better for you to run inside, Doc Kykeon]
Doc Kykeon:
R-really?
…We-well, do you wanna at least fly around with me?
Definitely no? Oh. Okay.
I’ll be okay…I’m a woman born to research Kykeon particles and help at the pancake shop…!
Osakabehime:
(…Somehow, she and I have the same scent around us…)
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:
I’ll take care of forming the contracts.
As a neutral party, I’ll put together a bea-u-ti-ful contract!
Amazoness CEO:
You…what…did you say…?
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty:Wait, please stop clutching your iron balls like that! We’re abruptly changing the flow of this conversation by too much!
Is there really no exception to that word around you!?
[On a situation-basis, no] / [The word itself is what’s dangerous]
Mrs. Cosmotic Beauty: What a pain. I have an inclination to mention that, as my goal is to spread that throughout the galaxy.
But I digress. I’ll use a different choice of words from now on.
Anyways…yes, allow me to make a contract high in BT (Beauty) points.
Sweet Witch:
You will? I’ll count on you then. We’re one step closer to our full galaxy piggy plan.
Amazoness CEO:
…Hm? That’s a strange point for our contract, and an objective I’m not too sure about, but it doesn’t matter so long as we have a consensus.
Ah, by the way. Do those pancakes provide a special type of nourishment?
If they do, then I hope you don’t mind if I place an order myself after this.
If I were to give them wholesale in our relaxation areas, then I believe our workers could replenish themselves.
Sweet Witch:Of course they do, just leave the order to me. I’ll prepare more helpings in no time flat.
[The Relaxation facilities get another dining area…] / [So long as the pancakes don’t get violent…]
Fou:
Fou…
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
~ Meanwhile ~
In the Relaxation area…
Medb:
…Well well.
Isn’t this a surprise!
My skin’s so slick and smooth…my body’s was already perfect and high-class, but I feel like it’s gained another rank with this stuff!
I’d never seen these beauty supplies before, and the detail pamphlet just says “Artorium seeps into your skin, and actives in minuscule amounts…”
I don’t get the boring stuff, so what matters is that it’s made me gorgeous.
Oh, c’mon, you gotta try it too! Especially since it’s free, and we have nothing to lose!
Scathach-Skadi:
No, I…
Medb:
I’ve long awaited another salon. I recommend we all use it. It’s an obligation, a duty.
I decided that good men can ride in my chariot with me, so it shouldn’t be that far-fetched to have them carry my luggage too.
Master’s trusting us, so there’s no helping this situation, but the compensation isn’t enough.
But now I should say that giving this to us is. It’s the duty of the beautiful to become even more beautiful.
Scathach-Skadi:
Regardless of how you may think about it, I am not very interested in it. It is pointless to me…
Medb:
Pointless? Pointless!?
That’s no good, Scathach! Don’t you get it? You just don’t know yourself enough!
It’s good that we can see that there’s a gap between us with that statement, but saying stuff like that is exactly why you should think about it more!
Like, being that way is no good! It pisses me off!
Scathach-Skadi:
Calm down. I do not care what you have to say about it. Ice cream is more important to me than that…
Medb:
If you want ice cream, then I’ll go and buy some for you! It’ll be after our trip to the salon. C’mon, c’mon!
Medb attempts to drag Skadi over to the salon…
Boudica:
You don’t have to force her to do that. Don’t you know that people think differently?
Medb:
Mgrr.
Tomoe Gozen:
She’s right, Medb-dono.
A woman’s talented at dancing gracefully with a fan, and also be well versed riding horseback in full armor.
Medb:
Mggrrrrrr.
Lakshimi:
Whew…not riding on horseback for so long has been extremely exhausting for me.
Yet, this feeling of fatigue is pleasant. Horseback riding is just as fun as I remember.
Qin Liangyu:
My sentiments exactly. Having a clear mind in a wide open field and having a full view of the horizon is such a great feeling.
Riding horseback makes you hungry though. How about we have some meat-manju and fill our stomachs…
Medb:
Mgggrrrrrrr---!
Alright, I know what to do! I’ll take the chance and bring all of you in with me.
All of you get ready, because I’m going to cram 1~10 treatments into all of you!
Lakshimi:
W-what? You’re all riled up.
Medb:
I’ve thought about this for a long time, but all of you have cast away way too much from being widowers---
You go, “After already having a husband, it’s fine not to care about beauty”, and fawn on the situation you’ve perceived.
To be honest, it’s really bothered me.
During our spare time, I think we should really immerse ourselves in the salon, and follow the example of how Kiyohime and Tamamo covet beauty.
Like how they say, “Fufu, now Master will lose to me and die…”. It’d be good to imitate their creepy meows too.
And also, after coming home after a noisy chariot or horseback ride, what’d you say you’d do first, have some meat-manju?
We’re not kids anymore. Looks before food.
And be a bit more feminine…ugh, come on! Your hair’s filled with dust clouds!
Boudica! Tomoe! Into the bath with everyone. I’ll need some aromatherapy for the salon too…
Alright, I’ve got this: I’ll act as teacher alongside everyone. We’ll start from scratch, and talk about skin care.
Lakshimi:
Actually, we’re not really keen on any of that, aside from taking baths.
Qin Liangyu:
Yeah. I don’t really care about the kind of effects that place will have.
Medb:
It’s because you’re soldier types.
How about this? The beauty of a woman’s body is also a weapon. And since it’s a weapon, you have to maintain it.
You’re all well versed in using swords, aren’t you? Am I wrong in saying you regularly sharpen them?
Maintain this weapon as you do the others!
A literal bolt of elucidation strikes Lakshimi and Liangyu!
Both of them:OH!!
Lakshimi:
I feel like…there was some wisdom in what she said…
Qin Liangyu:Yes, we’ve lost…through vigor…
Tomoe Gozen:
My heart only reverberates at your words!
To be blunt, I had not had a single substantial clue on what this salon thing was about, but from the emotions transmitted from the depths of Medb-dono’s heart, now I understand!
I have come to acknowledge that this one in front of me is a gallant warrior. Let us depart together!
Boudica:
Alright then. Instead of going to the salon with you, I think I’ll go take a bath though.
Scathach-Skadi: In for a penny, in for a pound then? ...Just don’t forget that you’d get ice cream for me later…
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ko-fi
submitted by PkFreezeAlpha to FGOGuide [link] [comments]


2020.01.23 14:02 orionrogers9 So, I spent the last few days reshaping this expansion pack idea and this is how it turned out. Sorry if any of it gets confusing, I did all of this at three a.m. with no sleep.

Relaxed Living - Expansion Pack
New Lot Type(s)
Retirement Home It would work similarly to how the Apartment/Dorm system work; all sims on this lot are elders (​ excluding the nurses) ​and would move around freely.
Resort/Hotel This would work similarly to how Restaurants/Vacations work; any playable sim can own a resort and any sim can stay there. If you build your own resort, you will be graded/reviewed on your service at the end of their stay.
Graveyard They would work similarly to how they work in real life; just a place for your sims to mourn loved ones that passed away.
New Trait(​s)
Absent-Minded Mental Absent-Minded Sims get lost in their thoughts and occasionally forget what they are doing, or where they are going.
What was I doing again? Moodlet every once in a while.​ (Action will be “cancelled” and the absent-minded sim will do something else)
Absent-Minded Sims prefer the kids channel over other channels. They will also turn off the TV even if other sims are watching it.
Absent-Minded Sims can’t multitask all that well and will take longer to learn/do something if they are distracted. That being said, they have a harder time in school than other children.
Workaholic Lifestyle Workaholic Sims love to work and rarely become tense from working. However, their mood suffers whenever they miss work, but will be able to make it up by working from home. Workaholics make the best employee
Workaholic Sims go to work with the “Work Hard” tone by default.
Workaholics become less tense when working hard, and recieve a positive moodlet when going to/at work. When they miss work, they receive a negative moodlet.
Workaholic child/teen Sims complete homework faster. Children/teens who recieve help from an adult with the workaholic trait will complete homework faster.
These Sims enjoy the history channel and will recieve a positive moodlet when watching the history channel.
Unbothered Lifestyle Unbothered Sims just can’t be bothered.
Unbothered Sims could care less about school projects, homework, or getting a promotion. They just want to live life to the ful... Okay, they just like eating snacks all day and winding down to music.
Unbothered Sims are often ever tense or in a bad mood. However, if someone is uncomfortable/tense/angry, they will get the ​“Bad Energy” negative moodlet.
Unbothered Sims learn skills slower than other sims because they just can’t be bothered to learn how to paint a realism painting.
They enjoy all channels and movies and never get bored.
New Hidden Trait(s)
Upper Class These Sims either have a home worth more than 50,000 simoleons or have at least 50,000 simoleons in their sim bank. (the thing that shows you how much money they have at the bottom of the screen)
Middle Class These Sims either have a home worth more than 25,000 simoleons or have at least 25,000 simoleons in their sim bank.
Lower Class These Sims either have a home worth more than 10,000 simoleons or have at least 10,000 simoleons in their sim bank.
New Aspiration(s) Gold Digger Aspiration​Romance A sim with this aspiration wants to marry a rich sim and take their money.
● Level One Objectives ○ Reach charisma level 3 ○ Befriend a rich sim ○ Go on three gold level dates with the rich sim. ● Level Two Objectives ○ Reach charisma level 5 ○ Become boyfriend or girlfriend of a Rich Sim ○ Host three gold level dinner parties ● Level Three Objectives ○ Reach charisma level 7 ○ Propose engagement to a rich sim ○ Get married to a rich sim. ● Level Four Objectives ○ Reach charisma level 10 ○ Outlast current spouse.
New Lot Trait(s)
Bug Infestation Sims will get a negative moodlet and will be uncomfortable until either they check out, or until a Sim takes care of it.
Classy Establishment Sims will get a positive moodlet and will be inspired until they check out.
Inexpensive Sims dining or staying at locations with this lot type will find that this location’s prices are really cheap.
New Occult Sim(s) Genie Lifespan is 2x a Sims Normal Lifespan. Genies would work similarly to the wishing well; some wishes go well and some wishes go bad.
Wishes NPC Genies can grant.
Wealth
If the wish goes well, the Sim will receive simoleons every day for five days
If the wish goes bad, the Sim will lose simoleons every day for five days or until the Sim doesn’t have any money to lose.
Romance
If the wish goes well, the Sim will gain a flirty moodlet for twenty-four sim hours and all romance interactions will succeed.
If the wish goes bad, the Sim who made the wish will gain an uncomfortable moodlet and all interactions will result in a lower relationship for two days.
Family
If the wish goes well, the Sim will gain a Super Fertility moodlet until they try for a baby. This will result in a higher chance of having twins/triplets.
If the wish goes bad, the Sim’s youngest child will be taken away by the social worker. If your Sim doesn’t have children then they will gain an Infertility moodlet for five days.
Life
○ If the wish goes well, the Sim will reset to the beginning of their current life stage. Vampires will be cured of their Vampirism.
If the wish goes bad, the Sim will age up immediately. If your Sim is an Elder, they will die from old age.
Knowledge
If the wish goes well, the Sims will receive a Big Brain moodlet for three days and will gain skills faster.
If the wish goes bad, all learned skills will be reset by the end of the day.
Free Genie
If your Sim has a negative relationship with the Genie, the Sim who made the wish will be trapped in the lamp for 24 sim hours and the Genie will become a homeless sim in the world.
If you have a positive relationship with the Genie, the Genie will just join your household.
Genies can be created in Create-A-Sim; this, however, means they can’t grant wishes anymore. They can boost the needs of nearby sims, clean the entire house, remove unwanted visitors from lots, can mind control a sim for several hours, and summon food of any quality (​ yes, even low-quality pufferfish)
Genies can be summoned through a magic lamp that can be found in build/buy mode, can be found while touring a mausoleum, and winning a fight against a ghost​ (rare).​
New Career(s)
Nurse This career would work similarly to the DoctoVet career. If an Elder sim dies at the Retirement Home, the family will receive a message from an NPC Nurse saying that their loved one has passed.
Slacker This career would work like other careers; you go to work and that’s it. This career would also be available to teens.
Mausoleum Clerk This is a part-time career that works like the other part-time careers; you go to work and that’s it. This career is also available to teens.
New Woohoo Spot(s) Woohoo in a Mausoleum. Yes, you can even try for a baby in a Mausoleum.
Other Thing(s) Once an elder sim dies, their money gets divided evenly to whatever children and grandchildren they have. A playable elder can decide who gets the money.
New World A residential world with six residential homes, a resort, a retirement home, a hotel, a graveyard, a library, a gym, and three empty lots. Its split up into four neighborhoods; like the other worlds.
The first neighborhood would have two residential homes, a hotel and an empty The lot dimensions for this neighborhood
20x15 - Residential Home. A playable genie would live in this house. She would have 3,000 simoleons whenever you load up the game. ○ 20x20 - Residential Home. An empty home for new sims to move in. ○ 30x20 - A last-minute hotel which isn’t all that nice, it’s got used appliances and a bug problem, but it’s super cheap. ○ 30x20 - Empty lot
The second neighborhood would have a graveyard, a residential home, an empty lot, and a library. The lot dimensions for this neighborhood
○ 30x20 - Residential Home. This lot would have a small middle-class family with a child on the way. ○ 40x30 - Graveyard. ○ 40x30 - Empty Lot ○ 30x20 - Library
The third neighborhood would have a retirement home, another residential home, an empty lot. The lot dimensions for this neighborhood
○ 40x30 - The retirement home. In the retirement home will be Premade Sims with room for extra. These sims will have families living throughout the world. ○ 40x30 - an empty lot ○ 40x40 - A residential home which would allow new Sims to move in.
The fourth and final neighborhood would have the resort, the empty lot, and two residential homes.
The lot dimensions for this neighborhood
○ 50x50 - The Resort ○ 40x40 - The first residential home with a premade family in them. ○ 40x30 - The empty lot. ○ 50x50- The second residential home that has no sims living in it.
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2019.11.13 21:57 MarleyEngvall ontological has been created

By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XXXIV. THE FALL OF SAMARIA. THE external glory of Israel was raised to its highest pitch by Jeroboam the Second; but its internal condi- tion already indicated its approaching dissolution. On that condition a sudden light is thrown from a new quarter. We have at last reached the point where the Prophetical spirit began to express itself, not only in action and speech, but in writing. It was in the king- dom of Judah that this development took place in its greatest force; but it took its rise in the kingdom of Is- rael, in which, so long as it lasted, the Prophets found their chief home and their chief mission. Amos and Hosea, both belong, by birth or by their sphere of action, to the northern kingdom. Some few glimpses, too, into the state of Israel are afforded by the great Isaiah, now just appearing as a young man in the neigh- boring kingdom of Judah. It is from these several prophetic documents that we arrive at a knowledge of the state of society in Israel, such as we have not obtained of any period since the time of David. Their whole tone is so true to nature, so descriptive of the sins of actual States and Churches, that when the preacher, who of all perhaps in modern times has most nearly resembled an ancient Prophet, wished to denounce the sins of Florence, he used the Prophets of this period as his textbook. Savonarola's sermons on Amos are almost like Amos himself come to life again. The foreign civilization of the house of Omri——the long depravation of the public worship from the time of Jeroboam the First——had produced their natural effect amongst the higher classes of society. One of the most widely spread vices was drunkenness in its most revolting forms. "Wine and new wine take "away the heart." "In the day of our King the "Princes have made him sick with skins of wine." This was the canker in the beauty of the most glorious scene in Palestine,——the luxuriant vale of Shechem, and the green hill of Samaria. The gross intoxication of the Israelite nobles and priests almost resembles that which unhappily prevailed amongst the English aris- tocracy and clergy in the last century. It extended even to the most sacred functionaries: "They have erred "through wine, and through strong drink are gone out "of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred "through strong drink, they are swallowed up by wine, "they are out of the way through strong drink; they "err in vision, they stumble in giving judgment, so that there is "no place clean." Even the monastic Nazarites were either required or forced against their vow to drink the forbidden wine. Great ladies, who are compared to the fat cows or heifers of Bashan, that feed on the rich mountain of Samaria, say to their lords, "Bring, and let "us drink." Out of this terrible vice sprang a brood of other yet more desolating sins,——licentiousness in all its forms, oppression of the poor, self-indulgent luxury, robbery and murder. To the eye of the Prophet "these it was, and nothing else, which he saw, "wherever he looked, whatever he heard,——swearing, "lying, killing, stealing, adultery," one stream of blood meeting another, "till they joined in one wide inun- "dation." Many of the details are preserved to us. Innocent debtors were bought and sold as slaves, even for the sake of possessing a pair of costly sandals. The very dust which they threw on their heads as a sign of mourning was grudged to them. The large cloaks which were their only wrappers were used for the couches of the hard-hearted creditors. Strict as was still the profession of religion,——holy days, offerings, tithes, sabbaths faithfully observed——Priests, Prophets, Naza- rites highly honored——sacred ephod and image duly reverenced,——yet even in the very Temple of Bethel the luxurious, listless revelry was carried on; pilgrims coming to the sacred places at Mizpeh and Gilead be- yond the Jordan, or to Tabor and Shechem, in the heart of the kingdom, were attacked by bands of robbers, often headed by the Priests themselves. Even the "Jewish" craft, as we deem it in modern times, appeared in the readiness with which religious festivals were pressed into the service of hard bargains. The calf was still wor- shipped, as the sign of the True God, at Dan and Bethel, but the darker idolatries of Phœnicia, author- ized there also under Ahab, had been never entirely uprooted. The Temple of Ashtaroth still remained in Samaria. Baal was a familiar name throughout the country. Licentious rites were practiced in the groves and on the hill-tops. The ancient sanctuary at Gilgal was at once a seat of constant pilgrimage, surrounded by altars, and yet also a centre of wide-spread heathen abominations. As the rise of the house of Jehu had been ushered in by Prophetic voices, so was its doom. As in the struggles of the earlier Jeroboam, so in the splendor of the second Jeroboam, a Prophet from Judah came to denounce the crimes of Israel. He was of no Prophetic school, with no regular Prophetic gifts,—— one of the shepherds who frequented the wild uplands near Tekoa, and who combined with his pastoral life the care of the sycamores in the neighboring gardens. He was, as has been well said, "a "child of nature." The imagery of his visions is full of his country life, whether in Judea or Ephraim. The locusts in the royal meadows, the baskets of fruit, vine- yards and fig-trees, the herds of cows rushing heed- lessly along the hills of Samaria, the shepherds fight- ing with the lions for their prey, the lion and the bear, the heavy-laden wagon, the sifting of corn,——these are his figures. He was not a poet, so much as an orator. His addresses are poetical, not fro rhythm, but from the sheer force and pathos of his diction. He appears on the hills of Samaria to denounce the luxu- rious nobles. He appears in the very sanctuary of Bethel, like Iddo, to predict the violent death of the royal house, if not of the King,——the fall of the king- dom, the fall of the sacred altar. It was not now, as formerly, the King who confronted the Prophet. It was the chief priest Amaziah, who sent to the King to inform him of the new-comer, and himself warned him off the sacred royal precincts. He was living there with his wife, his sons and his daughters, and on them Amos turned the curse which he had before called down on the nation. Such an apparition may well have roused the anger and the alarm of the easy revellers "who put far away the evil day." "The "land could not bear those piercing moral invec- tives——that cry then first uttered, a hundred times repeated since, "Prepare to meet thy God." Whether or not we attach any credence to the tradition, that he was beaten and wounded by the indignant hierarchy of Bethel, and carried back half-dead to his native place, it is the fate which such a rough plain-spoken preacher would naturally invite, and it would almost seem as if faint allusions to it transpire in more than one place in the New Testament. Well had he said, in the bitterness of his heart, "The prudent shall keep "silence in that time, for it is an evil time." The calamities which Amos described or invoked, gathered faster over the devoted kingdom. The great physical disasters, which we shall have to consider more at length in their relation to Judah, had also extended to Israel. The visitation of locusts, which passed over the south, also reached to the gardens and vineyards, the fig-trees and olive-trees of Samaria. Their corn and wine failed; blasting and mildew smote them; drought and famine fell upon them. Rain was withholden in the early spring, or fell partially only on one city; so that the inhabitants of two or three cities crowded to one for the sake of water. The pastures of the shepherds were dried up, and the woods of Carmel withered. The plague, so common in Egypt, so rare in Palestine, sprang up, amidst the festering carcasses (whether as cause or effect) of the dead men and dead horses which lay around, as after a terrible carnage. The celebrated earthquake which shook the Temple of Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives in the reign of Uzziah was heard and felt throughout Palestine, with its altar and its pillars, the ivory palaces of Jezreel and Samaria, "are smitten," "shake," "fall," and "perish, and come to an end." There were three nearly total eclipses during this period. One of these was visible in Palestine, in the year B.C. 771, on the 8th of November, at five minutes before one P.M. This may have been sufficient to have attracted the attention of the Prophet: "I will cause the sun "to go down at noon, and I will darken the earth in "the clear day." But these were forerunners of a still more fearful calamity. Now, for the first time, appeared on the Easter horizon that great power which for a hundred years was the scourge of Asia. The ancient empire of Assyria, possibly repressed for the time by the dominion of Solomon, rose on its fall, and was henceforth intermingled with all the good and evil for- tunes of the kingdom of Israel. Already in the reign of Jehu her influence began to be felt. His name is to be read on the black obelisk which records the tributes offered to Shalmaneser I. in the form of gold and silver, and articles manufactured in gold. The destruction of Damascus by Jeroboam II. brought the two powers of Israel and Assyria into close contact; there was now no intervening kingdom to act as a breakwater. Long before its actual irruption, the rise of the new power is noted by the Prophets. Jonah had already traversed the desert, and seen "that great "Nineveh." Amos had already, though without naming it, foretold that a people should arise which should crush the powerful empire of Jeroboam from end to end, and sees the nations one by one swept into cap- tivity. Hosea brings out the danger more definitely, sometimes naming it, sometimes speaking of it only under the form of the "contentious king." The wake- ful ear of Isaiah catches the sound of the irresistible advance of the Assyrian armies; their savage warfare, their strange language, the speed of their march, their indefatigable energy, "their arrows sharp, their bows "bent, their horses hoofs like flint, and their chariots "like a whirlwind." In the midst of these dark misfortunes and darker terrors, the dynasty of Jehu came to its end. The curse of Amos was fulfilled, though not on the King himself. The great Jeroboam died in peace, and was buried in royal state. But his son was the last regular occupant of the throne of Israel. There was, as it would seem, a revel prepared for him by the nobles. They were kept up to the mark as of a burning fever by some one powerful plotter, who is compared to a baker heating and stirring the oven. They drug the unhappy prince with wine till he is sick with drunkenness, and joins freely in their de- bauchery. Then in the morning the conspiracy breaks out, and the King is slain. The year of Zachariah's death was probably the year of the great eclipse already mentioned. The time at which he died was known as "that in which the kings "fell," and apparently also as the month in which "the three shepherds were smitten." From that moment the kingdom was occupied by a rapid suc- cession of fierce soldiers, who reigned for the next fifty years, leaving little but their names behind. The "military despotism," which had characterized the kingdom of Israel more or less even from the time of Saul, now held unbridled and undivided sway. Zachariah was, it would seem, succeeded by a king whose very name is almost lost to us, Kobolam, and Kobolam was succeeded by Shallum. The troubled monarchy settled down for a time under Menahem and his son Pekahiah, till he too perished, in the midst of his harem, by the hand of Pekah. By this time the Assyrian conquerors broke upon the country; and the struggles of the various states of Western Asia, in their agony to escape from this overwhelming enemy, became more and more complicated, as the danger drew nearer and nearer. In the presence of this threatened destruction, the long feud between Israel and Damascus was reconciled. An adventurer who had placed himself on the throne of Syria combined with Pekah to defend themselves against Assyria by attacking Judah. The effect of this alliance, as regards the kingdom of Israel, was but to hasten its doom. In a few short years it was broken up. Tiglath-Pileser, the Assyrian king, whose predecessor, Pul had been satisfied with the tribute from Menahem, descended upon the allied kingdoms. The kingdom of Damascus was now finally extin- guished, and its inhabitants carried off to Kir, an un- known Eastern spot, the cradle, and now the grave, of that proud Aramaic nation. And now the first great rent was made in the king- dom of Israel. The trans-Jordanic tribes had long hung but loosely on its skirts. Uzziah, King of Judah, had of late acquired royal pasturages in the downs of Gilead. But now they were to lose even this protection. We see little of their last expiring struggles. But their wild history ends, as it had begun, in bloodshed and violence: "Gilead was a city of evil- "doers, polluted with blood." Now for the first time, just in the very crisis of their own fate, they were in possession of the throne. Menahem and Pekahiah were, perhaps from the tribe of Gad, and they carried with them the savage customs which they had learned, es- pecially from the ferocious wars of Syria and Ammon, in their own trans-Jordanic districts. Pekah, who ver- threw this dynasty, was himself also probably from the same region. At least, his fifty companions i the con- spiracy were from Gilead, and two of them bore names which carry us back to the earliest days of those pas- toral regions: Argob, from the fastness of Bashan,—— Arieh, "the Lion-like," from those Gadite chiefs of old, whose faces "were as the faces of lions,"——remnants, it may be, of the original guards of David. Of one or other of these pastoral kings, the unknown Prophet, whose flickering light alone guides us through these stormy times, speaks as of the careless and rapacious shepherd who neglects the flock, and grasps only at the flesh of the fat. Of one or other too, as the fall of the dynasty approaches, he bursts forth into the cry which afterwards became proverbial, but which had a peculiar fitness to those nomadic chiefs: "Awake, O sword, "against My shepherd . . . smite the shepherd, and the "sheep shall be scattered." Nothing now intervened to save from the destroying armies those outlying portions of the dominions of Israel. The gates of Lebanon were thrown wide open ——the forests of Bashan howled in their anguish, as the destroyer swept through them, and their cry of distress was echoed back by the shepherds in their oaken glades and by the lions startled in their lairs down in the deep recesses of the Jordan valley. Then fell the grievous affliction on "the land of Zeb- "ulun and the land of Naphtali," "the Sea of Galilee "and beyond Jordan"——a darkness only to be lit up by a distant gleam, seen far off by Prophetic eyes. Then the hostile Ammonites, long warded off, rushed into the vacant space, and the cry went up "Hath "Israel no sons? Hath he no heir? Why doth Molech inherit Gad, and his people dwell in his cities?" "Feed them"——so the last reminiscence of their pas- toral state expresses itself——"feed them; guide them "like a flock of their own sheep, in Bashan and in Gilead, "as in the days of old." Pekah was now left with a mere fragment of the ancient kingdom. With that terrible succession of royal murders, so forcibly described as "blood touching blood," he fell before a conspiracy, a band of conspirators, of whom the chief Hoshea, formerly one of his own adherents, mounted the throne. Rival factions, like those which divided Jerusalem in its last siege, troubled also the last days of Samaria: the old feud between Ephraim and Manasseh, which had in the time of Jephthah given birth to the symbol of all party watchwords, broke out afresh——Ephraim devoured Manasseh, and Manasseh devoured Ephraim. Better than his predecessors, ——like Josiah, in like case, in Judah,——Hoshea came too late to re- deem the fortunes of his country. At first the vassal of Assyria, he took advantage of the Tyrian war to throw off Shallmaneser's yoke, and began that sys- tem of alliances with Egypt, which from that time for- ward was the last desperate resource of the nations of Western Asia against the encroachment of Assyria. It might have seemed as if the old alliance with Egypt, which had set the founder of the northern kingdom on his throne, would support his last successor. But it was too late. Sargon, the Assyrian king or general, de- scended on the country. Hoshea was carried off as a hostage for the payment of the tribute. It was a sud- den disappearance, "like foam upon the water." Then the Assyrian armies poured into the country. A struggle took place in Galilee——perhaps in the fatal field of Jezreel, perhaps in the deep glen of Beth-arbel, where, as afterwards in the time of Josephus, the Israelite population took refuge in the caves in the precipitous cliffs, and mothers and children were dashed down to the valley be- neath. The siege of Samaria followed. With- out their king, the people stood at bay for three years, as in the final siege of Jerusalem. As the end drew near, they gave themselves up to frantic revel- lings of despair. At last the city was stormed. With the ferocity common to all warfare of those times, the infants were hurled down the rocky sides of the hill on which the city stood, or destroyed in their mothers' bosoms. Famine and pestilence completed the work of war. The stones of the ruined city were poured into the rich valley below, and the foun- dations were laid bare. Palace and hovel alike fell; the statues were broken to pieces; the crown of pride, the glory of Ephraim, was trodden under foot. In the midst of this wild catastrophe, the voices of the Prophets rise, alternately in lamentation an con- solation. From the prophets of Israel——from the seven thousand of Elijah's vision——two voices especially make themselves heard above the rest. One is the author of the 80th Psalm. The Divine protection is invoked un- der the figure that the unknown Prophet of the period had so often used: "O Thou that art the Shepherd "of Israel, give ear; Thou that leadest Joseph like a "sheep." There is no mention of Judah——only the days are recalled in which the Ark marched in the wilderness before the three great kindred "tribes of "Ephraim, Benjamin, Manasseh." That goodly vine of the house of Joseph, which hung over the valley of Shechem, which had been twice over brought from Egypt——which cast its shade on the mountains of Geri- zim, and spread its branches to the sea, visible from those very heights, and its boughs across the Jordan to the distant Euphrates——was now trodden down. The wild Assyrian boar had trampled it under foot; it was burnt with fire: "O God of Hosts, turn and visit this "vine, which Thy right hand hath planted the branch "that Thou madest so strong for Thyself." Often has this Psalm ministered to the encouragement of broken hopes, but never so fitly as in this its first application. The Prophet Hosea is the only individual character that sounds out amidst the darkness of this period,——the Jeremiah, as he may be called, of Israel. His life had extended over nearly the whole of the last century of the northern kingdom. In early youth, whilst the great Jeroboam was still on the throne, he had been called to the Prophetic office. In his own personal history, he shared in the misery brought on his country by the profligacy of the age. In early youth, he had been united in marriage with a woman who had fallen into the vices which surrounded her. He had loved her with a tender love; she had borne him two sons and a daughter: she had then deserted him, wan- dered from her home, fallen again into wild licentious- ness, and been carried off as a slave. From this wretched state, with all the tenderness of his nature, he bought her, and gave her one more chance of recovery by living with him, though apart. No one who has observed the manner in which individual experience often colors the general religious doctrine of a gifted teacher, can be surprised at the close connection which exists between the life of Hosea and the mission to which he was called. In his own grief for his own great calamity,——the greatest that can befall a tender human soul,——he was taught to feel for the Divine grief over the lost opportunities of the nation once so full of hop. It is, as it has been beautifully described, a succession of sighs,——a Prophetic voice from the depth of human misery: "The words of upbraiding, of judgment, of woe, "burst out one by one, slowly, heavily, condensed, "abrupt, from the Prophet's heavy and shrinking soul, ". . . as though each sentence burst with a groan from "his heart, and he had anew to take breath, before he "uttered each repeated woe. Each verse forms a whole "for itself, like one heavy toll in a funeral knell." But in his own love no less he was taught to see, first of any of the Prophets of the Old Dispensation, the power of the forgiving love of God. Even the names of his children were intended to signify——one, the condemna- tion of Jehu's massacres; the two others, the extension of the Holy Land and the Divine Mercy, beyond the limits of Israel. "Come, and let us return unto the "LORD, for He hath torn and will heal us, hath smitten "and will bind us up. After two days He will revive "us; on the third day, He will raise us up, and we shall "live in His sight." He goes back to the early history of his own northern tribes, when they were still loved as children——fresh from Egypt——taken by their little arms, all unconscious——drawn "with the cords of a "man, with bands of love." Then comes the burst of sorrow over their fall: "How shall I give thee up, O Ephraim! how shall I deliver thee, O Israel! how shall "I make thee as Admah! how shall I set thee as Ze- "boim! My heart is turned within Me, My strong "compassions are kindled. I will not execute the fierce- "ness of My anger; I will not return to destroy Ephraim; "for I am God, and not man; the Holy One in the "midst of thee." Even from the grave the dead nation shall start to life. It shall blossom and burgeon with all the prodigality of the rich vegetation of its own northern forests; like the gorgeous lilies of Galilee, like the cedars of Lebanon, with their gnarled roots, and spreading branches, and delicious fragrance. Ephraim shall say, "What have I to do any more there with "idols?" And the Divine answer shall be, "I have "heard him and observed him." Ephraim shall say, "I "am like a green cypress-tree." And the answer shall be, "From Me is thy fruit found." From Judah these strains are echoed, more faintly but still distinctly enough to show that the anguish of the rent was felt there also. The Prophet Jeremiah is not so lost in the misfortunes of Jerusalem, but that he has an ear for the earlier fall of Israel. He hears a voice from the confines of Benjamin, from the height of Ramah, lamentation and bitter weep- ing. It is Rachel, the mother of the three mighty tribes of the north, the house of Joseph and the house of Benjamin; weeping as she looks over the desolate country, weeping for her children, and refusing to be comforted because they are not. He bids her wipe away her ears, "for there is hope in thine end, that "thy children shall come again into their own border." He hears a bemoaning, a plaintive lowing as of a power- ful beast struggling with his captors. It is Ephraim, the mighty bull of the northern tribes: "Thou hast chastised "me, and I was chastised, as a bullock unaccustomed to "the yoke. Turn Thou me, ad I shall be turned, for "Thou art the Lord my God." And the haughty Son no less than the mournful Mother, here is a tender reply: "Is Ephraim My dear son? is he a pleasant "child? for since I spake against him, I do earnestly re- "member him still; therefore My heart is troubled for "him; I will surely have mercy upon him." And to the Prophet's vision, the valleys of Samaria and Shechem again are clothed with vineyards, and resound with "tabrets and the dances of them that make merry," "old and young together." The hope of Jeremiah and of Hosea, like many others of lofty hopes of the world and of the Church, has been fulfilled rather in the spirit that in the letter. In spite of these predictions "the ten tribes were never "restored; they never, as a whole, received any favor "from God after they went into captivity." Many seem to have fled into Egypt, which, though unable to help the falling kingdom, received its fugitives. But of this migration we have no particulars. The general history of the tribes divides itself henceforward into two unequal streams. The main body of the inhabitants were transplanted to the remotest provinces of the Assyrian em- pire. The first generation of the exiles lived to see the fall of their conquerors. The suddenness, the totality of the ruin of Nineveh has been preserved from oblivion chiefly through the predictions or the descrip- tion of Nahum the Elkoshite. He was, we can hardly doubt, the last of the great series of Israelitish Prophets, whether we suppose that his birth- place was in Galilee, or the Assyrian village of that name; whether we suppose that he was amongst the captives in Assyria, or had taken refuge in Judah. There s something pathetic in the thought that the crash of these mighty cities, Thebes in the far south and Nineveh in the far east, is known to us through the triumphant cry of this solitary exile. It is one sustained shout of wild exultation that the oppressor has fallen at last. The naked discrowned corpse of the glorious city is cast out to the scorn and disgust of the world. No spark of pity mingles with the Prophet's delight. "All "that hear the report of thee shall clap their hands at "thee, for upon whom did not thy wickedness con- "tinually pass?" The lion's lair is at last laid waste, where the lion, and the lioness, and the lion's whelp once walked without fear. In this storm of indignation and vengeance, the spirit of Prophecy in the northern kingdom breathes its last. Under this doom, Nineveh vanishes from view, to be no more seen till in our day the discovery of her buried remains has given new life to the whole of this portion of sacred history, and not least to the magnificent dirge of Nahum. Of him we know no more. Tradition rejoices to trace to his in- fluence the rise of the great Zoroaster. His Reputed tomb hard by the ruins of Nineveh is still visited by hundreds of Christian and Jewish pilgrims. But side by side with this stern representative of the fire and energy of Elijah lingers a faint trace of the tender scenes of the Galilean valleys, of the milder spirit of Elisha and Hosea. The Book of Tobit is, doubtless, of far later date in the history than the point at which we are now arrived, and it hardly pretends to be more than a religious historical fiction. But it was reckoned amongst the Prophetical books by Nestorius, and amongst the books of inspired Scripture by the Homilies of the English Church; was the especial admiration of Luther, and has often consoled the Chris- tian sufferer by the same topics that cheered the griefs of the Israelite captive. Its doctrine and details must be reserved to the time when it came into existence. But its portraiture of the domestic life of the exiles, the exultation at the connection of Tobit's house wit the great sanctuary of Kedesh Naphtali, the longing regard for their own country, and "the rejoicing" over the fall of Nineveh——carry us back to the age in which the story is laid, amongst the funerals, and wedding- feasts, and parental anxieties, and cousinly loves, and the patriotic philanthropy of the "good" father of the "good" son, in the first generation of Israelite cap- tives. After this it is difficult to discover any distinct trace of the northern tribes. Some returned with their countrymen of the southern kingdom. In the New Testament, there is special mention of the tribe of Asher, and the ten tribes generally are on three emphatic occasions ranked with the others. The im- mense Jewish population which made Babylonia a second Palestine was in part derived from them; and the Jewish customs that have been discovered in the Nestorian Christians, with the traditions of the sect itself, may indicate at any rate a mixture of Jewish de- scent. That they are concealed in some unknown region of the earth is a fable with no foundation either in history or prophecy. There is, however, another doubtful remnant of the northern kingdom, which has clung to its original seat with a tenacity exceeding even that of the tribe of Judah itself. The full history of the Samaritan sect belongs to a later period. But its origin dates from the first moment of desolation. Then took place that union, in whatever proportions it may have been, between the remnant of the old Israelite inhabitants and the Cuthæan colonists transplanted from Central Asia, which alone can account for the singular position, neither Jewish nor Gentile, which the Sama- ritans have occupied ever since. In the inroad of the lions of the Jordan valley, through the tangled and deserted forests of Samaria, these foreign settlers saw a divine judgment on their alien rites, and though these rites lingered for two or three generations, they soon gave way to the traditions received from the Ephraimite or Benjamite priest, who revived for the last time that ancient sanctuary of Bethel, and from the poorer classes, who remained in the country after the court and aristocracy had been carried off. In the deep-rooted inveterate feud between the Jews and Samaritans, surviving even to our own time, but with a world-renowned bitterness at the time of the Chris- tian era, we see a later outbreak of the fiery rivalry which burnt between the kingdoms of Rehoboam and Jeroboam. In the congenial kindness with which He who was Himself called in scorn a "Samaritan" at- tracted and was attracted by this despised sect; His gracious words to the Samaritan village——to the Sa- maritan woman——to the Samaritan leper——concerning the Samaritan traveller——we read a continuation of the same lesson which is suggested by the whole course of the history which we have been studying. The kindly feeling towards Ephraim, Gerizim, Sama- ria, is Biblical sanction of the truth im- pressed upon us by all sound ecclesiastical history, that the grace of God overflows the boundaries within which we should naturally suppose that it would be confined. The kingdom of Judah had, as we shall see, the sanctuary and the sacred ritual. "The Jews knew what they worshipped;" and in the fullest sense "the salvation" of the nation came from them. But this did not prevent the growth of the series of Prophets within the kingdom of Samaria, and throughout their teaching there is hardly a word to show that they laid any stress on the duty of conform- ing to the ritual of Judah. There is, indeed, a modern tradition that the travellers described by Hosea were pilgrims in Jerusalem. But of this there is no trace in the original text. The moral evils, the sensual idola- tries of Samaria, are attacked with no sparing hand, but hardly ever the sin of outward separation. Both kingdoms are impartially denounced; neither is by de- liberate comparison placed above the other. The soil of the kingdom of Israel was as precious to distant pilgrims as the soil of Judea. The capital of Omri was saved by as direct an intervention of Providence as ever rescued the capital of David. In the life of Elijah a later Jewish tradition maintains that the rebuke which he addressed to Ahab was the first verse of the 76th Psalm: "In Judah is God known." But this, though it is what much of modern Judaism and modern Christianity would require of him, is not the record of the ancient Scriptures. His rebuke to Ahab, as we have seen, was grounded on a far deeper basis. The question of the schism of Judah and Israel was one which he never for a moment stirred. The position of this greatest of the Prophets, living entirely apart from the authorized sanctuary of Judah, has been described with a thrilling sympathy in a remarkable sermon, preached more than twenty years ago by one who was struggling, with all the energy of a large and generous heart, to keep his balance in what he believed to be a schismatical and almost heretical Church. Elijah made no effort to set right what had gone so wrong; he paid no honor to the regular service of the Mosaic ritual; he never went on yearly pilgrimage; in the one instance in which he is found in the kingdom of Judah, "he "passed over Jerusalem, he went on to Beersheba"—— he passed on along a forlorn "and barren way into "that old desert where the children of Israel had wan- "dered to Horeb the mount of God." His mission and that of his successor was to make the best of what they found; "not bring back a rule of religion that "had passed away," but to dwell on the Moral Law, which could be fulfilled everywhere; not on the Cere- monial Law, which circumstances seem to have put out of their reach: "not sending the Shunammite to Jerusalem, nor eager for a proselyte in Naaman, yet "making the heathen fear the name of God, and prov- "ing to them that there was a Prophet in Israel." When our hearts glow with admiration for the splen- did character of Elijah, or in sympathy with the tender- ness of Hosea, we are responding to the call of Him who bids us to do justice and mercy even to those to whom, on theological or ecclesiastical grounds, we are most opposed; and recognize that the goodness which we approve was found, not in the Priest or the Levite, but in the heretical, schismatical, Samaritan. The history of Judah will have other and equally important lessons to teach us; but the history of Samaria, the very names of Samaria and Samaritan, carry with them the savor of this great Evangelical doctrine. The Prophets of Judah looked forward to a blessed time when Ephraim should not envy Judah, and Judah should not vex Ephraim. The Prophets of Israel, and He who, like them, dwelt not in Judea but in Galilee, "whence no good thing could come," and in Samaria, "with which the Jews had no deal- "ings," were incontestable witnesses that such a hope was not impossible. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From Samuel to the Captivity, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 396 - 418
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By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. THE PERSIAN DOMINION. ——•—— CYRUS, B.C. 560. Fall of Babylon, B.C. 538. The Return, B.C. 536. CAMBYSES, B.C. 529. DARIUS I., B.C. 522. Completion of the Temple, B.C. 516. XERXES, B.C. 485. Story of Esther, B.C. 480-490? ARTAXERXES, B.C. 465. Coming of Ezra, B.C. 459. Coming of Nehemiah, B.C. 415. Secession of Manasseh, B.C. 419. Malachi, B.C. 400? LECTURE XLIII. THE RETURN. ——•—— SPECIAL AUTHORITIES. (1) Isaiah xl.-lxvi. (2) Ezra i.-vi. (3) Psalms cvii.-cl. (4) Haggai. (5) Zechariah i.-viii. TRADITIONS. 1 Esdras ii.-vii. Josephus Ant. xi. 1-4. Seder Olam, pp. 107, 108 (with comments of Derembourg, Histoire de la Palestine, pp. 19, 20, 21). THE PERSIAN DOMINION. ——•—— LECTURE XLIII. THE RETURN. THE RETURN from the Captivity opens the final era of the history of the Jewish Church and Nation. That any nation should have survived such a dislocation and dissolution of all local and social bonds is almost with- out example. But as in the case of the Greek race centuries of foreign dominion have been unable to eradicate the memory of their distant glory, so in the case of the Israelites, their transplantation to another country was unable to efface the religious aspiration which was the bond of their national coherence. The other Semitic tribes, Moab, Ammon, Edom, felt that with the loss of their home they would lose all. Israel alone survived. The Restoration was an event which, unlikely and remote as it might have seemed, was deemed almost a certainty in the expectations of the exiles. The con- fidence of Jeremiah and Ezekiel never flagged that within two generations from the beginning of the Cap- tivity their countrymen would return. The patriotic sentiment, which had existed as it were unconsciously before, found its first definite expression at this period. The keen sense as of personal anguish at the overthrow of Jerusalem poured forth in the Lamentations—the touching cry, "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, may "my right hand forget herself"—the clinging to the remembrance of the very dust and stones of Jerusalem,— the earnest supplication for the Holy Nation and the Holy City, kept alive the flame which from this time never died till it was extinguished under the ruins of their country in the final overthrow by Titus. And when the day at last arrived which was to see their expectations fulfilled, the burst of joy was such as has no parallel in the sacred volume; it is in- deed the Revival, the Second Birth, the Second Exodus of the nation. There was now "a new song," of which the burden was that the Eternal again reigned over the earth, and that the gigantic idolatries which sur- rounded them had received a deadly shock; that the waters of oppression had rolled back in which they had been struggling like drowning men; that the snare was broken in which they had been entangled like a caged bird. It was like a dream, too good to be true. The gayety, the laughter of their poetry, resounded far and wide. The surrounding nations could not but confess what great things had been done for them. It was like the sudden rush of the waters into the dry torrent-beds of the south of Palestine, or of the yet extremer south, of which they may have heard, in far Ethiopia. It was like the reaper bearing on his shoulder the golden sheaves in summer which he had sown amongst the tears of winter. So full were their hearts, that all nature was called to join in their thankfulness. The vast rivers of their new Mesopotamian home, and the waves of the Indian Ocean, are to take part in the chorus, and clap their foaming crests like living hands. The mountains of their own native lad are invited to express their joy; each tree in the forests that clothed the hills, or that cast their shade over the field, is to have a tongue for the occasion. In accordance with these strains of the Psalmists there was the Prophetic announcement of the beginning of the new epoch in words which, whilst they vibrate with a force beyond their own time, derive their original strength from the circumstances of their first utterance, and which gave to their unknown author, who thus "comforted them that "mourned in Sion," the name of the Prophet of glad tidings. "Comfort ye, my people, saith your God. "Speak unto Jerusalem that her warfare is accom- "plished, the her iniquity is pardoned, for she hath "received at God's hand the double for all her woe." "A voice cries, Through the wilderness prepare the "way of the Eternal, make smooth in the desert a "highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted, "every mountain and hill shall be made low, and the "crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places "plain, and the glory of the Eternal shall be revealed, "and all flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of "the Eternal hath spoken it." That opening strain of the Prophet, so full of the great Evangelical truth,—Evangelical in its literal sense and true to the depths of human nature,—that nations and individuals alike can leave their past be- hind them, and start afresh in the race of duty; so im- pressive from its peculiar historical significance as the key-note of the new period of Asiatic and European history; so striking in the imagery with which it figures that Divine progress—demanding for its ap- proach and preparation the reduction of pride, the ex- altation of humility, the simplification of the tortuous, the softening of the angular and harsh—was heard in part once again when long afterwards in the wild thickets of the Jordan a voice was raised inaugurating another new epoch, and preparing the way for another vaster revolution in nations and in churches. But nevertheless the whole expression of the exhortation breathes the atmosphere of the moment when it was first delivered—the sense of the expected deliverance at last come—the heart of an oppressed people again breathing freely—the long prospect of the journey yet before them, through the trackless desert—all irra- diated with the hope that no wilderness would be too arid, no hill too high, no ravine too deep for the Di- vine Providence to surmount. Another utterance of the same Prophet is still more directly fitted to the emergency of his own time, though still more sacredly associated with the mighty future. "The Spirit of the Lord God rests upon me, "because the Eternal hath anointed me to preach good "tidings unto the suffering, He hath sent me to bind "up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the "captives, and the opening of the prison to them that "are bound; to proclaim the acceptable year of the "Eternal." It was five centuries onwards that in the synagogue of a hitherto unknown Jewish village the scroll which contained the writings which by that time were all comprised under the one name of the Prophet Isaiah was handed to a young Teacher, who unfolded the roll and found the place where it was thus written. He closed the book at the point where the special appli- cation to the Israelite exiles began. He fixed the at- tention of His audience only on these larger words which enabled Him to say to all those whose eyes were fastened on His gracious countenance, "This day is this "Scripture fulfilled in your ears." But the original fulfilment of the consolation was that contemplated by Prophet who saw before him the exiles depart in their holiday attire for their homeward journey; des- tined to strike root again like the sturdy ilex of their native country, and carry on the righteous work for which alone home and freedom are worth possessing. His mission was to comfort all that mourn, to appoint "unto them that mourn in Zion, to give them beauty "for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning, the garment of "praise for the spirit of heaviness, that they might be "called the terebinths of righteousness, the planting "of the Eternal, that He might be glorified." Such is the ideal of the Return; nor is it unworthy of the mighty issues which ultimately hung on that event. Although the actual event seems small and homely, yet that very home- liness indicates one of the main characteristics of the epoch on which we have entered. Unlike the first Ex- odus, this second Exodus was effected not by any sudden effort of the nation itself, nor by any interposition of signs and wonders, but by the complex order of Provi- dence, in which the Prophet thus bids his peo- ple see an intervention no less Divine than that which had released them from Egypt. "Wheel within "wheel" was the intricate machinery which Ezekiel had seen in his visions on the Chebar; but not the less was a spirit as of a living creature within the wheels. The document that inaugurates the new era is not the word of Jewish lawgiver or prophet or priest, but the decree of a heathen king. "Now in "the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word "of Jehovah by Jeremiah might be fulfilled, Jehovah "stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he "made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom and "put it in writing." It is difficult not to suppose that the language of the decree is colored by the Hebrew medium through which it passes, but in tone and spirit it resembles those which have been fond inscribed on the Persian monu- ments; and if Ormuzd be substituted for Jehovah, and "the Creator of the earth, the heavens, and man- "kinfd," for the single form of "the Creator of earth," there is nothing impossible in the thought that we have the very words of the decree itself. But at any rate it stands as the guiding cause of the liberation, and stamps itself as the turning-point of the whole sub- sequent history. Before this time the people of Israel had been an independent nation; from this moment it is merged in the fortunes of the great Gentile Empires. There are three successive periods through which it has to pass, and each will derive its outward form and press- ure from an external power. Of these the first is the Persian. Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes were henceforth for two hundred years to exercise the in- fluence which in earlier times had been exercised by the Princes and Kings of Israel. The year hencefor- ward is dated from the accession of the Persian Kings as afterwards of the Rulers of Antioch and of Rome. We shall hereafter trace some direct effects of this connection on the religious condition of the people. It is enough for the present to remark that the community which returned under these circumstances was no longer a nation in the full sense of that word, and thenceforth had to eke out that inestimable element by its connec- tion with the powerful monarchies with which it was brought into contact. But this very change was trans- figured in the language of the great contemporary Prophet into the vision which has never since died out of the hopes of mankind, that the wide course of human history, the mighty powers of the earth, instead of standing, as hitherto, apart from the course of religion and progress, would combine with that hitherto isolated movement. "Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and "the glory of the Eternal is risen upon thee. The "nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the "brightness of thy rising. Thou shalt suck the milk of "the nations, and shalt suck the breast of kings." "Kings shall be thy nursing fathers and queens thy "nursing mothers." "The nation shall see thy right- "eousness and all kings thy glory." Doubtless the real fell far short of the ideal, as in the actual Return, so in the actual Cyrus. But the fact which enkindled those hopes, and those hopes them- selves, have lent a framework to the noblest aspirations of humanity: they are the same as Plato expressed in the well-known saying, that the world would not be happy till either philosophers became kings, or kings became philosophers—the same as the last seer of the Jewish race expressed in the cry, "The kingdoms of "this world are become the kingdoms of the Lord and "of his Anointed." It is evident that the return was not that of the whole of the exiles. Those who had been trans- planted from the north of Palestine in the As- syrian captivity never returned at all, or only in small numbers. Those who had been trans- ported to Babylon and became settlers, as we have seen, in those rich plains and in that splendid city, were many of them contented to remain—some holding high places in the Persian court, though still keeping up communication with their brethren in Palestine, some permanently becoming the members of that great Babylonian colony of Jews which caused Mesopotamia to become as it were a second Holy Land, and round which were planted the tombs, real or supposed, of the three great Jewish saints of this epoch—Ezekiel, Dan- iel, and one who is yet to come, Ezra. Still, there were some both of the highest and the lowest of the settlement who listened to the call alike of their inspiring Prophet and of their beneficent ruler; and we can discern the chief elements which constituted the seed of the rising community. The whole caravan consisted of 42,000; besides this were 7,337 slaves, 200 of whom were minstrels, male and female. We recognize at once some conspicuous and familiar names. Twelve chiefs, as if in reminis- cence of the twelve tribes, were marked out as the lead- ers. Amongst these was the acknowledged head of the community, the grandson, real or adopted, of the be- loved and lamented Jehoiachin, last direct heir of the House of David and Josiah—the son of Shaltiel or Salathiel, who bore the trace of his Babylonian birth- place in his two Chaldæan names, Zerubbabel "the "Babel-born," or Sheshbazzar, or Sarabazzar, and who, by his official titles, was marked out as the representa- tive amongst them of the Persian king, "the Tirsha- "tha," or "the Pasha," that old Assyrian word which has never since died out amongst the governments of the East. Next to him was Jeshua or Joshua, the son of Josedek, the High Priest who had been carried into exile with Zedekiah, and shared his imprisonment. Next to them in rank and elder in years was Seraiah the priest, son of Hilkiah. But of the ancient four- and-twenty sacerdotal courses, four only joined in the procession; it may be from the havoc of the priestly caste in the desperate struggle at the time of the capture of the Temple; it may be from the attachment of the others of their Babylonian homes. Still the number of priests (4,000) was large in proportion to the people, yet larger in proportion to the Levites, who numbered only 74 beside the 128 singers of the family of Asaph, and the 139 descendants of those stalwart gatekeepers the sacerdotal soldiery or police, that had guarded the whole circuit of the temple walls, and were believed to have rendered the state such important service on the day that Jahoiada planned the overthrow of Athaliah. Along with them were the 392 representatives of the ancient Canaanite bondmen, whose ancestral names in- dicated their foreign origin, the Nethinim, or "conse- "crated giftsmen" bound over to the honored work of the Temple service—or "the children of Solomon's "slaves"—that is, doubtless, of those Phœnician art- ists whom the great king had employed in the con- struction of his splendid works. So the names stood in a register which a century afterward was found by an inquiring antiquary in the Archives of Jerusalem, and its accuracy was tested by the additional record that there was a rigid scrutiny on the departure from Babylon to ex- clude from this favored community those who could not prove their descent. Such was a body of unknown applicants from the villages in the jungles or salt marshes near the Persian Gulf. Such was another band, claiming to be of priestly origin, and justifying their pretensions, but in vain, by appealing to an an- cestor who had married a daughter and taken the name of the renowned old Gileadite chief Barzillai. In the front or centre of this caravan, borne prob- ably by the Nethinim—in place of the ark that had formed the rallying point of the earlier wanderings— were the carefully collected vessels of the Temple, the Palladium to which the hopes of the nation had been attached, which had been the badges of contention be- tween Jeremiah and his opponents before the Cap- tivity; which had been carried off in triumph by Ne- buchadnezzar and lodged in the most magnificent of all receptacles, the Temple of Bel; which had adorned the banquet of Belshazzar; and which now, by special permission of Cyrus, were taken out of the Baby- lonian treasury, according, as one tradition said, to a special vow made by the King in his earlier days. There they were borne aloft, each article of plate was carefully named in lists three times recorded, the thousand cups of original gold, the thousand cups of silver, which marked the double sage of the Cap- tivity, with all the lesser vessels, even the nine and twenty knives, amounting in all, as was carefully noted, to 5,499. It was like the procession of the Vestal Virgins, with the sacred fire in their hands, in their retreat from Rome; like Æneas with his household gods from troy. Homely as they were, grates, knives, spoons, basins, recalling alike the glory of the time of Solomon, in their original gold, the decline of the last days of Jerusalem in the silver substitutes of Zedekiah, they were the links which seemed to weave a continuous chain across the gulf which parted the old and the new era of Israelite history. Forth from the gates of Babylon they rode on camels, mules, asses, and (now for the first time in their history) on horses, to the sound of joyous music—a band of horsemen playing on flutes and tabrets, accompanied by their own two hun- dred minstrel slaves, and one hundred and twenty-eight singers of the temple, responding to the Prophet's voice, as they quitted the shade of the gigantic walls and found themselves in the open desert beyond. "Go ye out of Babylon. Flee from the Chaldæans, "with a voice of singing declare ye, tell this, utter it "even to the end of the earth; say ye, The Eternal "hath redeemed his servant Jacob." The prospect of crossing that vast desert, which in- tervene between Chaldæa and Palestine, was one which had filled the minds of the exiles with all man- ner of terrors. It seemed like a second wandering in the desert of Sinai. It was a journey of nearly four months at the slow rate at which such caravans then travelled. Unlike the wilderness of Sinai, it was di- versified by no towering mountains, no delicious palm groves, no gushing springs. A hard, gravel plain from the moment they left the banks of the Euphrates till they reached the northern extremity of Syria; with no solace except the occasional wells and walled stations; or, if their passage was in the spring, the natural herbage and flowers which clothed the arid soil. ferocious hordes of Bedouin robbers then, as now, swept the whole tract. This dreary prospect preoccupied with overwhelm- ing prominence the Evangelical Prophet. But he would not hear of fear. It was in his vision not a perilous enterprise but a march of triumph: "There- "fore the redeemed of the Eternal shall return, and "come with singing to Zion, and everlasting joy "shall be upon their heads; they shall obtain gladness "and joy, and sorrow and mourning shall flee away." As before some royal potentate, there would go be- fore them an invisible Protector, who should remove the hard stones from the bare feet of those that ran beside the camels, and cast them up in piles on either side to mark the broad track seen for long miles across the desert. It should be as if Moses were again at their head, and the wonders of the Red Sea and Sinai re-enacted. The heat of the scorching sun shall be softened; they shall be led to every spring and pool of water: if water is not there, their invisible Guide shall, as of old, bring it out of the cloven rock. Even the wild animals of the desert, the ostrich and the jackal, shall be startled at its unexpected rush. Even the isles of palms which cheered the ancient Israelites in Arabia shall not be sufficient. Cedar as well as acacia, olive and myrtle, pine and cypress, all that is most unlike to the vegetation of the desert shall spring up along these fountains. It is a curious instance of the prosaic temper which has led many modern com- mentators to expect a literal fulfilment of the poetic expressions of the Hebrew Prophets, that the Jewish rabbis of later times supposed all these wonders to have actually occurred, and were surprised to find no mention of them in the narrative of the contemporary chronicler. But the spirit of these high-wrought strains is the same as that expressed in the simpler language yet similar faith of the songs of the "ascents," some of which we can hardly doubt to have been chanted by the minstrels of the caravan during their long ascend- in journey up the weary slope which reached from the level plains of Babylon to their own rocky fortress of Judæa. They lifted up their eyes to the distant mountains of Syria, and when they thought of the long interval yet to traverse they asked whence was to come their help? Their answer was, that they looked to the eternal, unsleeping watchfulness of the Guardian of Israel, who by night and day should guard them, stand as their shade on the southern side against the noon- day sun, and at last guard their entrance into Palestine, as He had guarded their Exodus from Babylon. The high, snowclad ridge of Hermon would be the first object that at a distance of four or five days journey would rise on the uniform horizon of the exiles. We knew not whether they would enter Syria at the nearer point of Damascus or at the farther point )but as it would appear, the usual route at that time) of Hamath or Riblah. Even then there would still be a long journey of hill and vale to traverse before they reached their home. But, already (so we gather from the shouts of joy with which the Prophet anticipated this happy moment), the dead city would be roused up from her slumber of sev- enty years. The sleeping potion of the Divine wrath has been drunk to the dregs—she is to shake off the dust of the ruins amongst which he has lain—she is to break the chain which fastened her neck down to the ground. She is to listen for the joy- ful signal of the messengers stationed on the eastern hills, who will descry the exiles from afar and hand on the good tidings from hill to hill, like beacon flames, till at last it reaches the height of Olivet, or of Ramah; where Zion herself stands on tiptoe to catch the news, and, like the maidens of old who welcomed the return- ing heroes, proclaim to the cities of Judah, each on their crested hills around her, that the Divine Presence is at hand; that the little flock has been guided through the wilderness safely; even the weary laggards are cared for; even the lambs are folded in the shepherd's bo- som; even the failing ewes are gently helped onwards. It is not difficult to figure to ourselves the general aspect of Palestine on the return. Monarchy, priesthood, art, and commerce had departed, but a large population had been left, partly of the aboriginal tribes, partly of the humbler classes of Is- rael, to till the ground. There was the Persian govern- or, perhaps more than one, who controlled the whole. The central portion was occupied, as we have seen, by mixed settlers from the East, who combined with the original habitants to compose the people, alter- nately called, from their twofold origin, Cutheans or Samaritans. The Scythians still remained in posses- sion of the Canaanite stronghold of Bethshan—the centre, at that time, of the borderland between Israel and the heathen nations, already forming itself under the Monarchy, but now becoming more and more defined, and gradually taking itself the name, which was at last in fame to eclipse that of any other division of Palestine—Galilee of the Gentiles, or Galilee; "the Heathen-march," or the March. In the Transjordanic territory, although the country of Moab and Ammon had been frightfully devasted by the Chaldæan invasion, the inhabitants had been allowed to remain in their homes, and their chiefs occupied independent and powerful positions. The western coast was occupied by the old enemies of Israel, the Philistines, now re-asserting their in- dependence, and their chief city, Ashdod, still speak- ing their own language—still worshipping their an- cient sea-god Dagon. The south was overrun by the vindictive and un- generous race of Edom, which even claimed the whole country as its own, with the capital of Akrabbim. There only remained therefore, for the new comers the small, central strip of the country round Jerusalem occupied by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. From these two tribes the larger part of the exiles were descendants, and to this, their ancient home, they re- turned. Henceforth the name of Judah took the predominant place in the national titles. As the primitive name of "Hebrew" had given way to the historical name of Israel, so that of Israel now gave way to the name of Judæan, or Jew, so full of praise and pride, of reproach and scorn. "It "was born," as their later historian truly ob- serves, "on the day when they came out from Baby- "lon," and their history thence forth is the history not of Israel but of Judaism. We trace the settlers of these rocky fastnesses back, each like a bird to its nest. Each hill-fort, so well- known in the wars of Saul and David, in the ap- proaches of Sennacherib, once more leaps into vie; Gibeon, and Ramah, and Geba, and the pass of Michmash, and the slope of Anothoth, and the long descent of Bethel and Ai, and the waving palms of Jericho, and the crested height of Bethlehem, and the ancient stronghold of Kirjathjearim, all re- ceived back their "men," their "children," after their long separation. Some gradually crept farther south through the now Idumæan territory to the villages round Hebron, to which the old Canaanite possessors once more gave its ancient name of "Kijath-arba." Some stole along the plains of the south coast down to the half-Bedouin settlements of Beersheba and Moladda on the frontier of the desert. The bands of singers established themselves in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, at Geba, or at Gilgal, in the Jordan valley. But these all, as it were, clustered round Jerusalem, which now for the first time in history assumes the name never since lost, and which in the East still remains its only title, "The Holy City," and if the country at large also takes for the first time in the mouths of he returning exiles the name which has clung to it with hardly less tenacity, "The Holy "Land," it is as the seat and throne of the consecrated capital, which, if fallen from its antique splendor, reigned supreme, as never before, over the affections and the reverence of the people. When Herodotus in the next century passed by it he knew it only by this name, "The Holy Place," Kadesh, Grecised into Kadytis. When, three centuries later, Strabo saw it again, though the name of Jerusalem had been as- certained, it was transformed into Hierosolyma, the Holy Place of Salem, or Solomon, and he felt that it properly expressed the awe and veneration with which he regarded it, as though it had been one of his own ancestral seats of oracular sanctity. All the other shrines an capitals of Israel, with the single exception of that on Mount Gerizim, had been swept away. The sanctity of Bethel and Shiloh, the regal dignity of Samaria and Jezreel, had now disap- peared for ever. Jerusalem remained the undisputed queen of the whole country in an unprecedented sense. Even those very tribes which before had been her ri- vals, acknowledged in her misfortunes the supremacy which they had denied to her in her prosperity. Pil- grims from Shechem, Shiloh and Samaria, immediately after the Babylonian Captivity began, came, with every outward sign of mourning, to wail and weep (like the Jews of our own day) over the still smoking ruins. It was natural, therefore, that the exiles had con- stantly nourished the hope of the rebuilding of Jerusa- lem, which they had never forgotten in their brightest or their darkest days on the banks of the Euphrates; that the highest reward to which any of them could look forward would be that they should build the old waste places, raised up the foundations of many gener- ations, be called the repairer of the ruins, the restorer of paths to dwell in. It was natural that along the broken walls of the city of David there should have been, as the Return drew nearer, devout Israelites seen standing like sentinels, repeating their constant watch- words, which consisted of an incessant cry day and night, giving the Divine Protector no rest until He es- tablish and make Jerusalem a praise upon the earth. It was natural that the names which had begun to at- tach to her during her desertion, as though she were the impersonation of Solitude and Desolation, should give place to the joyful names of the Bride and the Favorite returning to her married home with all the gayety and hopefulness of an Eastern wedding. It was natural that Ezekiel by the banks of the Chebar should so concentrate his thoughts on the City and Temple of Jerusalem that their dimensions grew in his vision to such a colossal size as to absorb the whole of Palestine by their physical structure, no less than they did actually by their moral significance. Accordingly, the one object which filled the thoughts of the returning exiles, the one object, as it was believed by them, for which the Return had been permitted by the Persian king, was "the "building of an house of the Lord God of Israel at Je- "rusalem which is in Judah." There was a moment, it might have been supposed, when the idea of a more spiritual worship, like that of the Persians, would dispense altogether with outward buildings. "The heaven is my throne, the earth is my "footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? "and where is my place of rest?" But this doc- trine of the Evangelical Prophet was not yet capable of being put into practice; perhaps in its literal sense never will be. Ezekiel's idea was, as we have seen, rather the restoration of the Temple on a gigantic scale. It was the chief, the one mission of Zerubbabel, and in a few weeks or months after his arrival the first step was taken toward the erection of the second Temple of Jerusalem, the Temple which as destined to meet the requirements of the national worship, till it gave way to the third Temple of the half-heathen Herod. That first step was precisely on the traces of the older Temple. As the altar which David erected long pre- ceded the completion of the splendid structure of Sol- omon, so before any attempt was made to erect the walls, or even to lay the foundations of the Temple of the coming era, there was erected on the platform for- merly occupied by the threshing-floor of Araunah, then for five centuries by the stately altar of David and his son Solomon, the central hearth of the future Temple; but, as if to vindicate for itself an intrinsic majesty de- spite of its mean surroundings, it was in its dimensions double the size even of its vast predecessor. The day fixed for the occasion of its consecration was well suited to do it honor. It was the opening to the great au- tumnal Feast of the Jewish year—the Feast of Tabernacles—the same festival as that chosen by Solomon for the dedication of his Temple, and by Jeroboam for the dedication of the rival sanctuary at Bethel. It was the first day of the seventh month, which, according to the Babylonian, now adopted as the Jewish, calendar, henceforth took the Chaldæan name of Tisri, "the opening" month, the "January," and thus became the first of the year. The settlers from all parts of the country, as well as the aboriginal inhabitants, gathered for the occasion and witnessed the solemnity from the open space in front of the eastern gate of the Temple. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 83 - 105.
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By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLIV. (part iii.) EZRA AND NEHEMIAH. This story thus first appearing at the close of the second century of the Christian era, and diluted by later divines into the more refined representation that Ezra was the collector or editor of the sacred books of the Old Testament Scriptures, has no historical basis. Neither of its wilder nor of its tamer form is there the slightest vestige in the authentic words of himself or of Nehemiah, nor yet in the later Chronicler, nor yet in the Son of Sirach, nor in the Books of the Maccabees, nor in Josephus, nor yet in the first Apocryphal Book of Esdras, nor yet in the writings of the New Testament, where his name is never mentioned. Equally fabulous is the Jewish persuasion that he invented the Masoretic interpretations, and received the oral tradition of Mo- saic doctrine, which from him was alleged to have been handed on to his successors. The absolute silence of the contemporary or even following documents excludes all these suppositions. Yet behind all this cloud of fables it is not difficult, in the authentic documents of the time, to discover the nucleus of fact round which it has gathered, or to render its due to the great historic name which represents, if not as in the legends of his people, the "Son of God," at least the Founder of a new order of events and in- stitutions, some of which continued to the close of the Jewish history, some of which continue still. Ezra and Nehemiah (for in some respects they are inseparable) are the very impersonations of that quality which Goethe described as the charac- teristc by which their race has maintained its place be- fore the Judgment seat of God and of history—the impenetrable toughness and persistency which consti- tute their real strength as the Reformers of their people. Reformers in the noblest sense of that word they were not. There is not, as in the first or second Isaiah, as in Jeremiah or Ezekiel, a far-reaching grasp of the fut- ure, or a penetration into the eternal principles of the human heart. They moved within a narrow, rigid sphere. They aimed at limited objects. They were the parents of the various divisions which henceforth divided Palestine into parties and sects. They were— by the same paradox according to which it is truly said that the Royalist Prelate of the English Restoration originated Nonconformity—the parents of the Samar- itan secession. They inaugurated in their covenants and their curses that fierce exclusiveness which in the later years burned with a "zeal not according to knowl- "edge" in the hearts of those wild assassins who bound themselves together wit a curse not to eat bread or drink water till they had slain the greatest of their countrymen,—of those zealots who fought with des- perate tenacity with each other and with their foes in defence of the walls which Nehemiah had raised. But within that narrow sphere Ezra and Nehemiah were the models of good Reformers. They set before themselves special tasks to accomplish and special evils to remedy, and in the doing of this they allowed no secondary or subsidiary object to turn them aside. They asked of their countrymen to undertake no burdens, no sacri- fices, which they did not themselves share. They filled the people with a new enthusiasm because they made it clear that they felt it themselves. The scene of Ezra sitting awestruck on the ground at the thought of his country's sins, the sound of the trumpet rallying all the various workmen and warriors at the wall to Nehe- miah's side, inspire us still with their own inspiration. When we read of the passion, almost the violence, of Nehemiah in cleansing the Temple and clearing its chambers, we see the spark, although the sulphureous spark, of that same Divine flame, of which, when One came who found the house of prayer turned into a cavern of robbers, it was said "the zeal of Thine House "hath even consumed me." There were again the first distinct and incontestable examples of that antiquarian, scholastic, critical treatment of the ancient history and literature of the country which succeeds and is inferior to the periods of original genius and inspiration, but is itself an indispensable element of instruction. Something of the kind we have indicated in the efforts of Baruch the scribe when he gathered together the scattered leaves of Jeremiah's prophecies, or of the earlier com- piler, who during the exile collected in the Books of Kings the floating fragments of the earlier history and poetry of his race. But now we actually see the pro- cess before our eyes. Nehemiah, when he came to Jerusalem, not con- tented with the rough work of building and fighting, dived into the archives of the former generations and thence dug out and carefully preserved the Register of the names, properties, and pedigrees of those who had returned in the original exile. Some other antiquary or topographer must in other days have done the like for that which we have called elsewhere the Domesday Book of Canaan in the Book of Joshua. But in Ne- hemiah we first meet with an unquestionable person whose name we can connect with the science whose title owed no small part of its early fame to the Jewish history which was so designated—Josephus's "Archæ "ology." It is Nehemiah's keen sympathy with those antique days which made him so diligent an explorer of the ruined walls and gates and towers and well-worn stairs, and of those legal ancestral documents of the city of his fathers' sepulchres. And not only so, but (if we may trust the first tradition on the subject which can be traced, and which contains the one particle of truth in the legends concerning the origin of the Jewish canon) it was Nehemiah who first undertook in the self-same spirit implied in the authentic notices just cited to form a Library of the books of past times: namely, of "the Books of the Kings, and Prophets, "those which bore the name of David, and the Royal "Letters concerning sacred offerings." This earliest tradition respecting the agglomeration of the sacred Hebrew literature certainly indicates that it was in Ne- hemiah's time that the various documents of the past history of his race were united in one collection. Then, probably, was the time when the Unknown Prophet of the Captivity was attached to the roll of the elder Isaiah, and the earlier Zecha- riah affixed to the prophecies of his later namesake; when the Books of Jasher and of the "Wars of the "Lord" finally perished, and were superseded by the existing Books "of Samuel" and "of the Kings." It is evident from the terms of the description that "Ne- "hemiah's Library" was not coextensive with any ex- isting volume. It was not a formation of divine oracles so much as a repository of whatever materials from whatever source might be useful for the future history of his people. It was not the complete canon of the "Old Testament" which was then formed, for some even of the earlier Books, such as Ezekiel, had not yet fully established their right; and many books or parts of books now contained in it were still absent. The va- rious "Books of Ezra," Malachi, the Chronicles, Esther, the Maccabean Psalms, the Maccabean Histories, per- haps Ecclesiastes, probably Daniel, were still to come. Nor was it based on the modern idea of a strictly sacred volume; for one of its chief component parts consisted of the official letters of the Persian kings, which have never had a place in the ecclesiastical roll of the con- secrated Scriptures. It was the natural, the laudable attempt to rescue from oblivion such portions of the Hebrew literature as, with perpetually increasing ad- ditions might illustrate and enforce the one central book of the Pentateuch, round which they were gath- ered. The "Prophets" were still outside, occupying a position analogous to that filled in the early Christian Canon by the Deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, and the "doubtful" writings of the New Testament. These, in common with all "the other books" which followed them, formed a class by them- selves, known as "the Books," "the Bible" (to adopt the modern word), outside "the Holy Book" or "Holy Bible," which was the Law itself. And this brings us to the point at which Nehemiah the Governor recedes from view to make way for Ezra the Scribe, who in the later traditions, alike of Jew, Arab, and early Christian, entirely takes his place. There is an almost contemporary representation of Ezra which at once places before us his true historical position in this aspect. It was on the occasion of that great celebration of the Feast of Tabernacles which has been before men- tioned. The whole people were assembled—not the men only, but the women issuing from their Eastern seclusion; not the old only, but all whose dawning in- telligence enabled them to understand at all, were gathered on one of the usual gathering-places outside the city walls. On the summit of the slope of the hill (as the Bema rose on the highest tier of the Athenian Pnyx) was raised a huge wooden tower on which stood Ezra with a band of disciples round him. There, on that September morning, just as the sun was rising above Mount Olivet, he unrolled before the eyes of the expectant multitude the huge scroll of the Law, which he had doubtless brought with him from Chaldæa. At that moment the whole multitude rose from the crouch- ing postures in which they were seated, after the man- ner of the East, over the whole of the open platform. They stood on their feet, and he at the same instant blessed "the Eternal, the great God." Thousands of hands were lifted up from the crowd, in the attitude of prayer, with the loud reverberating cry of Amen; and again hands and heads sank down and the whole peo- ple lay prostrate on the rocky ground. It was then the early dawn. From that hour the assembly re- mained in fixed attention till the midday heat dis- persed them. The instruction was carried on partly by reading the sacred book, partly by explaining it. Sometimes it was Ezra himself who poured forth a long passionate summary of their history, sometimes it was the Levite who addressed the people in prayer. We feel that in this scene a new element of religion has entered on the stage. The Temple has retired for the moment into the background. There is something which stirs the national sentiment yet more deeply, and which is the object of still more profound veneration. It is "the Law." However we explain the gradual growth of the Pentateuch, however we account for the ignorance of its contents, for the inattention to its pre- cepts, this is the first distinct introduction of the Mosaic law as the rule of the Jewish community. That lofty platform on which Ezra stood might be fitly called "the Seat of Moses." It is from this time that the Jewish nation became one of those whom Mohammed calls "the people of a book." It was but one book amongst the many which Nehemiah had collected, but it was the kernel round which the others grew with an ever-multiplying increase. The Bible, and the reading of the Bible as an instrument of instruction, may be said to have been begun on the sunrise of that day when Ezra unrolled the parchment scroll of the Law. It was a new thought that the Divine Will could be communicated by a dead literature as well as by a liv- ing voice. In the impassioned welcome with which this thought was received lay the germs of all the good and evil which were afterwards to be developed out of it; on the one side, the possibility of appeal in each successive age to the primitive, undying document that should rectify the fluctuations of false tradition and fleeting opinion; on the one hand, the temptation to pay to the letters of the sacred book a worship as idola- trous and as profoundly opposed to its spirit as once had been the veneration paid to the sacred trees or the sacred stones of the consecrated groves or hills. But we have said that the book which was thus rev- erenced was not coextensive even with the Hebrew Scriptures as they are now received. It contained no single song of David, no single proverb of Solomon, no single prophecy of Isaiah or Jeremiah. It was "the "Law." When Manasseh, in his passion for his Samaritan wife, fled from the fury of Nehe- miah to the height of Gerizim, he carried with him, either actually or in remembrance, not all the floating records which the fierce Governor of Jerusalem in his calmer moods was gathering here and there, like the Reliques which Percy or Scott collected from the holes and corners of English minstrelsy, or Livy from the halls of Roman nobles. It was the five books of Moses only, wit that of Joshua appended, which the fugitive priest had heard from Ezra, or Ezra's companions, and which alone at the moment of his departure commanded the attention of the community from which he parted. In like manner the retention of the ancient Hebrew characters by the Samaritans confirms the Tal- mudic tradition that the introduction of the Chaldaic characters dates from the time of Ezra. The He- brew characters still continued to be used on coins, like Latin, as the official language of Europe after it had been discontinued in literature. The use of the Chaldæan characters for the sacred books was probably originated by the desire to have an additional mark of distinction from the Samaritans, as the English pro- nunciation of Latin is said to have been suggested or confirmed by the wish to make an additional test to de- tect the Roman conspiracies against the Protestant Sovereigns. See De- renbourg, p. 446. We trace the exact point which the popular veneration had reached by the point at which it was broken off in the Samaritan secession. It is not without importance to notice the ascendency of this one particular aspect of the Ancient Jewish liter- ature over every other, and to observe that the religion of this age was summed up, not in a creed or a hymn, but in the Law—whether on its brighter or its darker side. On its brighter side we see it as it is represented in the 119th Psalm, belonging, in all probability, to this epoch. In every possible form the change is rung on the synonyms for this great idea. Every verse ex- presses it—Law, Testimony, Commandments, Statutes. But the view of the Psalmist (cxix. 95) is the most en- during. The Psalmist never lets us forget for a moment what is the object of the unchanging Law of Right, through which, as it has been said by one of later times,— Even the stars are kept from wrong, And the most ancient heavens through thee are fresh and strong. It is the vindication of the grandeur of that side of human goodness which both the religious and the cyn- ical world have often condemned as commonplace mo- rality, but which the author of this Jewish Ode to Duty regards as the highest flight both of piety and of philos- ophy. "The 119th Psalm," says a nameless writer of our time, that meditation which with sweet monotony "strikes ever the golden string deep buried in the hu- "man heart, a string implying by its strange suscepti- "bilities the reality of a music not of this world, yet "harmonizing all worlds into one! There is no poetry, "there is no little rhythm, there is no intellectual insight, "there is no comprehensive philosophy, in the gentle "life that yearns and pleads through those undying "words. But there is not one verse which does not "tell a man to whom the Infinite Power was a living "Presence and a constant inspiration." Such is the form under which the Law presented itself to a relig- ious mind in that age of the Jewish Church, and which well agrees both with the passionate devotion of Ezra to its service, and the attachment to it, with a mingling of tears and laughter, which made it the main lever of his revival of his people. It is strange to reflect that this grand idea had become so perverted and narrowed as time roll on, that in the close of the Jewish Com- monwealth "the Law," instead of being regarded by the highest spirit of the age as the main support of goodness, was at least at times regarded by him as its worst and deadliest enemy. And this leads us to the attitude in which Ezra him- self stood toward the Pentateuch. He was a Jewish priest; he was a Persian judge. But the name by which he is emphatically called, throwing all else into the shade, is "the Scribe." We have al- ready indicated the earlier beginnings of the office. But in Ezra it received an importance altogether un- precedented. In him the title came to mean "the man "of the Book." Those long readings and expositions of the Law called into existence two classes of men: one inferior, the Interpreters or Tagumists, or (which is another form of the same word), Dragomans; the other the Scribes, who took their places beside the Elders and the Priests, at times as the most powerful institution of the community. The Interpreters or Dragomans resulted from the necessity of rendering the archaic Hebrew into the popular Aramaic. They were regarded for the most part as hirelings— empty, bombastic characters, without the slightest authority, ragged, half-clothed mendicants, who could be silenced in a moment by their superiors in the as- sembly, compelled to speak orally lest their words should by chance be mistaken for those of the Script- ure. The Scribes or "Lawyers," that is, the learned in the Pentateuch, were far different. Here, again, as in the case of "the Law," we find ourselves confronted with an element which contains at once the noblest and the basest aspects of the Jewish, and, we must add, of the Christian religion. It is evident that in the Scribes rather than in any of the other function- aries of the Jewish Church, is the nearest original of the clergy of later times. In the ancient Prophet, going to and fro, sometimes naked, sometimes wrapt in his hairy cloak, chanting his wild melodies, or dramatizing his own message, always strange and exceptional— in the ancient Priest, deriving his sanctity from his clothes, with his strong arms imbrued, like a butcher's, in the blood of a cow or a sheep, no one would recog- nize the religious ministers of any civilized country for the last eighteen centuries. But in the Scribe, poring over the sacred volume, or reading and enforc- ing it from his lofty platform, or explaining it to the small knots of "those that had understanding," and gathered round him for instruction, there is an unmis- takable likeness to the religious teachers of all the va- rious forms which have arisen out of the Judaism of Ezra and Nehemiah. The Rabbi in the schools of Safed and Tiberias, expounding or preaching, from whatever tribe he may have sprung—the Cadi founding his ver- dicts on the Koran—the Imam delivering his Friday Sermon from the Midbar or instructing his little circle of hearers on the floor of the mosques—the Christian clergy through all their different branches—Doctors, Pastors, Evangelists, Catechists, Readers, Revivalists, studying, preaching, converting, persuading—all these in these their most spiritual unctions, have their root not in Aaron's altar, nor even in Samuel's choral school, but in Ezra's pulpit. The finer elements of the widely-ramifying institu- tion thus inaugurated appear at its outset. It was the permanent triumph of the moral over the purely mechanical functions of worship. The Prophets had effected this to a certain extent, but their appearance was so fitful—their gifts so irregular—that they were always, so to speak, outside the system, rather than a part of it—Preaching Friars, Nonconformists, or, at the most, Occasional Conformists on the grandest scale. But from the time of Ezra the Scribes never ceased. The intention of their office, as first realized in him and his companions, was the earnest endeavor to reproduce, to study, to translate, to represent in the language of his own time, the oracles of sacred antiquity; to ascertain the meaning of dark words, to give life to dead forms, to enforce forgotten duties; the stimulate the apathy of the present by invoking the loftier spirit of the past. Such was the ideal of the "Minister of Religion" henceforth; and when the Highest Teacher described it in His own words, He found none better than to take the office of Ezra, and say: "Every Scribe which is instructed unto the Kingdom of heaven is like unto a householder "which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old." And when in the sixteenth century of the Christian Church the intellectual and spiritual element of the Re- ligion was once again brought to the front, with the appeal to its original documents—the English Martyr at the stake could find no fitter words to express the permanent triumph of his cause than those which in the Apocryphal Book of Esdras are spoken in refer- ence to the ideal Scribe, the ideal Reformer of Israel: "I shall light a candle of understanding in thine "heart, which shall not be put out." But to this great office there was and is a darker side. There was, indeed, nothing of itself Priestly in the functions of the Scribe; the idea of their office was as distinct, almost as alien, from the mechanical, bullock-slaying, fumigating ministrations of the Priest- hood as had been the office of the Prophets. But, unlike the Prophets, the distinction was in their case often more of form than of spirit. Ezra, though a Scribe first and foremost, was yet a Priest; and his chief associates, until the arrival of the Governor, Nehemiah, were Levites. The Scribes and the Priests hung together; and at some of the most critical mo- ments of their history the interests, the passions, and the prejudices of the two were fatally indissoluble. And in like manner, although from the more spirit- ual nature of the religion in a less degree, the Pastors of the Christian Church have again and again been tempted to formalize and materialize their spiritual functions by associating them once more with the name and the substance of the ancient Jewish or Pagan Priesthood. And yet further, the peculiar ministrations of the Scribes became more and more divorced from that homely yet elevated aspect imparted to his office by Ezra. There was, as we have seen, the fable which ascribed to him the formation of a body of Scribes called the Great Synagogue, by which the Canon of Scripture was arranged, the first Liturgy of the Jewish Church composed, and of which the succession continued till its last survivor died two centuries afterward. Some such circle doubtless may have grown up round the first great Scribe—a circle of "men of understanding," such as Johanan and Eliashib, who are described by that name as having accom- panied him from Babylon—though of the existence or the doings of any such regular body no vestige appears in any historical or authentic work before the Christian era. But there is one traditional saying ascribed to the Great Synagogue which must surely have come down from an early stage in the history of the Scribes, and which well illustrates the disease, to which, as to a parasitical plant, the order itself, and all the branches into which it has grown, has been subject. It resembles in form the famous mediæval motto for the guidance of conventual ambi- tion, although it is more serious in spirit: "Be circum- spect in judging—make many disciples—make a "hedge round the law." Nothing could be less like the impetuosity, the simplicity, or the openness of Ezra than any of these three precepts. But the one which in each succeeding generation predominated more and more was the last: "Make a hedge about the Law." To build up elaborate explanations, thorny obstruc- tions, subtle evasions, enormous developments, was the labor of the later Jewish Scribes, till the Penta- teuch was buried beneath the Mishna, and the Mishna beneath the Gemara. To make hedges round the Koran has been, though not perhaps in equally dis- proportionate manner, the aim of the schools of El-Azar and Cordova, and of the successive Fetvahs of the Sheykhs-el-Islam. To erect hedges round the Gospel has been an effort, happily not continuous or uniform, but of large and dominant sections of the Scribes of Christianity, until the words of its Founder have well- nigh disappeared, behind the successive intrench- ments, and fences, and outposts, and counter-works, of Councils, and Synods, and Popes, and anti-Popes, and Sums of Theology and of Saving Doctrine, of Confessions of Faith and Schemes of Salvation; and the world has again and again sighed for one who would once more speak with the authority of self-evi- dencing Truth, and "not as the Scribes." A distin- guished Jewish Rabbi of this century, in a striking and pathetic passage on this crisis in the history of his nation, contrasts the prospect of the course which Ezekiel and Isaiah had indicated with that which was adopted by Ezra, and sums up his reflections with the remark that: "Had the spirit been preserved instead "of the letter, the substance instead of the form, "then Judaism might have been spared the necessity of "Christianity." But we in like manner may say that, had the Scribes of the Christian Church retained more of the genius of the Hebrew Prophets, Christianity in its turn would have been spared what has too often been a return to Judaism, and it was in the perception of the superiority of the Prophet to the Scribe that its original force and unique excellence have consisted. One further germ of spiritual life may, probably, be traced to the epoch of Ezra. If in the long unmarked period which follows, the worship of the Synagogue silently sprang up such as we shall see it at the latest stage of their history, it must have originated in the independent, personal, universal study of the Law, irrespective of Temple or Priest, which Ezra had inaugurated. The great innovation of Prayer as a substitute for Sacrifice thus took root in Jewish worship; the eighteen prayers which are still recited in Jewish synagogues, and of which some at least are, both by ancient tradition and modern criticism, as- cribed to Ezra an his companions, are the first ex- ample of an articulate Liturgy. On the one hand, the personal devotion of the Psalms now found its place as the expression of the whole community; and on the other hand, the conviction which the Prophets enter- tained of the perpetual existence of the nation pre- pared the way for the conviction of the endless life of the single human being. "In a word, Judaism was "now on the road towards the adoption of the hope of "personal immortality." Of the "Eighteen Benedictions," as they are called, the 1st, 2d, and 3rd, the 17th, and 18th and 19th (Prideaux, i. 419-422) are believed to date from Ezra. They are as follows:— 1. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, our God, the God of our fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the great God, power- ful and tremendous, the high God, bountifully dispensing benefits, the Creator and Possessor of the Universe, who remembrest the good deeds of our fathers, and in Thy love sendes a Redeemer to those who are de- scended from them, for Thy name's sake, O King, our Helper, our Sav- iour, and our Shield. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who art the Shield of Abraham. 2. Thou, O Lord, art powerful for ever. Thou raisest the dead to life, and art mighty to save; Thou sendest down the dew, stillest the winds, and makest the rain to come down upon the earth, and sustainest with Thy beneficence all that live therein; and of Thine abundant mercy makest the dead again to live. Thou helpest up those that fall; Thou curest the sick; Thou loosest them that are bound, and makest good Thy Word of Truth to those that sleep in the dust. Who is to be compared to Thee, O Thou Lord of might? and who is like unto Thee, O our King, who killest and makest alive, and makest sal- ation to spring up as the herb out of the field? Thou art faithful to make the dead to rise again to life. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who raisest the dead again to life. 3. Thou art holy, and Thy name is holy, and Thy Saints do praise Thee every day. For a great King and an holy art Thou, O God. Blessed art Thou, O Lord God most holy. 17. Be Thou well pleased, O Lord our God, with Thy people Israel, and have regard unto their prayers. Restore Thy worship to the inner part of Thy house, and make haste with favor and love to accept of the burnt sacrifices of Israel and their prayers; and let the worship of Israel Thy people be continually well pleasing unto Thee. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who restorest thy Divine prsence to Zion. 18. We will give thanks unto Thee with praise. For Thou art the Lord our God, the God of our fathers for ever and ever. Thou art our Rock, and the Rock of our life, the Shield of our salvation. To all generations will we give thanks unto Thee and declare Thy praise; because our life, which is always in Thy hands; and because of our souls, which are ever depend- ing upon Thee; and because of Thy signs, which are every day with us; and because of Thy wonders, and marvellous loving-kindnesses, which are, morning and evening and night, continually before us. Thou art good, for Thy mercies are not consumed; Thou art merciful for thy loving-kind- nesses fail not. For ever we hope in Thee; and for all these mercies be Thy name, O King, blessed, and exalted and lifted up on high for ever and ever; and let all that live give thanks unto Thee. And let them in truth and sincerity praise Thy name, O God of our salvation and our help. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, whose name is good, and whom it is fitting always to give thanks unto. 19. Give peace, beneficence, and benediction, grace, benignity, and mercy unto us, and to Israel Thy people. Bless us, O our Father, even all of us together as one man. With the light of Thy countenance hast Thou given unto us, O Lord our God, the law of life, and love, and benignity, and righteousness, and blessing, and mercy, and life, and peace. And at all times and in every moment. Blessed art Thou, O Lord, who blessed Thy people Israel with peace. Amen. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 152 - 169.
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By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLV. (part iii.) MALACHI Such is the singular antiquarian interest which at- taches to this, the most vivid picture that we possess of the inner life of the Persian seraglio. But beneath this external show there is a genuine strain of national and human interest, which secured the little narrative, worldly as it might seem to be, a welcome into the sacred books of the Jews, and drew round it, like the writings of Daniel and Ezra, a fringe of amplifi- cations and additions by which the theological suscepti- bilities of later times sought to correct its deficiencies. The treatment of the book has much varied in the Jewish and the Christian Churches. The immediate claim of the story to a place in the Holy Books was the consecration which it gave the Jews of the Dispersion. Alone of all the Books of the Old Testament it contains no reference to the Holy Land. When Haman is asked to describe the objects of his hostility, he replied in words which every Israelite through all the hundred and twenty satrapies, from India to Ethiopia, must have applied to himself. "There is a certain people scattered and dispersed in "all the provinces of thy kingdom and their laws are "diverse from all people." Along the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris, already renowned for their schools of learning; high up in the mountains of Kurdistan, where, perchance, their descendants linger still; all the dispersed settlers were included in those words, which might stand as the motto of the larger part of the Jew- ish race ever since—which might have been said of them by Tacitus in the Roman Empire, or by that Ara- bian of English chroniclers of the Middle Ages. The line of beacon-lights kindled from hill to hill along the whole route from Jerusalem to Babylon, "from Olivet "to Sartaba, from Sartaba to Grophinah, from Gor- "phinah to Haveran, from Haveran to Beth Baltin, wav- "ing the torches upward and downward, till the whole "country of the Captivity appeared a blazing fire"— was an emblem of the sympathetic link which bound all these settlements together. Of this vast race, for whom so great a destiny was reserved when the nat- tion should fail, the Book of Esther recognized, as by a prophetic instinct, the future importance. Every Jew throughout the world felt with Mordecai, and has felt in many a time of persecution since, as he raised in the city his loud and bitter cry, and stood wrapped in sackcloth and sprinkled with ashes before the Royal Gate. Every Jewess felt, and may have felt ever since, with Esther as she prepared herself for the dreadful venture. It was this which gave a significance to the long suc- cession of idle coincidences, as it seemed, on the failure of any one of which the catastrophe would have taken place; culminating in the fortunate chance that when the enemy of their race, after the manner of the East, cast lots to secure a propitious day for so vast an enterprise, beginning with the first month of the year, he was compelled, by the failure of the lots, to go on, day after day, and month after month, until he was driven to the 13th day of the very last month as the only auspicious time for the commencement of the massacre; thus leaving, between the issuing of the de- cree and the arrival of that fatal day, eight months for the posts to carry the King's warrant to the ends of the Empire, ad for every Jewish settlement in every vil- lage, however remote and however defenceless, to stand at bay against the hunters of their lives. The "Feast "of the Lots" became the Passover of the Dispersion. It preceded the Paschal Feast by only a month, and, to make the parallel complete, was celebrated, not on the predestined and triumphant day, the 13th, but on the 14th and 15th of Adar, corresponding to the 14th and 15th of the Paschal month, Nisan. These violent expressions are now, I am informed, discontinued in all the more civilized Jewish com- munities, which have gradually dropped them out of use, as the Greek church has, to a large extent, abandoned the anathemas of Ortho- dox Sunday, as the Latin Church has surrendered the detailed excom- munications of Holy Thursday, as the English Church has disused its vindictive political services, and, in many instances, the recital of the Athanasian Creed. The continuance of that bitter animosity in the Jew- ish nation renders the Feast of Purim the least pleasing of their festivals. It was long retained in all its inten- sity as the natural vent of their hatred to their heathen or Christian oppressors in each succeeding age. On that day, at every mention of Haman's name in the worship of the synagogue, it was the long custom to hiss and stamp and shake the clinched fist and say: "Let "his name be blotted out, Let the name of the wicked "perish." The boys who were present with a loud clatter rubbed out the detested name, which they wrote for the purpose on pieces of wood or stone. The names of Haman's ten sons were read in one breath, to express the exulting thought that they all died in one instant. They were even written in the Book of Esther in three perpendicular lines, to signify that they were hanged on three parallel cords. It was added that his seventy surviving sons fled, and, according to the curse of the 109th Psalm, begged their bread from door to door. At the conclusion the whole congregation exclaimed: "Cursed be Haman, blessed be Mordecai; cursed be "Zoresh, blessed be Esther; cursed be all idolaters, "blessed be all Israelites; and blessed be Harbonah, "who hanged Haman." Such a spirit reminds one inevitably of the union of fear and cruelty felt by those, not alone of Jewish de- scent, who find themselves in foreign lands exposed to hostile populations. It is the same sentiment as that which caused the English nation to cling, for so many generations, the the celebration of the deliverance from the Gunpowder Plot; and, if the Jewish festival has lasted longer, it is because of the more continual sense of danger, and the more indomitable instinct of nation- ality. It was natural that a book thus bound up with one of the strongest sentiments of the Hebrew race should have been raised to a high place in their sacred vol- ume. Late as its introduction was, it mounted up at once, if not to the first rank, yet first among the sec- ond. It was believed that it would outlast all the He- brew Scriptures except the Pentateuch; more precious than the Prophets, or Proverbs, or Psalms; amongst the Hagiographic rolls ("Megilloth") it was emphatically "the roll," "the Megillah." In the Christian Church its fate has been just the reverse. Of all the Canonical Books of the Old Testament it is the one which lingered longest on the outskirts, and which has provoked the most uneasy suspicion since. Melito of Sardis, Gregory of Nazianzus, Athanasius of Alexan- dria hesitated to permit its reception. Luther, even if he did not, as was once commonly believed, "toss the "Book of Esther into the Elbe," yet wished that "it "did not exist, for it hath too much of Judaism, and "a great deal of heathenish naughtiness." Table-Talk, clix. 6. Bondage of the Will (Works, iii. 182). Arch- deacon Hare conclusively proved (Notes to the Mission of the Com- forter, ii. 819) that what Luther "tossed into the Elbe" was not the Book of Esther, but the Apocryphal Book of Esdras. On the other hand, Sir W. Hamilton (Discussions, p. 519) has shown not less conclusively that the incontestable expressions of the great Reformer's aversion to the book of Esther are quite as strong as those contained in the popular version of his words. These two expressions well describe the natural objection of the civilized—we may add, of the Chris- tian—conscience, to the Book of Esther and the Feast of Purim. The exclusive spirit which breathes through them—the wild passion of Esther's revenge in the impalement of Haman's innocent family—are too closely allied to the fierce temper of Jael or of Jezebel, or of the cruel Queen of Xerxes, whose name Ames- tris is perilously like that of Esther, to win the favor of the modern Jewish, still less the modern Christian, reader. And, yet further, it is so entirely confined to an early horizon, that, alone of all the sacred books, it never names the name of God from first to last. Whether this absence arose from that increasing scruple against using the Divine Name, which we have already noticed, or from the instinctive adoption of the fashion of the Persian Court, this abstinence from any religious expression was so startling that the Greek translators thrust into the long narrative long addi- tions containing the sacred phrases which, in the original narrative, were wanting. But there is a sense in which this peculiarity of the Book of Esther is most instructive. Within that Judaic "hardness of heart," behind that "heathenish "naughtiness," burn a lofty independence, a genuine patriotism, which are not the less to be admired be- cause Mordecai and Esther spoke and acted without a single appeal by name or profession to the Supreme Source of that moral strength in which they dared the wrath of the Great King and labored for the preservation of their countrymen. It is necessary for us that in the rest of the sacred volume the name of God should constantly be brought before us, to show that He is all in all to our moral perfection. But it is expedient for us no less that there should be one book which omits it altogether, to prevent us from attaching to the mere name a reverence which belongs only to the reality. In the mind of the sacred writer the mere accidents, as they might seem, of the quarrel of Ahasuerus, the sleepless night, the delay of the lot, worked out the Divine Will as completely as the parting of the Red Sea or the thunders of Sinai. The story of Esther, glorified by the genius of Handel and sanctified by the piety of Racine, is not only a material for the noblest and the gentlest of medita- tions, but a token that in the daily events—the un- foreseen chances—of life, in little unremembered acts, in the fall of a sparrow, in the earth bringing forth fruit of herself, God is surely present. The name of God is not there, but the work of God is. Those who most eagerly cling to the recognition of the biblical authority of the book ought the most readily to be warned by it not to make a man an offender for a word or for the omission of a word. When Esther nerved herself to enter, at the risk of her life, the presence of Ahasuerus—"I will go in unto the King, and if "I perish I perish"—when her patriotic feeling vented itself in that noble cry, "How can I endure to "see the evil that shall come unto my people? or can "I endure to see the destruction of my kindred?"— she expressed, although she never named the name of God, a religious devotion as acceptable to Him as that of Moses and David, who, no less sincerely, had the sacred name always on their lips. Esther is, in this sense, the Cordelia of the Bible. Thy youngest daughter does not love thee least, Nor are those empty-hearted whose low sounds Reverberate no hollowness. . . . 2. It remains for us to ask the perplexed and per- plexing question whether, behind the splendor of the Persian Court, and the struggle of the Dispersion for existence, we can trace any higher influ- ence of the Persian dominion on the Jewish nation. There is one great religious name which, even in the less instructed days of Christendom, was always ac- knowledged, with a reverential awe, as bound up with the beginning of sacred philosophy. In Raffaelle's "School of Athens" the only Eastern Sage admitted is Zoroaster the Persian. By the theological inquirers of the seventeenth century, the likeness of his theol- ogy to that of the Old Testament was so fully ac- knowledged as to drive them to the theory that he must have been the pupil of Daniel. The research of modern times has dispelled this hypothesis, by the allegation that he and his career preceded even the earliest date of Daniel by centuries, but it has not therefore dissolved the connection between Judaism and the Zendavesta. "Let us picture to ourselves" (we adopt the elo- quent words of Bunsen) "one of the holy hills dedi- "cated to the worship of fire, in the neighborhood of "the primeval 'city of marvels' in Central Asia— "Baktra 'the glorious,' now called Balkh, 'the mother "'of Cities.' From this height we look down in imag- "ination over the elevated plateau, which lies nearly "2,000 feet above the level of the sea, sloping down- "ward toward the north, and ending in a sandy desert, "which does not even allow the streams of Bactria to "reach the neighboring Oxus. On the southern hori- "zon the last spurs of the Indian Caucasus rear their "lofty peaks of 5,000 feet high. Out of those hills, "the Parapomisus, or Hindu-kush, springs the chief "river of the country, the Bactrus of Delias, which "divides into hundreds of canals, making the face of "the country one blooming garden of richest fruits. "To this point converge the caravans, which travel "across the mountains to the land of marvels, or bring "treasures from thence. Thither, fifteen centuries "before the Babylonian Captivity, on occasion of "the peaceful sacrifice by fire, from whose ascending "flame auguries were drawn, perhaps also with the "customary interrogation of the earth-oracle by means "of the sacred bull, Zoroaster or Zarathustra had "convened the nobles of the land that he might per- form a great public religious act. Arrived there, "at the head of his disciples, the seers and the preachers, "he summons the Princes to draw nigh and to choose "between faith and superstition." He was willing to retain these outward symbols of adoration, but only as signs of the worship of the true God, who is the God of the good and truth-lov- ing, and, strictly speaking, can be honored alone by truthfulness in thought, word, and deed, by purity of motive, and a strictly veracious life. Accounted by his contemporaries a blasphemer, atheist, and fire- brand worthy of death; regarded even by his own adherents after some centuries as the founder of magic, by others as a sorcerer and deceiver, he was nevertheless recognized already by the earliest Greek philosophers as a spiritual leader of the primeval ages of mankind. This identification of Truth with the Supreme Being is, as it would seem, the fundamental article of the Zo- roastrian creed; dimly indicated in the veneration of fire and of the sun, as the emblem of the Divinity; practically enforced in the summary of the moral edu- cation of the Persian youth:—"to speak the truth;" reflected in the Jewish apologue of Zerubbabel's speech in the court of Persia, that "truth is great and shall "prevail." That this creed should at once have drawn the conqueror Cyrus near to his Jewish subjects, as we have already seen, was inevitable. Then comes the confused story of its admixture wit the Magian system, and of its temporary subversions under the domination of that system in the reign of the usurper Smerdis. Nor can it be altogether accidental that, when Da- rius Hystaspes overthrew the Magians and re- established, as he himself records, the true Zo- roastrian worship, the favor of the Jewish race which had been suspended during the Magian supremacy was once more restored. And thus, although it may be that Zoroaster himself lived long before, he rose, as it were, from the grave, in this middle period of the Per- sian dominion, with renewed force; but yet with ele- ments which, if not foreign to his original creed, were strengthened by the Magian influence that henceforth colored it—and of which the Jewish, no less than all the surrounding religions, felt the effect. "Magic"— of which the very name dates from this epoch—that is, the belief in the use of natural and material objects to control or to supersede moral acts—entered from henceforth deeply into the vitals, if not of the Jewish faith, yet certainly of Jewish practice. The veneration for the holy fire, which was kindled from the sacred naph- tha fountains of Persia by the Caspian Sea, penetrated into the Jewish traditions in the story that, when Ne- hemiah rekindled the consecrated fire of theTemple from the stones of the altar, he called it "naphthar," giving it a Hebrew meaning, "a cleansing," though many call it "nephi." Although the returning Jews, as we have seen, were not influenced by the Persian repugnance to temples, ad strictly maintained the exclusive sanctity for sacrificial worship of the sanctuary at Jeru- salem, yet it was in accordance, and probably through contact, with the Persian system of allowing sacrifice to be performed in all places and on every holy hill that there sprang up, side by side with the Temple service at Jerusalem, the more spiritual worship of the synagogue. The Persian doctrine of the Unity and the Invisibility of the Divinity, of a celestial and infernal hierarchy, which had never before received, so to speak, the sanction of the Imperial Powers of the earth, was substantially the counterpart to the corresponding ele- ments of the Hebrew faith. The conclusion, therefore, is, that whilst these doctrines and practices sprang up indigenously in the Israel of this period, from reasons adequate to account for their growth at this particular juncture, yet they must, in all probability, have re- ceived an immense stimulus from the consciousness that the whole atmosphere of the vast neighboring and surrounding Empire was impregnated with the same truths. The small band of exiles must, if they were not exempt altogether from the weakness and strength of human motives, have felt that their confident trust in the Unity of the Divine Will, their belief in the mul- tiplied subordinate ministers of that Will, their intense horror and gradual personification of the principle of Moral Evil, had acquired new form and bone and sub- stance by the sympathy of an older, vaster frame of worship, inspiring and encouraging ideas which they themselves had been led to foster with a new and ex- clusive zeal. Even in detail it is not possible to avoid the conviction that the mystical number of the seven lamps, the seven watchers before the throne of God, were derived directly from the seven Amshaspands ("the "unsleeping ones"), who, like the seven Councillors of the Persian King, encircled the presence of Ormuzd; and the name of the demon Asmodeus in the Book of Tobit is unquestionably the Persian "Aeshma-Deva," the spirit of concupiscence, who at times rose to the rank of the Prince of Demons. But here we must pause. Not only is there no trace of Ahriman by name, but the idea of the separate co- equal existence of Evil with the Good Spirit is un- known to the Judaic creed, and even at the very mo- ment of the first contact between the two systems the Prophet of the Captivity meets the doctrine of an eternal Dualism of Good and Evil—so natural in itself, and so deeply rooted in Zoroastrian theology—by the announcement, as if in express antithesis: "I form "the light and create darkness. I make peace and "create evil. I the Eternal do all these things." And not only are the "watchers" the good and evil spirits of the Book of Daniel, of Tobit, and of Enoch (with the single exception of Asmodeus), called by Hebrew not Persian names, but their functions are different. The beneficent "messengers" are far more closely bound up with human joys and sorrows than the hier- archy which fills the vacant space of the Persian heaven and the malevolent accusers far more completely sub- ordinate to the overruling power of the same Divine Master, to whom both good and evil are as ministers. There is, in short (such seems to be the result of the most recent investigation), a close affinity between the forms which the two religions assumed; but it is the affinity—with the exception of a few details—rather of a common atmosphere of lofty truths, of a simulta- neous sympathy in their view of earthly and heavenly things, than the affinity of direct lineage and disciple- ship. It is a kinship, however, which did not cease with this period of the Jewish history. One great doctrine which, though mainly fostered from another quarter, was to be held in unison by the ancient followers of Zo- roaster and the later followers of Moses and of Isaiah, is yet to be noticed—the immortality of the soul. One vast influence the Persian religion was still to exercise, if not over the Jewish Church itself, yet over that which sprang from its bosom, through the worship of Mithras, which in the early centuries of Christendom was, partly as an ally, partly as a foe, to color the growth of its ritual and its creed. But this is far in the future. The connection of Judaism with the faith of Zoroaster, how- ever explained, is not without instruction. Whatever there be of permanent truth in the substance of any of these beliefs will not lose in value if it was allied or be even traced to a religion so pure and so venerable as that of Zendavesta. Whatever there is of transitory or excessive in the forms of any of these may be the more contentedly dropped if it can be shown to be de- rived from a faith which, however once powerful, now lingers only in the small sect of the Fire-worshippers of Bombay, who alone carry on the once formidable name of "Parsee" or "Persian." 3. If the influence even of Zoroaster and Cyrus on Judaism be open to question, it will not be expected that with the remoter Eastern regions any direct con- nection can be discovered. Once, and once only, in the Hebrew records we catch a doubt- ful glimpse of that strange new race, which has been elo- quently described as to be at the eastern extremity of Asia what Judæa is at the western, "a people dwell- "ing alone and not reckoned among the nations." When the Evangelical Prophet is calling the scattered exiles to return from the uttermost parts of the earth he extends his cry even to those that "come from the land "of Sinim." In that solitary word, is so be, the Em- pire of China rises on the religious horizon of the his- toric world. Not a vestige of its influence can be traced even to the outer circumference of the theatre on which the movement of mankind was then advancing. Yet, having in view the ultimate scope of that move- ment, it is impossible to learn without emotion that in the period which was close within the ken of the Prophet of the Captivity—in the very years in which Ezra was preparing for his mission to Palestine—there drew to its close the career of one whose influence on his own nation was deeper than that of the mighty Scribe. In the year 478 Confucius died, himself the Ezra rather than the Moses of his race; "the transmitter, "not the maker of belief, born not in posses- "sion of knowledge, but loving antiquity and in it "seeking knowledge—for 2,000 years the supreme "and undisputed teacher of this most populous land" —and leaving a memory of himself which is still per- petuated even in the very manners, gestures, and dress of the Chinese of our day—leaving maxims which, though stamped with that homely and pedes- trian character which marks the whole religion of his race, yet still secures for him a place amongst the per- manent teachers of mankind. "The superior man is "catholic and no partisan—the mean man is a par- "tisan and not catholic." "It is the only truly vir- "tuous man who can love, or who can hate others." "Virtue is not left alone. He who practices it will "have neighbors." "To be able to judge of others "by what is in yourselves may be called the Art of "Virtue." "When you are laboring for others, labor "with the same zeal as if it were for yourself." "The "man of perfect virtue, wishing to be established him- "self, seeks also to establish others; wishing to be en- "larged himself, he seeks also to enlarge others." "Is "there one word which may serve as a rule for one's "whole life?" "Is not Reciprocity such a word?" "What you wish not to be done to yourself, do not to "others." In those words we cannot doubt that "an incense of "pure offering went up," as Malachi proclaimed, "to "the Eternal God; even from the rising of the sun." To ask how and why the religion, the empire, the morality of China have not reached as far as and be- yond the level from which they sprang would lead us too far away from this period. 4. There was another career yet wider and nobler than that of Confucius—unknown to him and unknown to Ezra and Malachi—in that vast country, which also is now for a moment, and for the first time, distinctly brought within the view of the Jewish world, although its products had penetrated thither even in the reign of Solomon. "From India "even to Ethiopia"—this was the extreme verge of the dominion of the Persian King, as it appears in the Book of Esther, in describing the struggles of the Per- sian Court, almost in the very year in which, following close upon the death of the great sage of China, there passed away the yet greater sage of India, Sakya Muni, more commonly known as Buddha, "the Bud- "dha," the Enlightened. That extraordinary personage, whose history till within our own generation was wrapped in uncertainty, and whose very existence wad doubted, has suddenly been re- ceived as amongst the foremost characters of the world. "I hesitate not to say that, with the single exception "of Christ, there is, amongst the founders of Religion, "no figure purer of more affecting than that of Bud- "dha. His life is blameless. His constant heroism "equals his conviction; and if the theory which he an- "nounces is false, the personal example that he gives is "irreproachable. He is the finished model of all the "virtues that he preaches; his self-denial, his charity, "his unchangeable sweetness, do not betray him for a "single moment; he abandons at the age of twenty- "nine the court of his aged father to make himself an "ascetic—a beggar. He prepares in silence for his "doctrine by six years of retreat and meditation; he "propagates it, by the sole power of argument and "persuasion, for more than half a century; and when "he dies, in the arms of his disciples, it is with the "serenity of a sage, who has done good all his life, "and who has the assurance of having found the "truth." Wonderful as is the appearance of so sacred a per- son on the scene, it must be confessed that even in the East, widely as his doctrines and institutions have been spread, the impress of his own character has been slight, compared with other founders of religious sys- tems, and certainly with the One to whom, without irreverence, he has been more than once likened; and outside the sphere of his own wide communion his in- fluence, direct or indirect, is almost nothing. One single Buddhist is known to have travelled west- ward in ancient times—he who in the reign of Au- gustus burned himself alive at Athens. It is true that Buddha has been canonized as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church, under the name of S. Josa- phat; but this singular deviation from the exclusive rules of that Church was the result of one of those inadvertencies into which the Church of Rome has so often fallen in directing the faith of its members. Still, it is difficult for those who believe the permanent ele- ments of the Jewish and Christian religion to be uni- versal and Divine not to hail these corresponding forms of truth or goodness elsewhere, or to recognize that the mere appearance of such a saintlike or godlike character in other parts of the earth, if not directly preparing the way for a greater manifestation, illus- trates that manifestation by showing how mighty has been the witness borne to it even under circumstances of such discouragement, and even with effects inade- quate to their grandeur. 5. But the history that opens upon us in the ensu- ing struggles of the Jewish nation compels us to take into account another sphere of intellectual and moral influence, which, unlike those strange appearances in the far East, has worked with direct and potent energy on Judaism and Christianity, and been incorporated in some form or other into the es- sence of both. We have seen the results of the contact of the Jewish race with the Persian monarchy an the Persian relig- ion; we have seen also the rise of the two greatest teachers of China and India, who yet stand apart from the stream of historic movement in which Judaism was the centre. We are about to enter on a blank of three centuries, of which in Palestine we know almost noth- ing. We have looked toward "the rising of the sun" and gathered what we can of the true incense, of the pure offering, which went up from thence. Is there any like or any greater accession of new forces such as the Prophets anticipated to appear from the "going "down of the sun?" Hardly, with the exception of those two or three prophetic utterances which have al- ready been quoted, and which were literally "before "their time," was any eye of Judæan Priest or Teacher turned in that direction. If any Israelite or Syrian looked over the Mediterranean Sea from the heights of Lebanon, the whole Western world seemed to him summed up in the one object within his ken, the dis- tant range of the island of Cyprus or Chittim. It may be that Phœnician traders had brought back from that complex medley of seagirt coasts and promontories, known as the "isles of the sea," a few Ionian slaves, from whom the name of Ion or Javan became familiar to Hebrew ears. It may be that a few Jewish sea- men from Joppa or Accho had served in the army of the great King and shared the struggle in the Bay of Salamis. But no voice yet reaches us from those dis- tant regions. Of the first twelve years of the reign of Xerxes, so teeming with interest for all the world that lay beyond the Hellespont, the Jewish account contains not a word to indicate aught that should ruffle the splendor and frivolity of the Court of Susa. Yet not the less the hour has come when an influence more penetrating than any that we have yet touched is about to burst upon the development of the Jewish Church. Already, at the opening of this period, con- temporaneous with Confucius and Buddha in China and India, had arisen the first fathers of Greek Philos- ophy, Pythagoras and Xenophanes; and Solon. Al- ready the Jews must have heard the first accents of that Grecian tongue which was soon to take its place as the language of their own sacred books, side by side with their native Hebrew. And now, at the very same date as the last of the Judæan Prophets, arose, if not the earliest, yet the most enduring name among the Prophets of the European world. Not by Eastern windows only, When daylight comes, comes in the light; In front the sun climbs slow—how slowly! But Westward look—the land is bright. Clough's Poems, ii. 195. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 196 - 214.
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By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XLVII. (part ii.) ALEXANDRIA, B.C. 333-150. On the material fabric of the city and temple he left his permanent traces in the repairs and fortifica- tion and elevation of the walls, in its double cloister, and the brazen plates with which he encased the huge laver of ablutions. The respect which he won from Antiochus the Great procured from him the timber and stone for the work. The precept which survived of his teaching was: "There are three foundations "of the world—the Law, the Worship (and herein "consisted his peculiar teaching), and Benevolence." In accordance with this gentle humanity is the one anecdote handed down of his private thoughts. "I "never," he said, "could endure to receive the mo- "nastic dedication of the Nazarites. Yet once I made "an exception. There came a youth from the south "to consecrate himself. I looked at him—his eyes "were beautiful, his air magnificent, his long hair fell "clustered in rich curls over his face. 'Why,' I "asked him, 'must you shave off these splendid "'locks?' 'I was a shepherd of my father's flocks,' "he replied, 'in my native village. One day, drawing "'water at the well, I saw with undue complacency "'my reflection in the water. I should have given "'way to a wicked inclination and have been lost. "' I said: "Wicked one, wilt thou be proud of that "'"which does not belong to thee, who art but worms "'"and dust? O God, I will cut off these curls for "'"the honor of Heaven."'" Then said Simon, "I "embraced his head and exclaimed: 'Would that "'there were many such Nazarites in Israel.'" There was yet one other character of the Ptole- mæan period of Palestine, Joshua, the son of Sirach —contemporary or nearly contemporary of Simon— who was conspicuous in his time at once as the great student of the sacred Hebrew literature, as the col- lector of the grave and short sentences of the wise men who went before him, and as himself uttering "some things of his own, full of understanding and "judgment." But the characteristics of his work must be reserved for its appearance in the Greek form in which alone it is now known. We turn from these brief and disjointed notices of the internal history of Palestine under the Ptolemies to the important Jewish settlement more directly connected with them in Egypt. It was close along the sea-shore, directly to the east of Alexandria—probably with a view to the conven- ience of their ablutions in the Mediterranean—that the Jewish colonists chiefly resided; and to this day the burial-ground of their race is on the sandy hillocks in the same situation. They were in such numbers as to be known by the name of "The Tribe." They retained the privileges alleged to have been granted by Alexander, as on a level with the Macedonian set- tlers. The commercial enterprise of the race, never since extinct, now for the first time found an outlet. They gradually became a separate community under their own chief, entitles Ethnarch or Alabarch, and represented more than a third of Alexandria, with a council corresponding to that which ultimately ruled at Jerusalem. This was the only settlement of permanent interest. Other colonies may be traced here and there, under the Ptolomæan rule, in insulated fragments. One was the band of Samaritans, who, still keeping up their deadly feud, retired to the Thebaid. Another was the group of anchorites by the lake Mareotis, the forerunners of the parents of Christian monasticism. Another power- ful community was settled at Cyrene —just become a dependency on Egypt—destined to react on the nation in Palestine by their special synagogue at Jerusalem. Another, still in the future, but drawn by the same friendly influence of the Græco-Egyptian dy- nasty was the settlement at Leontopolis. When, in the subsequent troubles of Palestine, it seemed hat the Temple itself would perish, one of the High Priestly family, Nechoniah or Coniah, in Greek Onias—fled to Egypt, and begged the loan of a deserted temple of Pasht, the Cat-Goddess, in the neighborhood of Heliop- olis. There, with the military experience which he may have acquired in heading a band of troops in one of the Egyptian civil wars, he built a fortress and a temple, which, although on a smaller scale, was to rival that of Jerusalem, where he and his sons, keeping up the martial traditions of the Levitical tribe, formed a powerful body of soldiery, and assumed the name and habits of a camp. The general style of the sanctuary was (apparently) not Jewish but Egyptian. A huge tower—perhaps equivalent to the great gateway of Egyptian temples—rose to the height of sixty cubits. There were no obelisks, but it was approached by the usual long colonnades of pillars. The altar alone re- sembled that of a Jewish temple. But instead of the candlestick a golden chandelier was suspended from the roof by a golden chain. A circuit of brick walls, as in the adjacent sanctuary of Heliopolis, inclosed it, and the ruins of these it is that still form the three rugged sandhills known by the name of "the Mounds of the "Jews." It was a bold attempt to form a new centre of Judaism; and the attempt was supported by one of the earliest efforts to find in the poetic language of the ancient prophets a local, prosaic, and temporary applica- tion. In the growing prediction of the homage which Egypt should hereafter pay to Israel, Isaiah had ex- pressed the hope that there should be five cities in Egypt speaking the language of Canaan and revering the Sacred Name, and that one of these should be the sacred City of the Sun. What had been indicated then as the most surprising triumph—the conversion of the chief sanctuary of the old Egyptian worship to the true religion—was seized by Onias as a proof that in the neighborhood, if not within the walls, of the Sun City—which the Greeks called Heliopolis, and which the Egyptians called On—there should rise a temple of Jehovah. The very name On was a likeness to his own name Onias. The passage of Isaiah was yet further changed to give the city a name more exactly resembling the title of Jerusalem. As the City of the Palestinian sanctuary was called the Holy City, the City of Holiness, so this was supposed to have been foreseen as the Righteous city—the City of Right- eousness. It was, moreover, close within the view of that sacred college where, according to Egyptian tra- dition, Moses himself had studied. But a worship and a system so elaborately built up on doubtful etymol- ogies and plays on ambiguous words was not destined to long endurance; and, although an ample patrimony was granted by the Egyptian kings for the endowment of this new Pontificate, and although the territory round was long called the "land of Onias," and the sanctuary lasted for three centuries, it passed away under the pressure of the Roman government, and left no permanent trace even on the Alexandrian Jews. The failure of such a distorted prediction is a likeness of what may be in store for equally fanciful appli- cations of sacred words and doubtful traditions in more modern times. It may be that round this centre of ancient Jewish traditions, secluded on the border of the desert from the great world of Alexandria, was gathered the opposition to the Grecian learning, which we faintly discern in the next century. But it hand only a local and sectarian existence. The flow of the religious life of the new story of "Israel in Egypt" rolled on regardless of this artificial and insulated sanctuary. The presiding ge- nius of Egyptian Judaism was not the priestly house of Onias, but the royal house of Ptolemy. Over the Jewish colonists, as over their native Egyptian subject, the Ptolemies, at least for the first four reigns, ruled with beneficent toleration. The Egyptian priesthood, after the hard dominion of the Persian iconoclasts, welcomed them as deliverers. The temples were restored or rebuilt after the antique model. The names of the Grecian Kings and Queens were carved in hieroglyphics, and their figures painted on the Temple walls in the disguise of the Pharaohs. And as to the Egyptians they became as Egyptians, to the Jews they became almost as Jews —sending their accustomed sacrifice to the Temple of Jerusalem, and patronizing with lands and privileges the Temple of Leontopolis. The Museum with its unique Library, the scholars who frequented the court —Euclid the geometrician, Apelles the painter, Era- tosthenes the grammarian—brought the Grecian learn- ing to the very doors of the Israelite community. In this fostering atmosphere there sprang up those in- fluences which Alexandria exercised over the Jewish, and thus over the Christian, Church for ever. The first was the translation of the Hebrew Scrip- tures into Greek—the rise of what may properly be termed the Greek Bible. As the meeting of the Greek Empire with the Jewish nation is presented to us in the legend of Alexander's interview with Jaddua, so the meeting of the two sacred languages of Greek and Hebrew is presented to us in the legend of the Seventy Trans- lators. It was believed two centuries later—and how- ever much the details have been shaken by recent crit- icism, the main fact is not doubted—that in the reign of the second Ptolemy the translation of the Pentateuch into Greek was undertaken at Alexandria. It is, Per- haps, most probable that it sprung up spontaneously to supply the ants of the Alexandrian Jews. But the Jewish origin. The story took two forms. One was that King Ptolemy Philadelphus, wishing to discover the difference between the Jews and the Samaritans, summoned five translators—three representing the Samaritans, one Jew, and one assessor. The Samaritans undertook the Pentateuch, the Jew the later Books, and the King approved the Samaritan version. This was, doubtless, the Samaritan tradition. It points to the gradual growth of the work. It may also connect itself with the venerable High Priest Hezekiah, whom Hecatæus met in Egypt, and who appears to have been the chief of the sacerdotal order not in Jerusalem but in Samaria. The larger story is that of which the full account is given in the letter ascribed to Aristeas, a courtier of Ptolemy II. This account rose above the level of the sectarian differences of Jew and Samaritan, and at- tached itself to the wide sympathies of he great patrons of Gentile literature. Ptolemy Philadelphus (thus ran the tale) was resolved to enrich his new li- brary by so important a treasure as an intelligible ver- sion of the sacred books of so large a class of his sub- jects. Seventy-two delegates were sent from the High Priest at Jerusalem—it may be, as in the story, so as to give six from each of the twelve tribes, or in order to correspond to the sum total of the Jewish Council, or in accordance with the mystic number which per- vades this and other eastern stories. A long catalogue existed of the splendid tables, cisterns, and bowls, which Josephus describes as if he had seen them, and which are said to have been sent by Ptolemy at this time as presents to conciliate the Jewish High Priest to the work. A local tradition long pointed out the island of the Pharian lighthouse as the scene of their labors. There, it was believed, they pursued their work, with- drawn in that seagirt fortress from the turmoil of the streets of Alexandria, and with the opportunity of per- forming every morning their religious ablutions in the sea which washed their threshold—and on the shore of which, as late as the second century, were shown the remains of the seventy or the thirty-six cells in which the translators had been lodged, and in which (so the later Alexandrian tradition maintained) each produced by miracle exactly the same inspired version as all the rest, without one error or contradiction. Like all such incidents of the contact between a narrower and a broader civilization, the event itself was by different portions or at different times of the Jewish community invested with totally contrary as- pects. On the other hand, it was regarded as a great calam- ity, equal to that of the worship of the Golden Calf. The day on which it was accomplished was believed to have been the beginning of a preternatural darkness of three days duration over the whole world, and was commemorated as a day of fasting and humiliation. It needs but slight evidence to convince us that such a feeling more or less widely-spread must have existed. It is the same instinct which to this hour makes it a sin, if not an impossibility, in the eyes of a devout Mussulman to translate the Koran; which in the Chris- tian Church assailed Jerome with the coarsest vitupera- tion for venturing on a Latin version which differed from the Greek; which at the Reformation regarded it as a heresy to translate the Latin Scripture into the languages of modern Europe; and which, in England, has in our days regarded it in the English Church as a dangerous innovation to revise the authorised ver- sion of the seventeenth century, or in the Roman Church to correct the barbarous dialect of the Douay translation of the Vulgate, or to admit of any errors in the text or in the rendering of the Vulgate itself. In one and all of these cases the reluctance has sprung from the same tenacious adherence to ancient and sacred forms—from the same unwillingness to admit of the dislodgement even of the most flagrant inaccuracies when once familiarized by established use. But in al- modst all these cases, except perhaps the Koran, this sentiment has been compelled to yield to the more generous desire of arriving at the hidden meaning of sacred truth, and of making that truth more widely known. So it was in the most eminent degree in the case of the Septuagint. The very story, fictitious as it may be, of the splendor of the reception of the trans- lators at Alexandria indicates the pride which was taken in the work. The eagerness of the tradition to connect the translation with the Grecian king and his universal library shows how gladly it was welcomed as a bridge between the Jewish and the Gentile world; the fantastic addition which was made in Christian times of the preternatural inspiration of the seventy translators, shows how readily the new takes the place of the old, and exhibits in the most striking form the transference, which has again and again occurred, of the same reverence, it may be even of the same super- stition for the new version as had formerly clung with exclusive attachment to the old. If ever there was a translation which, by its impor- tance, rose to a level with the original, it was this. It was not the original Hebrew, but the Septuagint translation through which the religious truths of Judaism became known to the Greek and the Roman. It was the Septuagint which was the bible of the Evangelists and Apostles in the first century, and of the Christian Church for the first age of its ex- istence, which is still the only recognized authorized text of the Easter Church, and the basis of the only authorized text of the Latin Church. Widely as it differs from the Hebrew Scriptures in form, in sub- stance, in chronology, in language; unequal, imper- fect, grotesque as are its renderings, it has nevertheless, through large periods of ecclesiastical history, rivalled, if not superseded, those Scriptures themselves. This substitution was, no doubt, in great measure based on the fable of the miraculous accuracy of the translation, and has led to the strangest theological confusions in the treatment of the Bible by the older Churches— which thus claim for two contradictory texts the same authority, and avowedly prefer the translation to the original. But still, on the whole, in the triumph of the Septuagint the cause of freedom, of criticism, of charity triumphed also. No rigid requirement of literal exactness can stand in the presence of the fact that apostles or apostolic men appealed for their arguments to a translation so teeming with acknowledged mis- takes. No criticism need fear to handle freely the Sacred Volume, in which the Alexandrian translators ventured on such bold variations, accommodations, omis- sions, and insertions, with the applause of the Christian world from Irenæus to Augustine. Whatever religious scruple is felt at circulating occasional errors, in the hope of inculcating the general truth with which they have been entangled, should disappear before the ex- ample of the authoritative and universal use, in early times, of the Septuagint, which differs far more widely from the original, and is far more deeply imbued with the natural infirmity of translators, than any other ver- sion of the Bible that has ever since appeared. Again, the gradual completion of the translation dragging its slow length along for at least two centu- ries, is an encouragement to the laborious ef- forts of modern scholars, each adding something to the knowledge of the preceding time. The use to which the Seventy turned their knowledge of Egyptian localities and customs is faint, yet sufficient stimulus, in the interpretation of the Scriptures, to the duty of seeking light far and near. The honest silence with which, when the Greek translators stumble upon He- brew words, such as those describing the furniture of the Temple, or the tunes of the Psalms, they hold their pens, and leave the unintelligible phrases in their native obscurity unexplained, is an example of the modest love of truth, capable of confessing its own ignorance—a modesty such as many translators and interpreters have grievously lacked. If "the noble "army of translators," as they have been sometimes called, may look with affectionate veneration on Je- rome's cell of Bethlehem, on Luther's study in the Castle of the Wartburg, on the Jerusalem Chamber, where twice over the majestic language of the English Bible has been revised, yet the place of their most sacred pilgrimage should be the narrow rocky islet of the Alexandrian harbor, where was kindled a brighter and more enduring beacon in the intellectual and re- ligious sphere even than the world-renowned Pharos, which in the maritime world has been the parent of all the lights that from shore to shore and sea to sea have guided the mariners of two thousand years. We do not propose to follow their labor into detail, or to give the various instances of the liberties taken with the sacred text, lengthening the chronology to suit the more exacting claims of Egyptian science, softening the anthropomorphic representations of the Divinity to meet the requirements of Grecian philos- ophy. One example alone shall be given of the connection of the translation with the Alexandrian Court and with Hellenic culture. There was a tradition in the Tal- mud that in the Pentateuch, in rendering the word Arnebeth ("hare') not by lagos (the usual Greek word for hare) but by dasypus (hairy-foot), the Greek translators were influenced or controlled by the desire to avoid so homely a use of the name of Lagus, the father of the Ptolemæan dynasty. The mere suppo- sition of such a courtly concession on so minute a point implies a dependence on the Greek sovereign, before which grows pale even the dedication of the Authorized English Version of King James I., or Sixtus V.'s imperious preface to the Vulgate. But though it is hardly necessary or probable to resort to so strange a hypothesis, the real explanation leads us to the inter- vention of another influence on the text far more reasonable and equally curious. The substitution of the word dasypus for lagos was not uncommon at this time, but for its frequency there was a cause more interesting than the power of the Lagidæ. The con- quests of Alexander had contributed to the production of a more permanent monument of his progress than the dynasties of the Ptolemies. On the specimens sent home to his great teacher had been founded and pub- lished the great scientific work of ancient times, Aristotle's "History of Animals." In it the modern word dasypus had almost entirely superseded the older, and it might, therefore, well be expected that the translators at Alexandria should catch the new fashion. But there was an even yet more striking example of Aristotle's influence on this passage. In that same context the hare in the Hebrew Scriptures is classed among the unclean animals as being a ruminating ani- mal. In the old world, before the birth of accurate observations, that which had the appearance of rumi- nation had been taken for the reality, and was so de- scribed. But by the time the Greek translators ap- proached this text, the secret of the habits of the hare had been disclosed by the natural history of Aris- totle, and, accordingly, on this minute point arose the first direct conflict, often since repeated, between Theology and Science. The venerable translators who were at work, if so be, on the Pharos island, were too conscientious to reject so clear an evidence of the fact; but they were too timid to allow the contradic- tion to appear, and they therefore, with the usual rashness of fear, boldly interpolated the word NOT into the sacred text, and thus, as they thought, reconciled it to science by reversing the meaning of the whole passage. There have since been many falsifications of Science to meet the demands of theology. This is the first instance of many like falsifications of Scrip- ture to meet the demands of Science. The appearance of the Septuagint translation was important not only in itself, but as affording a new opening for constant additions to the sacred volume. The Hebrew Literature had come nearly to a end. If here and there a fresh Hebrew book or a fresh Hebrew Psalm might be added, their entrance was more or less covert, ambiguous, and ques- tionable. But the Greek literature was sill abound- ing, and into that vast world the Jewish world was now entering. From this time forward, with very few ex- ceptions, any new sacred book which should win its way must be part not of the Hebrew, but of the Greek Bible. The tents of Shem were closed, but the doors of Japheth were expanded with a never-ending en- largement. The first pages of this Greek volume began with the Grecian translation of the Pentateuch; but its last pages were not closed till they had included the last of the writings which bore the name of St. John. This was the chief outward bond between the Jewish and the Christian Scriptures. By this unity of the sacred language the beginning and end of the sacred literature were indissolubly united, and not only so, but by its intervention was filled the gap between the Old and the New Testament, thus veiling their differences under the common garb of Greek. Into that vacant space, clothed in the same language, stole in those Greek books, which in the Latin Church have been called Deuterocanonical, and in the Protestant Churches Apocryphal, but which in the early ages of Christianity were blended, under the common sanction of the Septuagint, with the earlier books which closed with Malachi, the Chronicles, or Daniel, according to the varying order in which the Hebrew books were arranged. It may be necessary to give briefly the history of the generic title of these books. 1. By the early church they were (when reckoned as canonical) called "Ecclesiastical," i. e., books read in public services of the church. 2. By the Roman Catholic church, at least since the Council of Trent, they have been called "Deutero- "canonical," a title of inferiority which well expresses their relation in regard to the Hebrew books, but s hardly consistent with the entire equality with the canonical books to which they have been raised by the Council of Trent and more recently by the Council of the Vatican. 3. By the Protestant churches they have been called "Apocryphal," a name which has passed through three phases: 1. A title of praise bestowed by the Gnostics on their own books of "hidden wisdom." 2. A title of re- proach bestowed by the early church on the spurious Gospels and the like literature, with the view of stigma- tizing them with the same name as that applied to the Gnostic books. 3. The title of the Deuterocanonical books of the O. T., first given by Wycliffe, and finally adopted by the Protestant churches at the Reforma- tion (see Professor Westcott's The Bible in the Church; Professor Plump- tre in the Dictionary of the Bible, Art. "Apocrypha"). The introduction of these writings into the very heart of the ancient Scriptures has had wider conse- quences than is often recognized. In some respects, no doubt, it has had a debasing effect on the religious systems which have been founded on the mixed volume resulting from such addi- tions. The books of this second Canon partook largely of the enfeebled style, the exaggerated rhetoric, the rigid exclusiveness, which characterized the history and literature of the nation after the return from the Cap- tivity. It was, thus far, a true instinct which has caused the Rabbinical schools to denounce the perusal of these writings with a severity like that of the Roman Index. "He who studies the uncanonical books will "have no portion in the world to come." "He who "introduces in to his house more than the twenty-four "introduces confusion." And the like condemnation has been felt, if not expressed, by those Protestant Churches or teachers who have most eagerly excluded from use any Bible or Calendar that contains them. But there is another side to the question. These writ- ings, if not deserving to be called "Canonical," as by the Church of Rome, or "inspired," though not "ca- "nonical," Scriptures, as by the Church of England, are invaluable as keeping alive, not only the continuity of the sacred literature, but the sense of the gradations of excellence even in sacred books; and thus serving as a perpetual protest against the uniform, rigorous, rigid, levelling theory of religious excellence, which has been the bane of all theology, and which has tended so greatly to obscure the true meaning and purpose even of the earlier Hebrew Scriptures. It is humorously told in a famous romance of our day how the pious peasant, who read through the whole Bible regularly, though he felt a certain disappointment on reading the Apocrypha, yet rejoiced in the freedom which it afforded of innocent criticism from which he had been hitherto withheld. That sentiment and that advantage are not confined to the English peasant. The free thought which thus played around the Apocryphal books nurtured a spirit of inquiry from which the whole Bible has gained. When Jerome attacked the improbabilities in the Song of the Three Children in the Greek part of Daniel, he was using exactly the same weapons which Porphyry used against the early date of the Hebrew parts of the same book. The more enlightened members of the Roman Church, who have been familiarized with the admixture of legendary matter in the Books of Tobit and Judith, have been more ready, though in defiance of the decrees and usages of their communion, to recognize the like ele- ments in the Books of the Pentateuch or of the judges. And even to those who (as in many Protestant Churches) refuse to concede any rank of the Books of the Apocrypha, a solid advantage has accrued from in- voluntary familiarity with writings so nearly Biblical in tone and spirit, and yet by the traditions of their sect or family excluded from the Bible. In an affecting pas- sage in his autobiography John Bunyan relates how he was for a long period at once comforted and perplexed by finding deep inward relief from words for which he vainly sought within the four corners of his Bible: "Look at that generation of old and see; did ever any "trust in the Lord and was confounded?" "Then I "continued," he said, "above a year and could not "find the place; but at last, casting my eyes upon the "Apocrypha books, I found it in the tenth verse of the "second chapter of Ecclesiasticus. This at the first "did somewhat daunt me; because it was not in those "texts that we call holy or canonical. Yet, as this sen- "tence was the sum and substance of many of the "promises, it was my duty to take the comfort of it, and "I bless God for that word, for it was of good to me. "That word doth still ofttimes shine before my face." The discovery which Bunyan thus made of a source of consolation outside the "canonical texts" has a far wider application than the particular instance which so moved him. It opens as it were a postern-door into the charmed circle of the sacred books. It calls our attention to the fact that there were writings which, though denied a place in the Canonical Scriptures, yet shade away from the outskirts of those Scriptures into the Grecian philosophy an poetry, and have been acknowledged by grave theologians, and even by Prot- estant Churches, to be inspired by the same Divine Spirit that breathed, though in fuller tones, through Isaiah or through David. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From The Captivity To The Christian Era, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 278 - 395.
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By Charles Dickens CHAPTER XXII. (part i.) A Gritty State of Things comes on. MR. TARTAR'S chambers were the neatest, the clean- est, and the best-ordered chambers ever seen under the sun, moon, and stars. The floors were scrubbed to the extent that you might have supposed the London blacks emancipated forever and gone out of the land for good. Every inch of brass work in Mr. Tartar's possession was polished and burnished till it shone like a brazen mir- ror. No speck, nor spot, nor spatter soiled the purity of any of Mr. Tartar's household gods, large, small, or mid- dle-sized. His sitting-room was like the admiral's cabin; his bath-room was like a dairy; his sleeping- chamber, fitted all about with lockers and drawers, was like a seedman's shop; and his nicely balanced cot just stirred in the midst as if it breathed. Everything be- longing to Mr. Tartar had quarters of its own assigned to it; his maps and charts had their quarters; his books had theirs; his brushes had theirs; his boots had theirs; his clothes had theirs; his case-bottles had theirs. Every- thing was readily accessible. Shelf, bracket, locker, hook, and drawer, were equally within reach, and were equally contrived with a view to avoiding waste of room, and providing some snug inches of stowage for some- thing that would have exactly fitted nowhere else. His gleaming little service of plate was so arranged upon his sideboard as that a slack of salt-spoon would have in- stantly betrayed itself; his toilet implements were so arranged upon his dressing-table as that a toothpick of slovenly deportment could have been reported at a glance. So with the curiosities he had brought home from various voyages. Stuffed, dried, repolished, or otherwise preserved, according to their kind: bird, fishes, reptiles, arms, articles of dress, shells, sea-weeds, glasses, or memorials of coral reef; each was displayed in no better place. Paint and varnish seemed to be kept somewhere out of sight, in constant readiness to obliter- ate stray finger-marks wherever any might become per- ceptible in Mr. Tartar's chambers. No man-of-war was ever kept more spick and span from careless touch. On this bright summer day a neat awning was rigged over Mr. Tartar's flower-garden as only a sailor could rig it; and there was a sea-going air upon the whole effect so delightfully complete that the flower-garden might have appertained to stern-windows afloat, and the whole con- cern might have bowled away gallantly with all on board, if Mr. Tartar had only clapped to his lips the speaking-trumpet that was slung in a corner, and given hoarse orders to have anchors up, look alive there, men, and get all sail upon her! Mr. Tartar, doing the honors of his gallant craft, was of a piece with the rest. When a man rides an amiable hobby that shies at nothing and kicks nobody, it is only agreeable to find him riding it with a humorous sense of the droll side of the creature. When the man is a cordial and an earnest man by nature, and withal is per- fectly fresh and genuine, it may be doubted whether he is ever seen to greater advantage than at such a time. So Rosa would have naturally thought (even if she hadn't been conducted over the ship with all the homage due to the First Lady of the Admiralty, or First Fairy of the Sea), that it was charming to see and hear Mr. Tartar half laughing at, and half rejoicing in his various con- trivances. So Rosa would have naturally thought, any- how, that the sunburnt sailor showed great advantage when the inspection finished, he delicately withdrew out out of his Admiral's Cabin, beseeching her to consider herself its Queen, and waving her free of his flower- garden, with the hand that had had Mr. Crisparkle's life in it. "Helena! Helena Landless! Are you there?" "Who speaks to me? Not Rosa?" Then a second handsome face appearing. "Yes, my darling!" "Why, how did you come here, dearest?" "I——I don't quite know," said Rosa with a blush; "unless I am dreaming!" Why with a blush? For their two faces were alone with the other flowers. Are blushes among the fruits of the country of the magic beanstalk. "I am not dreaming," said Helena, smiling. "I should take more for granted if I were. How do we come together——or so near together——so very unex- pectedly?" Unexpectedly indeed, among the dingy gables and chimney-pots of P. J. T.'s connection, and the flowers that sprang from the salt sea. But Rosa, waking, told in a hurry how they came to be together, and all the why and wherefore of that matter. "And Mr. Crisparkle is here," said Rosa, in rapid con- clusion: "and could you believe it? Long ago, he saved his life!" "I could believe any such thing of Mr. Crisparkle, returned Helena, with a mantling face." (More blushes in the Beanstalk country!) "Yes, but it wasn't Mr. Crisparkle," said Rosa, quickly putting in the correction. "I don't understand, love." "It was very nice of Mr. Crisparkle to be saved," said Rosa, "and he couldn't have shown his high opinion of Mr. Tartar more expressively. But it was Mr. Tartar who saved him." Helena's dark eyes looked very earnestly at the bright face shining among the leaves, and she asked, in a slower and more thoughtful tone,—— "Is Mr. Tartar with you now, dear?" "No; because he has given up his rooms to me,——to us, I mean. It is such a beautiful place!" "Is it?" "It is like the inside of the most exquisite ship that ever sailed. It is like——it is like——" "Like a dream?" suggested Helena. Rosa answered with a little nod, and smelled the flowers. Helena resumed, after a short pause of silence, during which she seemed (for it was Rosa's fancy) to compas- sionate somebody: "My poor Neville is reading in his own room, the sun being so very bright on this side just now. I think he had better not know that you are so near." "O, I think so, too!" cried Rosa, very readily. "I suppose," pursued Helena, doubtfully, "that he must know by and by all you have told me; but I am not sure. Ask Mr. Crisparkle's advice, my darling. Ask him whether I may tell Neville as much or as little of what you have told me as I think best." Rosa subsided into her state-cabin, and propounded the question. The Minor Canon was for the free ex- ercise of Helena's judgment. "I thank him very much," said Helena, when Rosa emerged again with her report. "Ask him whether it would be best to wait until any more maligning and pur- suing of Neville on the part of this wretch shall disclose itself, or to try to anticipate it: I mean, so far as to find out whether any such goes on darkly about us?" The Minor Canon found this point so difficult to give a confident opinion on, that, after two or three attempts and failures, he suggested a reference to Mr. Grewgious. Helena acquiescing, he betook himself (with a most un- successful assumption of lounging indifference) across the quadrangle to P. J. T.'s, and stated it. Mr. Grewgi- ous held decidedly to the general principle that if you could steal a march upon a brigand or a wild beast, you had better do it; and he also held decidedly to the special case that John Jasper was a brigand and a wild beast in combination. Thus advised, Mr. Crisparkle came back again and re- ported to Rosa, who in her turn reported to Helena. She, now steadily pursuing her train of thought at her window, considered thereupon. "We may count on Mr. Tartar's readiness to help us, Rosa, she inquired. O yes! Rosa shyly thought so. O yes, Rosa shyly be- lieved she could almost answer for it. But should she ask Mr. Crisparkle? "I think your authority on the point as good as his, my dear," said Helena, sedately, "and you needn't disappear again for that." Odd of Helena! "You see, Neville," Helena pursued after more re- flection, "knows no one else here; he has not so much as exchanged a word with any one else here. If Mr. Tartar would call to see him openly and often; if he would spare a minute for the purpose, frequently; if he would even do so, almost daily; something might come of it." "Something might come of it, dear?" repeated Rosa, surveying her friend's beauty with a highly perplexed face. "Something might?" "If Neville's movements are really watched, and if the purpose really is to isolate him from all friends and acquaintance and wear his daily life out, grain by grain (which would seem to be the threat to you), does it not appear likely," said Helena, "that his enemy would in some way communicate with Mr. Tartar to warn him off from Neville? In which case we might not only know the fact, but might know from Mr. Tartar what the terms of the communication were." "I see!" cried Rosa. And immediately darted into her state-cabin again. Presently her pretty face reappeared, with a greatly heightened colour, and she said that she had told Mr. Crisparkle, and that Mr. Crisparkle had fetched in Mr. Tartar, and that Mr. Tartar——"who is waiting now in case you want him," added Rosa, with a half-look back, and in not a little confusion, between the inside of the state-cabin and out——had declared his readiness to act as she had suggested, and to enter on his task that very day. "I thank him from my heart," said Helena. "Pray tell him so." Again not a little confused between the Flower-garden and the Cabin., Rosa dipped in with her message, and dipped out again with more assurances from Mr. Tartar, and stood wavering in a divided state between Helena and him, which proved that confusion is not always necessarily awkward, but may sometimes present a very pleasant appearance. "And now, darling," said Helena, "we will be mind- ful of the caution that has restricted us to this interview for the present, and will part. I hear Neville moving too. Are you going back?" "To Miss Twinkleton's?" asked Rosa. "Yes." "O, I could never go there anymore; I couldn't indeed, after that dreadful interview!" said Rosa. "Then where are you going, pretty one?" "Now I come to think of it, I don't know," said Rosa. "I have settled nothing at all yet, but my guardian will take care of me. Don't be uneasy, dear. I shall be sure to be somewhere." (It did seem likely.) "And I shall hear of my Rosebud from Mr. Tartar?" inquired Helena. "Yes, I suppose so; from——" Rosa looked back again in a flutter, instead of supplying the name. "But tell me one thing before we part, dearest Helena. Tell me that you are sure, sure, sure, I couldn't help it." "Help it, love?" "Help making him malicious and revengeful. I couldn't hold any terms with him, could I?" "You know how I love you, darling," answered Hel- en, with indignation, "but I would sooner see you dead at his wicked feet." "That's a great comfort to me. And you will tell your poor brother so, won't you? And you will give him my remembrance and sympathy? And you will ask him not to hate me." With a mournful shake of the head, as if that would be quite a superfluous entreaty, Helena lovingly kissed her two hand to her friend, and her friend's two hands were kissed to her, and then she saw a third hand (a brown one) appear among the flowers and leaves, and help her friend out of sight. The reflection that Mr. Tartar produced in the Admir- al's Cabin by merely touching the spring knob in a locker and the handle of a drawer, was a dazzling enchanted repast. Wonderful macaroons, glittering liqueurs, mag- ically preserved tropical spices, and jellies of celestial tropical fruits, displayed themselves profusely at an instant's notice. But Mr. Tartar could not make time stand still; and time, with his hard-hearted fleetness, strode on so fast that Rosa was obliged to come down from the Beanstalk country to earth and her guardian's chambers. "And now, my dear," said Mr. Grewgious, "what is to be done next? To put the same thought in another form; what is to be done with you?" Rosa could only look apologetically sensible of being very much in her own way, and in everybody else's. Some passing idea of living, fire-proof, up a good many stairs in Furnival's Inn for the rest of her life was the only thing in the nature of a plan that occurred to her. "It has come to my thoughts," said Mr. Grewgious, "that as the respected lady Miss Twinkleton, occasion- ally repairs to London in the recess, with the view of extending her connection, and being available for inter- views with metropolitan parents, if any,——whether, until we have time in which to turn ourselves round, we might invite Miss Twinkleton to come and stay with you for a month?" "Stay where, sir?" "Whether, explained Mr. Grewgious, "we might take a furnished lodging in town for a month, and invite Miss Twinkleton to assume the charge of you in it for that period?" "And afterwards?" hinted Rosa. "And afterwards," said Mr. Grewgious, "we should be no worse off than we are now." "I think that might smooth the way," assented Rosa. "Then let us," said Mr. Grewgious, rising, "go and look for a furnished lodging. Nothing could be more acceptable to me than the sweet presence of last evening for all the remaining evenings of my existence; but these are not fit surroundings for a young lady. Let us set out in quest of adventures, and look for a furnished lodging. In the meantime, Mr. Crisparkle here, about to return home immediately, will no doubt kindly see Miss Twinkleton and invite that lady to co-operate in our plan." Mr. Crisparkle, willingly accepting the commission, took his departure; Mr. Grewgious and his ward set forth on their expedition. As Mr. Grewgious' idea of looking at furnished lodg- ing was to get on the opposite side of the street to a house with a suitable bill in the window, and stare at it; and then work his way tortuously to the back of the house, and stare at that; and then not go in, but make similar trials of another house, with the same result, their progress was but slow. At length he bethought himself of a widowed cousin, divers times removed, of Mr. Bazzard's, who had once solicited his influence in the lodger world, and who lived in Southampton Street, Bloomsbury Square. This lady's name stated in uncompromising capitals of considerable size on a brass door-plate, and yet not lucidly as to sex or condition was BILLICKIN. Personal faintness and an overpowering personal can- dour were the distinguishing features of Mrs. Billickin's organization. She came languishing out of her own ex- clusive back parlour, with the air of having been ex- pressly brought to for the purpose from an accumulation of several swoons. "I hope I see you well, sir," said Mrs. Billickin, re- cognizing her visitor with a bend. "Thank you, quite well. And you, ma'am," returned Mr. Grewgious. "I am as well," said Mrs. Billickin, becoming aspira- tional with excess of saintness, "as I hever ham." "My ward and an elderly lady," said Mr. Grewgious, "wish to find a genteel lodging for a month or so. Have you any apartments available, ma'am?' "Mr. Grewgious," returned Mrs. Billickin, "I will not deceive you, far from it. I have apartments availa- ble." "This with the air of adding, "Convey me to the stake, if you will, but while I live, I will be candid." "And now, what apartments, ma'am" asked Mr. Grewgious cosily, to tame a certain severity apparent on the part of Mrs. Billickin. "There's this sitting-room,——which call it what you will, it is the front parlour, miss," said Mrs. Billickin, impressing Rosa into the conversation; "the back par- lour being what I cling to and never part with it; and there is two bedrooms at the top of the 'ouse with gas laid on. I do not tell you that your bedroom floors is firm, for firm they are not. The gasfitter himself al- lowed that to make a firm job, he must go right under your jistes, and it were not worth the outlay as a yearly tenant so to do. The piping is carried above your jistes, and it is best that it should be made known to you." Mr. Grewgious and Rosa exchanged looks of some dismay, though they had not the least idea what latent horrors this carriage of the piping might involve. Mrs. Billickin put her hand to her heart, as having eased it of a load. "Well! The root is all right, no doubt," said Mr. Grewgious plucking up a little. "Mr. Grewious," returned Mr. Billickin, "if I was to tell you, sir, that to have nothink above you, is to have a floor above you, I should put a deception upon you, which I will not do. No, sir. Your slates WILL rattle loose at that elewation in windy weather, do your utmost, best or worst! I defy you, sir, be you what you may, to keep your slates tight, try how you can." Here Mrs. Billickin having been warm with Mr. Grewgious, cooled a little, not to abuse the moral power she held over him. "Consequently," proceeded Mrs. Billickin, more mildly, but still firmly in her incorruptible can- dour,——"consequently it would be worse than of no use for me to trapse and travel up to the top of the 'ouse with you, and for you to say 'Mrs. Billickin what stain do I notice in the ceiling, for a stain I do consider it?' and for me to answer, 'I do not understand you, sir.' No, sir; I will not be so underhand. I do understand you before you p'int it out. It is the wet, sir. It do come in, and it do not come in. You may lay dry there half your life-time, but the time will come, and it is the best that you should know it, when a dripping sop would be no name for you." Mr. Grewgious looked much disgraced by being pre- figured in this pickle. "Have you any other apartments, ma'am?" he asked. "Mr. Grewgious," returned Mrs. Billickle, with much solemnity, "I have. You ask me have I, and my open and my honest answer air, I have. The first and second floors is wacant, and sweet rooms." "Come, come? There's nothing against them," said Mr. Grewgious, comforting himself. "Mr. Grewgious," replied Mrs. Billickin, "pardon me, there is the stairs, unless your mind is prepared for the stairs, it will lead to inevitable disappointment. You cannot, miss," said Mrs. Billickin, addressing Rosa, re- proachfully, "place a first floor, and far less a second, on the level footing of a parlour. No you cannot do it, Miss, it is beyond your power, and wherefore try?" Mrs. Billickin put it very feelingly, as if Rosa had shown a headstrong determination to hold the untenable position. "Can we see these rooms, ma'am?" inquired her guardian. "Mr. Grewgious," returned Mrs. Billickin, "you can. I will not disguise it from you, sir, you can." Mrs. Billickin then sent into her back parlour for her shawl (it being a state fiction dating from immemorial antiquity, that she could never go anywhere without being wrapped up), and having been enrolled by her at- tendant led the way. She made various genteel pauses on the stairs for breath, and clutched at her heart in the drawing-room as if it had very nearly got loose, and she had caught it in the act of taking wing. "And the second floor?" said Mr. Grewgious, on find- ing the first satisfactory. "Mr. Grewgious," replied Mr. Billickin, turning upon him with ceremony, as if the time had now come when a distinct understanding on a difficult point must be ar- rived at, and a solemn confidence established, "the sec- ond floor is over this." "Can we see that too, ma'am?" "Yes, sir," returned Mr. Billickin, "it is open as the day." That also proving satisfactory, Mr. Grewgious retired into a window with Rosa for a few words of consultation, and then, asking for pen and ink, sketched out a line or two of agreement. In the mean time Mrs. Billickin took a seat, and delivered and kind of Index to, or Abstract of, the general question. "Five-and-forty shillings per week by the month cer- tain at the time of year," said Mrs. Billickin, "is only reasonable to both parties. It is not Bond Street nor yet St. James's Palace; but it is not pretended that it is. Neither is it attempted to be denied——for why should it? ——that the Arching leads to a Mews. Mewses must ex- ist. Respecting attendance; two is kep' at liberal wages. Words has arisen as to a tradesman, but dirty shoes on fresh hearth-stoning was attributable, and no wish for a commission on your orders. Coal is either by the fire. or per the scuttle." She emphasized the prepositions as marking a subtle but immense difference. "Dogs is not viewed with favour. Besides litter, they gets stole, and sharing suspicions is apt to creep in, and unpleasantness takes place." By this time Mr. Grewgious had his agreement-lines and his earnest-money ready. "I have sighned it for the ladies, ma'am, he said, "and you'll have the goodness to sign it for yourself, Christian and Surname, there, if you please." "Mr. Grewgious," said Mrs. Billickin, in a new burst of candour, "no, sir. You must excuse the Christian name." Mr. Grewgious stared at her. "The door-plate is used as a protection," said Mrs. Billickin, "and acts as such, and go from it I will not." Mr. Grewgious stared at Rosa. "No, Mr. Grewgious, you must excuse me. So long as this 'ouse is known indefinite as Billickin's and so long as it is a doubt with the riff-raff where Billickin may be hidin', near the street door or down the airy, and what his weight and size, so long I feel safe. But commit myself a solitary female statement, no, Miss? Nor would you, for a moment wish," said Mrs. Billickin, with a strong sense of injury. "to take advantage of your sex, if you was not brought to it by inconsiderate example." Rosa, reddening as if she had made some most dis- graceful attempt to overreach the good lady, besought Mr. Grewgious to rest content with any signature. And accordingly, in a baronical way, the sign-manual BIL- LICKIN got appended to the document. Details were then settled for taking possession on the next day but one, when Miss Twinkleton might be reas- onably expected; and Rosa went back to Furnival's Inn on her guardian's arm. Behold Mr. Tartar walking up and down Furnival's Inn, checking himself when he saw them coming, and advancing towards them! "It occurred to me," hinted Mr. Tartar, "that we might go up the river, the weather being so delicious and the tide serving. I have a boat down at the Temple Stairs." "I have not been up the river for many a day," said Mr. Grewgious, tempted. "I was never up the river," added Rosa. Within half an hour they were setting this matter right by going up the river. The tide was running with them, the afternoon was charming. Mr. Tartar's boat was perfect. Mr. Tartar and Lobley (Mr. Tartar's an) pulled a pair of oars. Mr. Tartar had a yacht, it seem- ed, lying somewhere down by Greenhithe, and Mr. Tar- tar's man had charge of this yacht and was detached up- on his present service. He was a jolly favoured man, with tawny hair and whiskers, and a big red face. He was the dead image of the sun in old woodcuts, his hair and whiskers answering for rays all round him. Re- splendent in the bow of a boat, he was a shining sight, with a man-of-war's man's shirt on ,——or off, according to opinion,——and his arms and breast all tattooed all sorts of patterns. Lobley seemed to take it easily, and so did Mr. Tartar; yet their oars bent as they pulled, and the boat bounded under them. Mr. Tartar talked as if he were doing nothing, to Rosa, who was really doing noth- ing, and to Mr. Grewgious, who was doing this much that he steered all wrong; but what did that matter when a turn of Mr. Tartar's skillful wrist, or a mere grin of Mr. Lobley's over the bow, put all to rights! The tide bore them on in the gayest and most sparking man- ner, until they stopped to dine in some everlastingly green garden, needing no matter-of-fact identification here; and then the tide obligingly turned,——being de- voted to that party alone for that day; and as they float- ed idly among some osier beds, Rosa tried what she could do in the rowing way, and came off splendidly, being much assisted; and Mr. Grewgious tried what he could do, and came off on his back, doubled up with an oar under his chin, being not assisted at all. Then there was an interval of rest under boughs (such rest!) what time Mr. Lobley mopped, and, arranging cushions, stretchers, and the like, danced the tight-rope the whole length of the boat like a man to whom shoes were a sup- erstition and stockings slavery; and then came the sweet return among delicious odours of limes in bloom, and musical ripplings; and all too soon the great black city cast its shadow on the waters, and its dark bridges spanned them as death spans life, and the everlastingly green garden seemed to be left for everlasting, unregain- able and far away. "Cannot people get through life without gritty stages, I wonder!" Rosa thought next day, when the town was very gritty again, and everything had a strange and uncomfortable appearance of seeming to wait for something that wouldn't come? No. She began to think that now the Cloisterham school days had glided past and gone, the gritty stages would begin to set in at intervals and make themselves wearily known! Yet what did Rosa expect? Did she expect Miss Twinkleton? Miss Twinkleton duly came. Forth from her back parlour issued the Billickin to receive Miss Twinkleton, and War was in the Billickin's eye from that fell moment. Miss Twinkleton bought a quantity of luggage with her, having all Rosa's as well as her own. The Billickin took it ill that Miss Twinkleton's mind, being sorely dis- turbed with this luggage, failed to take in her personal identity with that clearness of perception which was due to its demands. Stateliness mounted her gloomy throne upon the Billickin's brow in consequence. And when Miss Twinkleton, in agitation, taking stock of her trunks and packages, of which she had seventeen, par- ticularly counted in the Billickin herself as number eleven, the B. found it necessary to repudiate. "Things cannot be too soon put upon the footing," said she, with a candour so demonstrative as to be almost obstrusive, "that the person of the 'ouse is not a box nor yet a bundle, nor yet a carpet-bag. No, I am 'ily obleeged to you, Miss Twinkleton, nor yet a beggar." This last disclaimer had reference to Miss Twinkleton's distractedly pressing two and sixpence on her instead of the cab-man. Thus cast off, Miss Twinkleton wildly inquired "Which gentleman" was to be paid? There being two gentlemen in that position (Miss Twinkleton having arrived with two cabs), each gentleman, on being paid, held forth his two and sixpence on the flat of his open hand, and with a speechless stare and a dropped jaw displayed his wrong to heaven and earth. Terrified by this alarming spectacle, Miss Twinkleton placed another shilling in each hand, at the same time appealing to the law in flurried accents and recounting her luggage, this time with the two gentlemen in, who caused the total to come out complicated. Meanwhile the two gentlemen, each looking very hard at the last shilling grumblingly, as if it might become eighteenpence if he kept his eyes on it, descended the doorsteps, ascended their carriages, drove away, leaving Miss Twinkleton on a bonnet box in tears. 
from Collier's Unabridged Edition: The Works of Charles Dickens, Volume VI. P.F. Collier, Publisher, New York, old as heck. pp. 1173 - 1176
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By Charles Dickens II. The Shipwreck. NEVER had I seen a year going out, or going on, under quieter circumstances. Eighteen hundred and fifty-nine had but another day to live, and truly its end was Peace on that sea-shore that morning. So settled and orderly was everything seaward, in the bright light of the sun and under the transparent shad- ows of the clouds, that it was hard to imagine the bay otherwise, for years past or to come, than it was that very day. The Tug steamer lying a little off the shore, the Lighter lying nearer to the shore, the boat along- side the Lighter, the regular turning windlass aboard the Lighter, the methodical figures at work, all slowly and regularly heaving up and down with the breathing of the sea,——all seemed as much a part of the nature of the place as the tide itself. The tide was on the flow, and had been for some two hours and a half; there was a slight obstruction in the sea within a few yards of my feet, as if the stump of a tree, with earth enough about it to keep in from lying horizontally on the water, had slipped a little from the land; and as I stood upon the beach, and observed it dimpling the light swell that was coming in, I cast a stone over it. So orderly, so quiet, so regular,——the rising and falling of the Tug steamer, the Lighter, and the boat,——the turning of the windlass,——the coming of the tide,——that I myself seemed, to my own thinking, anything but new to the spot. Yet I had never seen it in my life a minute before, and had traversed two hundred miles to get at it. That very morning I had come bowling down, and strug- gling up, hill-country roads; looking back at snowy summits; meeting courteous peasants well to do, driving fat pigs and cattle to market; noting the neat and thrifty dwellings, with their unusual quantity of clean white linen drying on he bushes ; having windy weather sug- gested by every cotter's little rick, with its thatch straw-ridged and extra straw-ridged into overlapping compartments, like the back of a rhinoceros. Had I not given a lift of fourteen miles to the Coast Guardsman (kit and all) who was coming to his spell of duty there, and had we not just now parted company? So it was; but the journey seemed to glide down into the placid sea, with other chafe and trouble, and for the moment nothing was so calmly and monotonously real under the sunlight as the gentle rising and falling of the water with its freight, the regular turning of the windlass aboard the Lighter, and the slight obstruction so very near my feet. O reader, haply turning this page by the fireside at Home, and hearing the night-wind rumble in the chim- ney, that slight obstruction was the uppermost frag- ment of the Wreck of the "Royal Charter," Australian trader and passenger ship, Homeward bound, that struck here on the terrible morning of the twenty-sixth of this October, broke into three parts, went down with her treasure of at least five hundred human lives, and has never stirred since! From which point, or from which, she drove ashore, stern foremost; on which side, or on which, she passed the little Island in the bay, for ages henceforth to be aground certain years outside her,——these are rendered bootless questions by the darkness of that night and the darkness of death. Here she went down. Even as I stood on the beach, with the words, "Here she went down!" in my ears, a diver in his grotesque dress dipped heavily over the side of the boat alongside the Lighter, and dropped to the bottom. On the shore by the water's edge was a rough tent, made of fragments of wreck, where other divers and workmen sheltered themselves, and where they kept Christmas day, with rum and roast beef, to the destruction of their frail chimney. Cast up among the stones and boulders of the beach were great spars of the lost vessel, and masses of iron twisted by the fury of the sea into the strangest forms. The timber was already bleached and iron- rusted, and even these objects did no violence to the prevailing air the whole scene wore of having been ex- actly the same for years and years. Yet only two short months had gone since a man, liv- ing on the nearest hill-top overlooking the sea, being blown out of bed at about daybreak by the wind that had begun to strip his roof off, and getting upon a ladder with his nearest neighbour to construct some temporary device for keeping his house over his head, saw from the ladder's elevation, as he looked down by chance to- wards the shore, some dark, troubled object close in with the land. And he and the other, descending to the beach, and finding the sea mercilessly beating over a great broken ship, had clambered up the stony ways, like staircases without stairs, on which the wild village hangs in little clusters, as fruit hangs on boughs, and had given the alarm. And so, over the hill-slopes, and past the waterfall, and down the gullies where the land drains off into the ocean, the scattered quarrymen and fishermen inhabiting that part of Wales had come run- ning to the dismal sight,——their clergyman among them. And as they stood in the leaden morning, stricken with pity, leaning hard against the wind, their breath and vision often failing as the sleet and spray rushed at them from the ever forming and dissolving mountains of sea, and as the wool which was a part of the vessel's cargo blew in with the salt foam and remained upon the land when the foam melted, they saw the ship's life- boat put off from one of the heaps of wreck; and first, there were three men in her; and in a moment she cap- sized, and there were but two; and again, she was struck by a vast mass of water, and there was but one; and again she was thrown bottom upward, and that one, with his arm stuck through the broken planks, and wav- ing as if for the help that could never reach him, went down into the deep. It was the clergyman himself from whom I heard this, while I stood on the shore, looking in his kind whole- some face as it turned to the spot where the boat had been. The divers were down then, and busy. They were "lifting" to-day the gold found yesterday,——some five-and-twenty thousand pounds. Of three hundred and fifty thousand pounds' worth of gold, three hundred thousand pounds worth, in round numbers, was at that time recovered. The great bulk of the remainder was surely and steadily coming up. Some loss of sovereigns there would be, of course; indeed, at first, sovereigns had drifted in with the sand, and been scattered far and wide over the beach, like sea-shells; but most other golden treasure would be found. As it was brought up, it went aboard he Tug steamer, where good account was taken of it. So tremendous had the force of the sea been when it broke the ship, that it had beaten one great ingot of gold deep into a strong and heavy piece of her solid iron work; in which also, several loose sover- eigns that the ingot had swept in before it had been found, as firmly embedded as though the iron had been liquid when they were forced there. It had been re- marked of such bodies come ashore, too, as had been seen by scientific men, that they had been stunned to death, not suffocated. Observation both of the in- ternal change that had been wrought in them and of their external expression, showed death to have been thus merciful and easy. The report was brought, while I was holding such discourse on the beach, that no more bodies had come ashore since last night. It began to be very doubtful whether many more would be thrown up, until the northeast winds of the early spring set in. Moreover, a great number of the passengers, and par- ticularly the second-class women passengers, were known to have been in the middle of the ship when she parted, and thus the collapsing wreck would have fallen upon them after yawning open, and would keep them down. A diver made known, even then, that he had come upon the body of a man, and had sought to release it from a great superincumbent weight; but that, finding he could not do so without mutilating the remains, he had left it where it was. It was the kind and wholesome face I have made men- tion of as being then beside me that I had purposed to myself to see when I left home for Wales. I had heard of that clergyman, as having buried many scores of the shipwrecked people; of his having opened his house and heart to their agonized friends; of his having used a most sweet and patient diligence for weeks and weeks in the performance of the forlornest offices that Man can render to his kind; of his having been most tenderly and thoroughly devoted himself to the dead, and to those who were sorrowing for the dead. I had said to myself, "In the Christmas season of the year, I should like to see that man!" And he had swung the gate of his little garden, in coming out to meet me, not half an hour ago. So cheerful of spirit and guiltless of affection as true practical Christianity ever is! I read more of the New Testament in the fresh, frank face going up the village beside me in five minutes, than I have read in anathe- matizing discourses (albeit put to press with enormous flourishing of trumpets) in all my life. I heard more of the Sacred Book in the cordial voice that had nothing to say about its owner, than in all the would-be celestial pairs of bellows that have ever blown conceit at me. We climbed towards the little church at a cheery pace among the loose stones, the deep mud, the wet coarse grass, the outlying water, and other obstructions from which frost and snow had lately thawed. it was a mis- take (my friend was glad to tell me, on the way) to sup- pose that the peasantry had shown any superstitious avoidance of the drowned; on the whole, they had done very well, and had assisted readily. Ten shillings had been paid for the bringing of each body up to the church; but the way was steep, and a horse and cart (in which it was wrapped in a sheet) were necessary, and three or four men, and all things considered, it was not a great price. The people were none the richer for the wreck, for it was the season of the herring-shoal,——and who could cast nets for fish, and find dead men and women in the draught? He had the church keys in his hand, and opened the church-yard gate, and opened the church door; and we went in. It is a little church of great antiquity; there is reason to believe hat some church has occupied the spot these thousand years or more. The pulpit was gone, and other things usually belonging to the church were gone, owing to its living congregation having deserted it for the neighbouring school-room, and yielded it up to the dead. The very Commandments had been shouldered out of their places, in the bringing in of the dead; the black wooden tables on which they were painted were askew; and on the stone pavement below them, and on the stone pavement all over the church, were the marks and stains where the drowned had been laid down. The eye, with little or no aid from the imagination, could yet see how the bodies had been turned, and where the head had been, and where the feet. Some faded traces of the wreck of the Australian ship may be discernible on the stone pavement of this little church hundreds of years hence, when the digging for gold in Australia shall have long and long ceased out of the land. Forty-four shipwrecked men and women lay here at one time, awaiting burial. Here, with weeping and wailing in every room of his house, my companion worked alone for hours, solemnly surrounded by eyes that could not see him, and by lips that could not speak to him, patiently examining the tattered clothing, cut- ting off buttons, hair, marks from linen, anything that might lead to subsequent identification, studying faces, looking for a scar, a bent finger, a crooked tow, compar- ing letters sent to him with the ruin about him. "My dearest brother had bright gray eyes and a pleasant smile," one sister wrote. O poor sister! well for you to be far from here, and keep that as your last remem- brance of him! The ladies of the clergyman's family, his wife and two sisters-in-law, came in among the bodies often. It grew to be the business of their lives to do so. Any new arrival of a bereaved woman would stimulate their pity to compare the description brought with the dread realities. Sometimes they would go back, able to say, "I have found him," or, "I think she lies there." Per- haps the mourner, unable to bear the sight of all that lay in the church, would be led in blindfold. Conducted to the spot with many compassionate words, and en- couraged to look, she would say, with a piercing cry, "This is my boy!" and drop insensible on the insensi- ble figure. He soon observed that in some cases of women the identification of persons, though complete, was quite at variance with the marks upon the linen; this led him to notice that even the marks upon the linen were some- times inconsistent with one another; and thus he came to understand that they had dressed in great haste and agitation, and that their clothes had become mixed to- gether. The identification of men by their dress was rendered extremely difficult, in consequence of a large proportion of them being dressed alike,——in clothes of one kind, that is to say, supplied by slopsellers and out- fitters, and not made by single garments, but by hun- dreds. Many of the men were bringing over parrots, and had receipts upon them for the price of the birds; others had bills of exchange in their pockets or in belts. Some of these documents, carefully unwrinkled and dried, were little less fresh in appearance that day than the present page will be, under ordinary circumstances, after having been opened three or four times. In that lonely place it had not been easy to obtain even such Commodities in towns as ordinary dis- infectants. Pitch had been burnt in the church, as the readiest thing at hand; and the frying-pan in which it had bubbled over a brazier of coal was still there, with its ashes. Hard by the Communion Table were some boots that had been taken off the drowned, and pre- served,——a gold-digger's boot, cut down the leg for its removal, a trodden-down man's ankle-boot with a buff cloth top,——and others,——soaked and sandy, weedy and salt. From the church we pass out into the churchyard. Here they lay, at that time, one hundred and forty-five bodies that had come ashore from the wreck. He had buried them, when not identified, in graves containing four each. He had numbered each body in a register describing it, and had placed a corresponding number on each coffin, and over each grave. Identified bodies he buried singly, in private graves, in another part of the churchyard. Several bodies had been exhumed from the graves of four, as relatives had come from a distance, and seen his register; and, when recognized, these have been reburied in private graves, so that the mourners might erect separate headstones over the re- mains. In all such cases he had performed the funeral service a second time, and the ladies of his house had attended. There had been no offence in the poor ashes when they were brought again to the light of day; the beneficent earth had already absorbed it. The drowned were buried in their clothes. To supply the great sud- den demand for coffins, he had got all the neighbouring people handy at tools to work the livelong day, and Sun- day likewise. The coffins were neatly formed;——I had seen two, waiting for occupants, under the lee of the ruined walls of a stone hut on the beach, within call of the tent where the Christmas Feast was held. Simi- larly, one of the graves for four was lying open and ready here in the churchyard. So much of the scanty space was already devoted to the wrecked people, that the villagers had begun to express uneasy doubts whether they themselves could lie in their own ground, with their forefathers and descendants, by and by. The churchyard being but a step from the clergyman's dwell- ing-house, we crossed to the latter. The white surplice was hanging up near the door, ready to be put on at any time for a funeral service. The cheerful earnestness of this good Christian min- ister was as consolatory as the circumstances out of which it shone were sad. I never have seen anything more delightfully genuine than the calm dismissal by himself and his household of all they had undergone, as a simple duty that was quietly done and ended. In speaking of it, they spoke of it with great compassion for the bereaved; but laid no stress upon their own hard share in those weary weeks, except as it had at- tached many people to them as friends, and elicited many touching expressions of gratitude. This clergy- man's brother,——himself the clergyman of two adjoin- ing parishes, who had buried thirty-four of the bodies in his own churchyard, and who had done to them all that his brother had done as to the larger number,—— must be understood as included in the family. He was there with his neatly arranged papers, and made no more account of his trouble than anyone else did. Down to yesterday's post outward my clergyman alone had written one thousand and seventy-five letters to rel- atives and friends of the lost people. In the absence of self-assertion, it was only through my now and then del- icately putting a question as the occasion arose, that I became informed of these things. It was only when I had remarked again and again, in the church, on the awful nature of the scene of death he had been re- quired so closely to familiarize himself with for the soothing of the living, that he had casually said, with- out the least abatement of his cheerfulness, "indeed, it had rendered him unable for a time to eat or drink more than a little coffee now and then, and a piece of bread." In this noble modesty, in this beautiful simplicity, in this serene avoidance of the least attempt to "improve" an occasion which might be supposed to have sunk of its own weight into my heart, I seem to have happily come, in a few steps, from the churchyard with its open grave, which was he type of Death, to the Christian dwelling side by side with it, which was the type of Resurrection. I never shall think of the former without the latter. The two will always rest side by side in my memory. If I had lost anyone dear to me in this unfortunate ship,——if I had made a voyage from Australia to look at the grave in the churchyard,——I should go away, thankful to GOD that that house was so close to it, and that its shadow by day and its domestic lights by night fell upon the earth in which its master had so tenderly laid my dear one's head. The references that naturally arose out of our conver- sation to the descriptions sent down of shipwrecked per- sons, and the gratitude of relations and friends, made me very anxious to see some of those letters. I was presently seated before a shipwreck of papers, all bor- dered with black, and from them I made the following few extracts. A mother writes:—— REVEREND SIR:——Amongst the many who perished on your shore was numbered my beloved son. I was only just recovering from a severe illness, and this fearful af- fliction has caused a relapse, so that I am unable at present to go to identify the remains of the loved and lost. My darling son would have been sixteen on Christ- mas day next. He was the most amiable and obedient child, early taught the way of salvation. We fondly hoped that as a British seaman he might be an ornament to his profession, but, "it is well"; I feel assured my dear boy is now with the redeemed. O, he did not wish to go this last voyage! On the fifteenth of October I re- ceived a letter from him from Melbourne, date August twelfth; he wrote in high spirits, and in conclusion he says: "Pray for a fair breeze, dear mamma, and I'll not forget to whistle for it! and, God permitting, I shall see you and all my little pets again. Good by, dear mother, ——good by, dearest parents. Good by, dear brother." O, it was indeed an eternal farewell. I do not apologize for thus writing you, for O, my heart is so very sorrow- ful! A husband writes:—— MY DEAR KIND SIR:——Will you kindly inform me whether there are any initials upon the ring and guard you have in possession, found, as the "Standard" says, last Tuesday? Believe me, my dear sir, when I say that I cannot express my deep gratitude in words sufficiently for your kindness to me on that fearful and appalling day. Will you tell me what I can do for you, and will you write me a consoling letter to prevent my ind from go- ing astray? A widow writes:—— Left in such a state as i am, my friends and I thought it best that my dear husband should be buried where he lies, and, much as I should have liked to have had it otherwise, I must submit. I feel, from all I have heard of you, that you will see it done decently and in order. Little does it signify to us, when the soul has departed, where this poor body lies; but we who are left behind would do all we can to show how we loved them. This is denied me; but it is God's hand that afflicts us, and I try to submit. Some day I may be able to visit the spot, to see where he lies, and erect a simple stone to his memory. O, it will be long, long before I forget that dreadful night! Is there such a thing in the vicinity, or any shop in Bangor, to which I could send for a small picture of Moelfra or Llanallgo church, a spot now sacred to me? Another widow writes:—— I have received your letter this morning, and do thank you most kindly for the interest you have taken about my dear husband, as well as for the sentiments yours contains, evincing the spirit of a Christian who can sympathize with those who, like myself, are broken down with grief. May God bless and sustain you, and all in connection with you, in this great trial! Time may roll on and bear all its sons away, but your name as a disinterested person will stand in history, and, as successive years pass, many a widow will think of your noble conduct, and the tears of gratitude flow down many a cheek, the tribute of a thankful heart, when other things are for- gotten forever. A father writes: I am at a loss to find words to sufficiently express my gratitude to you for your kindness to my son Richard upon the melancholy occasion of his visit to his dear brother's body, and also for your ready attention in pro- nouncing our beautiful burial-service over my poor un- fortunate son's remains. God grant that your prayers over him may reach the Mercy Seat, and that his soul may be received (through Christ's intercession) into heaven! His dear mother begs me to convey to you her heart- felt thanks. Those who were received at the clergyman's house wrote thus after leaving it:—— DEAR AND NEVER-TO-BE-FORGOTTEN FRIENDS:——I arrived here yesterday morning without accident, and am about to proceed to my home by railway. I am overpowered when I think of you and your hos- pitable home. No words could speak language suited to my heart. I refrain. God reward you with the same measure you have meted with! I enumerate no names, but embrace you all. MY BELOVED FRIENDS:—–This is the first day that I have been able to leave my bedroom since I returned, which will explain the reason of my not writing sooner. If I could only have had my last melancholy hope rea- lized in recovering the body of my beloved and lamented son, I should have returned home somewhat comforted, and I think I could then have been comparatively re- signed. I fear now there is but little prospect, and I mourn as one without hope. The only consolation to my distressed mind is hav- ing been so feelingly allowed by you to leave the matter in your hands, by whom I well know that everything will be done that can be, according to arrangements made before I left the scene of the awful catastrophe, both as to the identification of my dear son, and also his interment. I feel most anxious to hear whether anything fresh has transpired since I left you; will you add another to the many deep obligations I am under to you by writing to me? And, should the body of my dear and unfortunate son be identified, let me hear from you immediately, and I will come again. Words cannot express the gratitude I feel I owe to you all for your benevolent aid, your kindness, and your sympathy. MY DEARLY BELOVED FRIENDS:——I arrived in safety at my house yesterday, and a night's rest has restored and tranquillized me. I must again repeat, that lan- guage has no words by which I can express my sense of obligation to you. You are enshrined in my heart of hearts. I have seen him! and can now realize my misfortune more than I have hitherto been able to do. O, the bit- terness of the cup I drink! But I bow submissive. God must have done right. I do not want to feel less, but to acquiesce more simply. There were some Jewish passengers on board the "Royal Charter," and the gratitude of the Jewish people is feelingly expressed in the following letter, bearing date from "the office of the Chief Rabbi":—— REVEREND SIR:——I cannot refrain from expressing to you my heartfelt thanks on behalf of those of my flock whose relatives have unfortunately been among those who perished at the late wreck of the "Royal Charter." You have indeed, like Boaz, "not left off your kindness to the living and the dead." You have not alone acted kindly towards the living by receiving them hospitably at your house, and energeti- cally assisting them in their mournful duty, but also to- wards the dead by exerting yourself to have our co- religionists buried in our ground, and according to our rites. May our heavenly Father reward you for your acts of humanity and true philanthropy! The "Old Hebrew Congregation of Liverpool" thus express themselves through their secretary:—— REVEREND SIR:——The wardens of this congregation have learned with great pleasure that, in addition to those indefatigable exertions, at the scene of the late disaster to the "Royal Charter," which have received universal recognition, you have very benevolently em- ployed your valuable efforts to assist such members of our faith as have sought the bodies of lost friends to give them burial in our consecrated grounds, with the observances and rites prescribed by the ordinances of our religion. The wardens desire for me to take the earliest available opportunity to offer to you, on behalf of our community, the expression of their warm acknowledgements and grateful thanks, and their sincere wishes for your con- tinued welfare and prosperity. A Jewish gentleman writes:—— REVEREND AND DEAR SIR:——I take the opportunity of thanking you right earnestly for the promptness you dis- played in answering my note with full particulars con- cerning my much lamented brother, and I also herein beg to express my sincere regard for the willingness you displayed, and for the facility you afforded for getting the remains of my poor brother exhumed. It has been to us a most sorrowful and painful event, but when we meet with such friends as yourself, it in a measure, somehow or other, abates the mental anguish, and makes the suffering so much easier to be borne. Con- sidering the circumstances connected with my poor brother's fate, it does indeed, appear a hard one. He had been away in all seven year; he returned four years ago to see his family. He was then engaged to a very amiable young lady. He had been very successful abroad, and was now returning to fulfil his sacred vow; he brought all his property with him in gold uninsured. We heard from him when the ship stopped at Queens- town, when he was in the highest of hope, and in a few short hours afterwards all was washed away. Mournful in the deepest degree, but too sacred for quotation here, were the numerous references to those miniatures of women worn round the necks of rough men (and found there after death), those locks of hair, those scraps of letters, those many, many slight memo- rials of hidden tenderness. One man cast up by the sea bore about him, printed on a perforated lace card, the following singular (and unavailing) charm:—— A BLESSING. May the blessing of God await thee. May the sun of glory shine around thy bed; and may the gates of plenty, honour, and happiness be ever open to thee. May no sor- row distress thy days; may no grief disturb thy nights. May the pillow of peace kiss thy cheek, and the pleas- ures of imagination attend thy dreams; and when length of years makes thee tired of earthly joys, and the cur- tain of death gently closes around thy last sleep of hu- man existence, may the Angel of God attend thy bed, and take care that the expiring lamp of life shall not re- ceive one rude blast to hasten its extinction. A sailor had these devices on his right arm. "Our Saviour on the Cross, the forehead of the Crucifix and the vesture stained red; on the lower part of the arm, a man and woman; on one side of the Cross, the appear- ance of a half-moon, with a face; on the other side, the sun; on the top of the Cross, the letters I. H. S.; on the left arm, a man and woman dancing, with an effort to de- lineate the female's dress; under which, initials." An- other seaman "had, on the lower part of the right arm, the device of a sailor and female; the man holding the Union Jack with a streamer, the folds of which waved over her head, and the end of it was held in her hand. On the upper part of the arm, a device of Our Lord on the Cross, with stars surrounding the head of the Cross, and one large star on the side in Indian ink. On the left arm, a flag, a true lover's knot, a face, and initials." This tattooing was found still plain, below the discoloured outer surface of a mutilated arm, when such surface was carefully scraped away with a knife. It is not improb- able that the perpetuation of this marking custom among seamen may be referred back to their desire to be iden- tified, if drowned and flung ashore. It was some time before I could sever myself from the many interesting papers on the table; and then I broke bread and drank wine with the kind family before I left them. As I brought the Coast Guard down, so I took the Postman back, with his leathern wallet, walking- stick, bugle, and terrier dog. Many a heart-broken let- ter he had brought to the Refectory House within two months; many a benignantly painstaking answer had he carried back. As I rode along I thought of the many people, inhab- itants of this mother country, who would make pilgrim- ages to the little churchyard in the years to come; I thought of many people in Australia who would have an interest in such a shipwreck, and would find their way here when they visit the Old World; I thought of the writers of all the wreck of letters I had left upon the table; and I resolved to place this little record where it stands. Convocations, Conferences, Diocesan Epistles, and the like, will do a great deal for Religion, I dare say, and Heaven send they may! but I doubt if they will ever do their Master's service half so well, in all the time they last, as the Heavens have seen it done in this bleak spot upon the rugged coast of Wales. Had I lost the friend of my life in the wreck of the "Royal Charter"; had I lost my betrothed, the more than friend of my life; had I lost my maiden daughter, had I lost my hopeful boy, had I lost my little child,——I would kiss the hands that worked so busily and gently in the church, and say, "None better could have touched the form, though it had lain at home." I could be sure of it; I could be thankful for it; I could be content to leave the grave near the house the good family pass in and out of every day, undisturbed, in the little church- yard where so many are so strangely brought together. Without the name of the clergyman to whom——I hope not without carrying comfort to some heart at some time ——I have referred, my reference would be as nothing. He is the Reverend Stephen Roose Hughes, of Llanallgo, near Moelfra, Anglesay. His brother is the Reverend Hugh Robert Hughes, of Penrhos Alligwy. 
from Collier's Unabridged Edition: The Works of Charles Dickens, Volume VI. P.F. Collier, Publisher, New York, old as heck. p. 583 - 587
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I. His General Line of Business.
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By Charles Dickens XXI. The City of the Absent. WHEN I think I deserve particularly well of myself, and have earned the right to enjoy a little treat, I stroll from Covent Garden into the City of London, after busi- ness hours there, on a Saturday, or——better yet——on a Sunday, and roam about its deserted nooks and corners. It is necessary to the full enjoyment of these journeys that they should be made in summer-time, for then the retired spots that I love to haunt are at their idlest and dullest. A gentle fall of rain is not objectionable, and a warm mist sets off my favourite retreats to decided ad- vantage. Among these, City Churchyards hold a high place. Such strange churchyards hide in the City of London,—— churchyards sometimes so entirely detached from churches, always so pressed upon by houses; so small, so rank, so silent, so forgotten, except by the few people who ever look down into them from their smoky win- dows. As I stand peeping in through the iron gates and rails, I can peel the rusty metal off like bark from an old tree. The illegible tombstones are all lop-sided, and grave-mounds lost their shape in the rains of a hundred years ago, the Lombardy Poplar or Plane-Tree that was once a dry-salter's daughter and several common coun- cilmen, has withered like those worthies, and its de- parted leaves are dust beneath it. Contagion of slow ruin overhangs the place. The discoloured tiled roofs of the environing buildings stand so awry that they can hardly be proof against any stress or weather. Old crazy stacks of chimneys seem to look down as they overhang, dubiously calculating how far they will have to fall. In an angle of the walls, what was once the tool-house of the grave-digger rots away, incrusted with toadstools. Pipes and spouts for carrying off the rain from the en- compassing gables, broken or feloniously cut for old lead long ago, now let the rain drip and splash as it lists upon the weedy earth. Sometimes there is a rusty pump somewhere near, and, as I look in at the rails and medi- tate, I hear it working under an unknown hand with a creaking protest, as though the departed in the church- yard urged, "Let us lie here in peace; don't suck us up and drink us!" One of my best beloved churchyards I call the church- yard of Saint Ghastly Grim; touching what men in gen- eral call it, I have no information. It lies at the heart of the City, and the Blackwall Railway shrieks at it daily. It is a small, small churchyard, with a ferocious, strong, spiked iron gate, like a jail. The gate is ornamented with skulls and cross-bones, larger than the life, wrought in stone; but it likewise came into the mind of Saint Ghastly Grim, that to stick iron spikes atop of the stone skulls, as though they were impaled, would be a pleasant device. Therefore the skulls grin aloft horribly, thrust through and through with iron spears. Hence there is attraction of repulsion for me in Saint Ghastly Grim, and, having once contemplated it in the daylight and the dark, I once felt drawn towards it in a thunder- storm at midnight. "Why not?" I said, in self-excuse. "I have been to see the Colosseum by the light of the moon; is it worse to go to see Saint Ghastly Grim by the light of the lightning?" I repaired to the Saint in a hackney-cab, and found the skulls most effective, hav- ing the air of a public execution, and seeming, as the lightning flashed, to wink and grin with the pain of the spikes. Having no other person to whom to impart my satisfaction, I communicated it to the driver. So far from being responsive, he surveyed me——he was natu- rally a bottle-nosed, red-faced man——with a blanched countenance. And as he drove me back, he ever and again glanced in over his shoulder through the little front window of his carriage, as mistrusting that I was a fare originally from a grave in the churchyard of Saint Ghastly Grim, who might have flitted home again with- out paying. Sometimes the queer Hall of some queer Company gives upon a churchyard such as this; and when the Livery dine, you may hear them (if you are looking in through the iron rails, which you never are when I am) toasting their own Worshipful prosperity. Sometimes a wholesale house of business, requiring much room for stowage, will occupy one or two or even all three sides of the enclosing space, and the backs of bales of goods will lumber up the windows as if they were holding some crowded trade-meeting of themselves within. Some- times the commanding windows are all blank, and show no more sign of life than the graves below,——not so much, for they tell of what once upon a time was life un- doubtedly. Such was the surrounding of one City churchyard that I saw last summer on a Volunteering Saturday evening towards eight of the clock, when with astonishment I beheld an old, old man and an old, old woman in it, making hay,——yes, of all occupations in the world, making hay! It was a very confined patch of churchyard lying between Gracechurch Street and the Tower, capable of yielding say an apronful of hay. By what means the old, old man and woman had got into it, with an almost toothless hay-making rake, I could not fathom. No open window was within view; no window at all was within view, sufficiently near the ground to have enabled their old legs to descend from it; the rusty churchyard gate was locked, the mouldy church was locked. Gravely among the graves they made hay all alone by themselves. They looked like Time and his wife. There was but the one rake between them, and they both had hold of it in a pastorally loving manner, and there was hay on the old woman's black bonnet, as if the old man had recently been playful. The old man was quite an obsolete old man, in knee-breeches and coarse grey stockings, and the old woman wore mittens like unto his stockings in texture and in colour. They took no heed of me as I looked on unable to account for them. The old woman was much too bright for a pew-opener, the old man much too meek for a beadle. On an old tomb- stone in the foreground between me and them were two cherubim; but for those celestial embellishments being represented as having no possible use for knee-breeches, stockings or mittens, I should have compared them with the haymakers, and sought a likeness. I coughed and awoke the echoes; but the haymakers never looked at me. They used to rake with a measured action, drawing the scant crop towards them; and so I was fain to leave them under three yards and a half of dark- ening sky, gravely making hay among the graves, all alone by themselves. Perhaps they were Spectres, and I wanted a Medium. In another City churchyard of similar cramped dimen- sions, I saw, that self-same summer, two comfortable charity children. They were making love,——tremendous proof of the vigour of that immortal article, for they were in the graceful uniform under which English Charity delights to hide herself,——and they were over- grown, and their legs (his legs, at least; for I am mod- estly incompetent to speak of hers) were as much in the wrong as mere passive weakness of charity can render legs. O, it was a leaden churchyard, but no doubt a golden ground to those young persons! I first saw them on a Saturday evening, and, perceiving from their occupa- tion that Saturday evening was their trysting-time, I returned that evening sennight, and renewed the contem- plation of them. They came there to shake the bits of matting which were spread in the church aisles; and they afterwards rolled them up, he rolling his end, and she rolling hers, until they met, and, over the two once divided now united roles,——sweet emblem!——gave and received a chaste salute. It was so freshening to find one of my faded churchyards blooming into flower thus, that I returned a second time, and a third, and ultimately this befell: They had left the church door open, in their dusting and arranging. Walking in to look at the church, I became aware, by the dim light, of him in the pulpit, of her in the reading desk, of him looking down, of her looking up, exchanging tender discourse. Immediately both dived, and became as it were non-existent on this sphere. With an assumption of innocence I turned to leave the sacred edifice, when an obese form stood in the portal, puffily demanding Joseph, or, in default of Joseph, Celia. Taking that monster by the sleeve, and luring him forth on pretence of showing him whom he sought, I gave time for the emergence of Joseph and Celia, who presently came towards us in the churchyard, bending under dusty matting, a picture of thriving and uncon- scious industry. It would be superfluous to hint that I have ever since deemed this the proudest passage in my life. But such circumstances, or any token of vitality, are rare indeed in my City churchyards. A few sparrows occasion- ally try to raise a lively chirrup in their solitary tree,—— perhaps as taking a different view of worms from that entertained by humanity,——but they are flat and hoarse of voice, like the clerk, the organ, the bell, the clergyman, and all the rest of the Church-works when they are wound up for Sunday. Caged larks, thrushes or black- birds, hanging in neighbouring courts, pour forth their strains passionately, as scenting the tree, trying to break out, and see leaves again before they die; but their song is Willow, Willow——of a churchyard cast. So little light lives inside the churches of my churchyards, when the two are coexistent, that it is often only by an accident, and after long acquaintance, that I discover their having stained glass in some odd window. The westering sun slants into the churchyard by some unwonted entry, a few prismatic tears drop on an old tombstone, and a win- dow that I thought was only dirty is for the moment all bejewelled. Then the light passes, and the colours die. Though even then, if there can be room enough for me to fall back so far as that I can gaze up to the top of the Church Tower, I see the rusty vane new burnished, and seeming to look out with a joyful flash over the sea of smoke at the distant shore of country. Blinking old men who are let out of workhouses by the hour, have a tendency to sit on bits of coping-stone in these churchyards, leaning with both hand on their sticks, and asthmatically gasping. The more depressed class of beggars, too, bring hither broken meats, and munch. I am on nodding terms with a meditative turn- cock who lingers in one of them, and whom I suspect of a turn for poetry; the rather as he looks out of temper when he gives the fireplug a disparaging wrench with that large tuning-fork of his, which would wear out the shoulder of his coat but for a precautionary piece of in- laid leather. Fire-ladders, which I am satisfied nobody knows anything about, and the keys of which were lost in ancient times, moulder away in the larger church- yards, under eaves like wooden eyebrows; and so re- moved are those corners from the haunts of men and boys that once on a fifth of November I found a "Guy" trusted to take care of himself there, while his proprie- tors had gone to dinner. Of the expression of his face I cannot report, because it was turned to the wall; but his shrugged shoulders and his ten extended fingers ap- peared to denote that he had moralized in his little straw chair on the mystery of mortality until he gave it up as a bad job. You do not come upon these churchyards violently; there are shades of transition in the neighbourhood. An antiquated news shop, or barber's shop, apparently bereft of customers in the early days of George the Third, would warn me to look out for one, if any discoveries in this respect were left for me to make. A very quiet court, in combination with an unaccountable dyer's and scourer's, would prepare me for a churchyard. An ex- ceedingly retiring public-house, with a bagtelle-board shadily visible in a sawdusty parlour shaped like an omnibus, and with a shelf of punch-bowls in the bar, would apprise me that I stood near consecrated ground. A "Dairy," exhibiting in its modest window one very little milk-can and three eggs, would suggest to me the certainty of finding the poultry hard by, pecking at my forefathers. I first inferred the vicinity of Saint Ghastly Grim from a certain air of extra repose and gloom per- vading a vast stack of warehouses. From the hush of these places it is congenial to pass into the hushed resorts of business. Down the lanes I like to see the carts and wagons huddled together in repose, the cranes idle, the warehouses shut. Pausing in the alleys behind the closed Banks of mighty Lombard Street, it gives one as good as a rich feeling to think of the broad counters with a rim along the edge, made for telling money out on, the scales for weighing precious metals, the ponderous ledgers, and, above all, the bright copper shovels for shoveling gold. When I draw money, it never seems so much money as when it is shovelled at me out of a bright copper shovel. I like to say, "In gold," and to see seven pounds musically pouring out of the shovel like seventy; the Bank appearing to remark to me,——I italicize appearing,——"If you want more of yellow earth, we keep it in barrows at your service." To think of the banker's clerk with his left finger turning the crisp edges of the Hundred-Pound Notes he has taken in a fat roll out of a drawer, is again to hear the rust- ling of that delicious south-cash wind. "How will you have it?" I once heard this unusual question asked at a Bank Counter of an elderly female habited in mourning and steeped in simplicity, who answered, open-eyed, crook-fingered, laughing with expectation, "Any- how!" Calling these things to mind as I stroll among the Banks, I wonder whether the other solitary man I pass has designs upon the Banks. For the interest and mystery of the matter, I almost hope he may have, and that his confederate may be at this moment taking im- pressions of the keys of the iron closets in wax, and that a delightful robbery may be in course of transaction. About College Hill, Mark Lane, and so on towards the Tower, and Dockyard, the deserted wine-merchants' cellars are fine subjects for consideration; but the de- serted money-cellars of the Bankers, and their plate-cel- lars, and their jewel-cellars,——what subterranean re- gions of the Wonderful amp are these! And again: possibly some shoeless boy in rags passed through this street yesterday, for whom it is reserved to be a Banker in the fulness of time, and to be surpassingly rich. Such reverses have been, since the days of Whittington, and were, long before. I want to know if the boy has any foreglittering of that glittering fortune now, when he threads these stones, hungry. Much as I also want to know whether the next man to be hanged at Newgate yonder had any suspicion upon him that he was moving steadily towards that fate when he talked so much about the last man who paid the same great debt at the same small Debtor's Door. Where are all the people who on busy working-days pervade these scenes? The locomotive banker's clerk who carries a black portfolio chained to him by a chain of steel,——where is he? Does he go to bed with his chain on,——to church with his chain on,——or does he lay it by? And if he lays it by, what becomes of his portfolio when he is unchained for a holiday? The waste-paper baskets of these closed counting-houses would let me into many hints of business matters if I had the explora- tion of them: and what secrets of the heart should I discover on the "pads" of the young clerks,——the sheets of cartridge-paper and blotting-paper interposed between their writing and their desks? Pads are taken into con- fidence on the tenderest occasions; and oftentimes when I have made a business visit, and have sent in my name from the outer-office, have I had it forced on my discur- sive notice, that the officiating young gentleman has over and over again inscribed AMELIA, in ink of various dates, on corners of his pad. Indeed, the pad may be regarded as the legitimate modern successor of the old forest-tree, whereon these young knights (having no at- tainable forest nearer than Epping) engrave the names of their mistresses. After all it is a more satisfactory process than carving, and can be oftener repeated. So these courts in their Sunday rest are courts of Love Omnipotent (I rejoice to bethink myself), dry as they look. And here is Garraway's, bolted and shuttered hard and fast! It is possible to imagine the man who cuts the sandwiches, on his back in a hay-field; it is pos- sible to imagine his desk, like the desk of a clerk at church, without him; but imagination is unable to pur- sue the men who wait at Garraway's all the week for the men who never come. When they are forcibly put out of Garraway's on Saturday night,——which they must be, for they never would go out of their own accord,——where do they vanish until Monday morning? On the first Sunday that I ever strayed here, I expected to find them hovering about these lanes, like restless ghosts, and trying to peep into Garraway's through chinks in the shutters, if not endeavouring to turn the lock of the door with false keys, picks, and screw-drivers. But the wonder is that they go clean away! And, now I think of it, the wonder is that every working-day pervader of these scenes goes clean away. The man who sells the dogs' collars and the little toy coal-scuttles feels under as great an obligation to go afar off as Glyn and Co., or Smith, Payne, and Smith. There is an old monastery- crypt under Garraway's (I have been in it among the port wine), and perhaps Garraway's, taking pity on the mouldy men who wait in its public room all their lives, gives them cool house-room down there over Sundays; but the catacombs of Paris would not be large enough to hold the rest of the missing. The characteristic of London City greatly helps its being the quaint place it is in the weekly pause of business, and greatly helps my Sunday sensation in it of being the Last Man. In my solitude, the ticket-porters being all gone with the rest, I venture to breathe to the quiet bricks and stones my confidential wonderment why a ticket-porter, who never does any work with his hands, is bound to wear a white apron; and why a great Ecclesiastical Dignitary, who never does any work with his hands either, is equally bound to wear a black one. 
from Collier's Unabridged Edition: The Works of Charles Dickens, Volume VI. P.F. Collier, Publisher, New York, old as heck. p. 638 - 640
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I. His General Line of Business. II. The Shipwreck. III. Wapping Workhouse. IV. Two Views of a Cheap Theatre. V. Poor Mercantile Jack. VI. Refreshments for Travellers. VII. Travelling Abroad. VIII. The Great Tasmania's Cargo IX. City of London Churches. X. Shy Neighbourhoods. XI. Tramps. XII. Dullborough Town. XIII. Night Walks. XIV. Chambers. XV. Nurse's Stories. XVI. Arcadian London. XVII. The Calais Night-mail. XVIII. Some Recollections of Mortality. XIX. Birthday Celebrations. XX. Bound for the Great Salt Lake. XXI. The City of the Absent. XXII. An Old Stage-Coaching Horse. XXIII. The Boiled Beef of New England. XXIV. Chatham Dock-Yard. XXV. In the French-Flemish Country. XXVI. Medicine-Men of Civilization. XXVII. Titbull's Almshouses. XXVIII. The Italian Prisoner.
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2019.11.10 13:38 MarleyEngvall Lecture XXVI. — The Empire of Solomon (i)

By Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D. D. LECTURE XXVI. SPECIAL AUTHORITIES FOR THIS PERIOD. ——•—— I. The contemporary account contained in 1. The "Book of Acts" (or Words) of Solomon (1 Kings xi. 41) 2. The "Book" (i.e. the Words or Acts) of the Prophet Nathan (2 Chr. ix. 29). 3. The "Prophecy" of Ahijah the Shilonite (ibid.). 4. The "Visions of Iddo the Seer (ibid.). Of these some materials are probably preserved in the accounts of the two historical books of the Old Testament (1 Kings i. 1——xi. 43 1 Chr. xxviii. 1——2 Chr. ix. 31), and of Ecclus, xlvii, 13—23. II. The contemporary literature of the reign of Solomon. 1. The writings of Solomon himself (1 Kings iv. 32, 33). (a.) Three thousand proverbs. (b.) One thousand and five songs. (c.) "Words" (works) on Natural History. Of these some parts are preserved to us either actually or by imitation in the three books which bear the name of Solomon. 1. "The Proverbs" (i.——xxix.). 2. "The Song of Solomon," or "The Song of Songs." 3. "Ecclesiastes" or "The Preacher" (Heb. Koheleth). To these add the Psalms sometimes connected with him: Ps. ii., xiv., lxxii., cxxvii. III. Books or traditions extraneous to the Canon. 1. His Deutero-canonical or apocryphal writings. (a.) The Wisdom of Solomon, in the person of Solomon, but apparently by an Alexandrian Jew. (This and Ecclesiasticus follow in LXX. and Vulgate, immediately on the three Proto-canonical books of Solo- mon, and with these are called "The five books of Wis- dom.") (b.) The Psalter of Solomon. Eighteen Psalms which once stood in the Alexandrine MS. at the end of the New Testament, following the Epistles of Clemens Romanus, as appears from the index. They have been published from a MS. in the Augsburg Library by De la Cerda. (Fabricius, Codex Pseu- depigraphus Vet. Test. 914—999.) See Lecture XXVIII. (c.) Correspondence between Solomon and Vaphres, King of Egypt, preserved by Eupolemus (Eusebius, Prœp. Ev. ix. 31, 32). (d.) Correspondence of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre. (α) Letters preserved by Eupolemus (Eusebius, Prœp. Ev. ix. 33, 34, and Josephus, Ant. viii. 2, § 6, 7, 8), of which the copies apparently existed both at Tyre and Jerusalem in the time of Josephus. (β) Riddles, mentioned by Menander and Dios, the Phœni- cian historians (Josephus, Ant. viii. 5, § 3, and c. Apion, i. 17, 18; Theophilus Antioch. ad Autolycum, iii. p. 131, 132). (e.) Charms, seals, &c., of Solomon, alluded to by Josephus, Ant. viii. 2, § 5 (see also Pineda, De Rebus Salomonis; and Fabri- cius, Codex Pseudepigraphus Vet. Test. p. 1031—1057). 2. Later traditions of his history. (a.) In Josephus, Ant. viii. 1—7. (b.) In the Arabian stories (Koran, xxii. 15—19, xxvii. 20—45, xxviii. 29—30, xxxiv. 11—13 (with the amplifications of Lane's Selections, p. 232—262); D'Herbelot's Bibliothèque Orientale, "Soliman ben-Daoud"; Weil's Biblical Legends, p. 171—215. (c.) In Eupolemus (Eusebius, Prœp. Ev. ix. 31, 34). LECTURE XXVI. THE EMPIRE OF SOLOMON SOLOMON, the third king of Israel, is as unlike either of his predecessors as each of them is unlike the other. No person occupies so large a space in Sacred History, of whom so few personal incidents are related. That stately and melancholy figure——in some respects the grandest and the saddest in the sacred volume——is, in detail, little more than a mighty shadow. But on the other hand, of his age, of his court, of his works, we know more than of any other. Now, for the first time since the Exodus, we find distinct traces of dates——years, months, days. Now at last we seem to come across monuments, which possibly remain to this day. Of the earlier ages of Jewish his- tory, nothing has lasted to our time except it be the sepulchres and wells,——the works of Nature rather than of men. But it is not beyond belief that the massive walls at the reservoir near Bethlehem, the substructures of the temple at Jerusalem, and at Baalbec, are from the age of Solomon. Now also we come within certain signs of contemporary history in the outer world. In the reign of Solomon we at last meet with an Egyptian sovereign, designated by his proper name——Shishak—— and in his still-existing portraiture on the walls of Karnac, we have thus the first distinct image of one who beyond question had communicated with the chosen people. Now also the date to which we have attained, the thousandth year before the Christian era, bings us to a level with the beginning of the well- know Classical History of Greece and Italy. But the epoch is remarkable not only for its distinct- ness, but for its splendor. It is characteristic indeed of the Jewish records that, clearly as Solomon's greatness is portrayed at the time, it is rarely noticed in them again. Of all the characters of the Sacred History, he is the most purely secular; and merely secular magnifi- cence was an excrescence, not a native growth, of the chosen people. Whilst Moses and David are often mentioned gain in the sacred books, Solomon's name hardly occurs after the close of his reign. But his fame ran, as it were, underground amongst the traditions of his own people and of the east generally. The Greek form which the Hebrew name of Solomon assumes is of itse;f a singular tribute to the lofty associations with which it was invested. "Alexander," the name of the greatest king of the Gentile world in Eastern ears, was in after days thought by the Jews to be the fitting Western version of the name of the greatest king of the Jewish world. "Alexander Balas," "Alexander Jan- næus,"——the Alexanders at the time of the Christian era,——are merely so many Solomons. The same analogy spread even to feminine name; and Alexandra, which hardly ever occurs in Grecian nomenclature, was a common Jewish, and hence has become a Christian, name, from being held to be the equivalent of the Hebrew Salome. In the Mussulman stories his name has a still wider circulation. Suleymân (in its diminu- tive form of endearment——"Little Solomon") became the favorite title of Arabian and Turkish princes, and the sense of his being the ideal and prototype of all great kings is shown in the strange belief that the forty sovereigns who ruled over the world before the creation of man were all Solimans. Their history was recounted by the Bird of Ages, the Simorg, who had served them all; and their statues, monstrous pre-Adamite forms, were supposed to exist in the mountains of Kaf, where a sacred shield descended from each to each. He is the true type of an Asiatic monarch. "Europe," says Hegel, "could never have had a Solomon." But of the potentates of Asia, he is the one example with which Europe is most familiar. And, although his secular aspect has withdrawn him from the religious interest which attaches to many others of the Jewish saints and heroes, yet in this very circum- stance there are points of attraction indispensable to the development of the Sacred History. It enables us to study his reign more freely than is possible in the case of the more purely religious characters of the Bible. He is, in a still more exact sense than his father, "one of the great men of the earth"——and, as such, we can deal with his history, as we should wit theirs. It thus serves as a connecting link between the common and the Sacred world. To have had many such characters in the Biblical History would have brought it down too nearly to the ordinary level. But to have one such is necessary to show that the interest which we inevitably feel in such events and such men has a place in the designs of Providence, and in the lessons of Revelation. In Solomon, too, we find the first beginnings of that wider view which ended at last in the expression of Judaism into Christianity. His reign contains the first historical record of the contact between Western Europe and eastern India. In his fearless encouragement of ecclesiastical architecture is the first sanction of the employment of art in the service of a true Religion. In his writings and in the literature which springs from them, is the only Hebrew counterpart to the philosophy of Greece. For all these reasons, there is in him a like- ness, one-sided indeed, of "the Son of David," in whom East and West, philosophy and religion, were reconciled together. Solomon was the second son of David and Bathsheba. There is something more than usually signifi- cant in his names, arising probably from the peculiar circumstances of his birth. His first name was Jedidiah, "beloved of Jehovah," said to have been given, perhaps by Nathan, as a sign of David's forgiveness—— "because Jehovah loved him." It is the sanctification of the name of David——the "darling" becomes "Je- hovah's Darling." That by which he was afterwards known was Shelômoh, "The Peaceful" (corresponding to the German "Friedrich"), in contrast to David's wars, possibly in connection with the great peace at the time of his birth. In one version of David's address to Sol- omon, he tells his son that his birth had been predicted at the time when, after the capture of Jerusalem, he had first meditated the building of the Temple, and that the significance of his career had already been intimated. "Behold a son shall be born to thee, who shall be a man "of rest; and I will give him rest from all his enemies "round about; for his name shall be Shelômoh (peace- "ful); and I will give peace and quietness unto Israel in "his day. He shall build an house for My name; and "he shall be My son, and I his father; and I will estab- "lish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever." Nothing is known of his youth, unless it be that he was brought up by Nathan, and that after the death of the two eldest and best beloved of David's earlier sons, Ammon and Absalom, he must have been regarded as the heir. He was Bathsheba's favor- ite son, "tender and only beloved in the sight of his "mother," and Bathsheba, we cannot doubt, was David's favorite wife, and to her David had pledged her son's accession by a solemn and separate oath. But another son, in point of age, came next after Absalom——Adonijah, the son of Haggith. Of his mother we know nothing but her name, "the Dancer." Like Absalom, he was remarkable for his personal beauty; and, like Absalom, he was dear to his father's heart. From the days of his early child- hood at Hebron, it had been observed that the King had never put any restraint upon him,——never had said, "Why hast thou done so?" He, as his father's end approached, determined to anticipate the vacancy of the throne by seizing upon it himself. What hidden springs were at work——how far (as seems implied) the new concubine of the aged King, Abishag the Shunam- mite, was in Adonijah's favor——whether, as has been conjectured, she was the beautiful Shulamite of the Canticles——whether Adonijah had already professed for her that affection which he openly avowed after his father's death——are amongst the secrets of the Harem of Jerusalem, of which only a few hints transpire, to awaken without satisfying our curiosty. He took pre- cisely the same course that had been adopted by Absa- lom. He assumed the royal state and the same number of runners to clear the streets, and the same unwonted addition of horses to his chariots. As Absalom had won over Ahithophel, so he won over the two chief amongst the older advisers of the King, each of whom probably had his own cause of quarrel. Abiathar's reasons for disaffection we can only infer from the rising favor of Zadok. Joab, as we have already seen, had more than one deep resentment brooding in his breast, and there is something mournful in the sigh that the sacred historian heaves over the events which, at the close of his long life, at last broke the unshaken loyalty of the venerable soldier. "Though he ad not "turned after Absalom, he turned after Adonijah." The other Princes, his brothers, also joined him. If they were all living at this time, they were no less than fifteen in number. These, with the "King's servants," must have made a formidable band. The rendezvous was a huge stone,——"the stone of serpents,"——near the spring of En-rogel, where afterwards were the royal gardens, and where they would have at once a natural altar for the sacrificial feast, and water for the necessary ablutions. In this general disaffection there remained faithful to the cause of Solomon——"the mighty men;" "the body-guard;" two high personages obscurely indi- cated as Shimei and Rei; Zadok, the younger Chief Priest, who also had a prophetic gift, and was known as "the seer;" and above all, Solomon's preceptor, the Prophet Nathan, who, now that Gad (as it seems) was dead, remained the chief representative of the Prophetic order. He, with Bathsheba, succeeded in rousing the languid energies of the age King, who threw the whole weight of his great name into the Scale of Solomon, and advised the course to be pursued. The boy Prince was mounted on the royal mule, and, accompanied by Nathan, and by Benaiah, the priestly head of the royal guard, went down from the palace to Gihon. Zadok was present with the sacred oil, which, as Priest at the sanctuary at Gib- eon, was in his custody, and poured it on the young man's head, Nathan assisting at the ceremony, as Prophet. Then Zadok blew his sacred ram's horn, the trumpeters of the guard followed, as was from this time forward the custom at the inauguration of kings, with a loud blast which announced to the assembled concourse the event which had just occurred. A shout went up,——"Long live King Solomon!" amidst the acclamations of the multitude, who expressed their joy after the manner of Orientals, in wild music and vehe- ment dancing. He was brought into the palace, and formally seated on the royal "throne," and henceforth was addressed as "King." The guests then entered the presence of David, and in the form of Eastern benedic- tion said, "God make the name of Solomon better than "thy name, and make his throne greater than thy "throne;" and the aged King, in spite of his infirmi- ties, prostrated himself in acquiescence on his bed. The same trumpet-note which had roused the enthusi- asm of the citizens of Jerusalem had startled the con- spirators at Adonijah's feast. It struck on the watchful and experienced ear of Joab, and the next moment there rushed in upon them Jonathan, the son of the rebel Priest Abiathar, he who in the revolt of Absalom had been employed as a spy and a messenger, probably from the same qualities which made him on this day the first bearer of evil tidings. The festivities were broken off. Adonijah fled to the altar for refuge. His proposal to have Abishag for his wife, after his father's death, whether prompted by affection, or, as Solomon inter- preted it, ambition, brought him shortly after to his end. And in the same ruin were involved the aged priest and warrior who had shared his fortunes. Abiathar was by the sovereign act of Solomon deposed from his office; a momentary reminiscence of the great day, when he had stood by David with the ark on Olivet, caused his life to be spared for the time, but only for the time. He spent the short remnant of his days on his property at Anathoth, and with him expired the last glory of the house of Eli. His descendants might be seen prowling about the sanctuary, which their ances- tors had once ruled, begging for their fortunate rivals a piece of silver or a cake of bread. Joab fled up the steep ascent of Gibeon, and clung to the ancient bra- zen altar which stood in front of the Sacred Tent. The same disregard of ceremonial sanctity which the King had shown in deposing the venerable Abiathar, he ow showed by deciding that even the sacredness of the altar was not to protect the man who had reeked with the blood of Abner and Amasa; and, accordingly, the white-headed warrior of a hundred fights, with his hands still clasping the consecrated structure, was exe- cuted by the hands of his ancient comrade Benaiah. The body was buried in funeral state at his own prop- erty in the hills overhanging the Jordan valley. Last of all, partly by his own rashness, perished the formi- dable neighbor, the aged Shimei, of the house of Saul. The mind of Christian Europe instinctively shudders at this cold-blooded vengeance on crimes long forgiven; yet it may be that in the silent approbation of Solo- mon's policy which the sacred narrative conveys, there is something of the same feeling which, translated in to our language, bids us, in spite of our natural sentiments of pity and reverence, "not spare the hoary head of "inveterate abuse." It was this rapid suppression of all resistance that was known in the formal language of the time as the "Establishment" or "Enthronization" of Solomon. As David's oath had been, in allusion to the troubles of his early life, As the Lord liveth, that hat redeemed my soul out of "Distress,"——so the oath of Solomon, in allusion to this signal entrance on his new reign, was "As the Lord liveth, which hath established me, and set "me on the throne of David my father," without a rival or rebel to contest it. It was probably on the occasion of his finding anointing or inauguration on Mount Zion, that through Nathan, or through Zadok, the oracle was delivered, to which allusion is made in the second Psalm,—— "I have anointed My king On Zion, My holy mountain." It was like a battle fought and won, of the new per- manent organization of the monarchy over the wild anarchical elements of the older system that had still lingered in the reign of David. Joab, the Douglas of the house of David, was like a Douglas slain; with the fall of Shimei, perished the last bitter representative of the rival house of Saul; the Chief Priest Abiathar, last of the house of Eli, was the last possessor of the now obsolete oracle of Urim and Thummim, the last sur- vivor of David's early companions; the young King triumphed over all the ancient factions of Israel, and in him triumphed the cause of monarchy and of civili- zation for all coming time. It is fitting that from this accession——the first hereditary accession to the throne of Israel——should have been copied and descended even to our own day, the ceremonial of the corona- tion of Christian sovereigns——the coronation anthem, the enthronization, the trumpets, the wild acclamations, even the Easter anointing. This wonderful calm must have been rendered doubly striking, if he was, as is most probable, but a mere boy at this time——fifteen according to one tradition, twelve according to another——in appearance, if not in years, "a little child," "young and tender." To this combi- nation of incidents belongs the only narrative which exhibits his personal character. It contains in a lively form the prelude of the coming reign. The national worship was still in the unsettled state in which it had been since the first entrance into Palestine. "The people sacrificed in high- "places." David himself had "worshipped" on the top of Olivet. The two main objects of special reverence were parted asunder. The ark stood in a temporary tent within David's fortress on Mount Zion. The chief local sanctity still adhered to the spot where "the Tabernacle of the Congregation,"——the ancient Tent of the Wanderings. In front of it rose the venerable structure of the brazen altar, wrought by the hands of the earliest Israelite artist, Bezaleel, the grandson of Hur. In this tabernacle ministered the Chief Priest Zadok, who had thence brought the sacred oil for the inauguration of Solomon, and who was now the sole representative of the Araonic family. Hither, therefore, as on a solemn pilgrimage, with a vast concourse of dignitaries, the young King came to offer royal sacri- fices on his accession. A thousand victims were con- sumed on the ancient altar. The night was spent within the sacred city of Gibeon. And now occurred one of the prophetic dreams which had already been the means of Divine communication in the time of Samuel. Thrice in Samuel's life——at least three epochs of his rise, of his climax, of his fall——is such a warning recorded. This was the first. It was the choice offered to the youthful King on the threshold of life,——the choice, so often imagined in fiction, and actually pre- sented in real life,——"Ask what I shall give thee." The answer is the ideal answer of such a Prince, burdened with the responsibility of his position. He remembered the high antecedents of his predecessor——"Thou hast "showed unto thy servant David, my father, great mercy, "according as he walked before Thee in truth, and in "uprightness, and in righteousness of heart with thee." He remembered his own youth and weakness; "I am "but a little child——I know not how to go out or to "come in." He remembered the vastness of his charge; "In the midst of thy people which thou hast chosen: a "great people which cannot be numbered nor counted "for multitude: and who is able to judge this thy peo- "ple that is so great." He made the demand for the gift which he of all the heroes of the ancient Church was the first to claim: "Give thy servant an under- "standing heart to judge thy people, that I may discern "between good and bad." He showed his wisdom by asking for wisdom. He became wise, because he had set his heart upon it. This was to him the special aspect through which the Divine Spirit was to be approached, and grasped, and made to bear on the wants of men; not the highest, not the choice of David, not the choice of Isaiah; but still the choice of Solomon. "He awoke and behold it was "a dream." But the fulfilment of it belonged to actual life. From the height of Gibeon, the King returned to complete the festival of his accession before the other monuments of the Mosaic religion——the Ark, at Jerusalem. It was in the midst of these sacrifi- cial solemnities that the gift of judicial insight was first publicly attested. Every part of the incident is charac- teristic. The two mothers, degraded as was their con- dition, came, as the Eastern stories so constantly tell of the humblest classes, t demand justice from the King. He patiently listens; the people stand by, wondering what the childlike sovereign will determine. The mother of the living child tells her tale with all the plaintiveness and particularity of truth; and describes how, as she "looked at him again and again, behold, it "was not my son which I did bear." The King deter- mines, by throwing himself upon the instincts of nature, to cut asunder the sophistry of argument. The living child was to be divided——and the one half given to one, the other half given to the other. The true mother betrays her affection: "O my Lord, give her the living "babe (the word is peculiar), and in no wise slay it." The King repeats, word for word, the cry of the mother, as if questioning its meaning. "Give her the living "babe, and in no wise slay it"? then bursts forth into his own conviction, "SHE is the mother." The reign which was thus inaugurated is, after this almost without events. For this reason, as well as from the confusion of the various texts which describe it, it must be viewed not chronologically, but under its dif- ferent aspects,——of his Empire, his great buildings, and his writings. I. The Empire of Solomon in its external relations. In actual extent, the boundaries of Israel did not reach beyond the conquests of David. But it was reserved for Solomon to fill up what David had but established in part. "He shall have dominion from "sea to sea, and from the Euphrates to the ends of the "earth." "The Lord magnified Solomon exceedingly. " . . . and bestowed upon him such royal majesty as "had not been on any king before him in Israel." For the most part this wide dominion was established, in accordance with the promise of its name, by arts of peace. But there were two or three exceptions, appar- ently at the commencement of his reign. It was, indeed, not surprising that the surrounding nations, especially Edom and Syria, when they heard of the accession of so young a sovereign, should have aspired to throw of the yoke which his warlike father had imposed upon them. Edom as the first. A young Edomite prince, Hadad, had escaped from the extermi- nation of his countrymen by the sword of Joab, at the time of David's conquest, and had lain concealed in the court of Egypt till the news arrived of the death of the two oppressors of his country. Against the will of his Egyptian protector he returned, ad kept up more or less of a guerilla warfare amongst the Idumæan moun- tains, all the days of Solomon. A second was Rezon, who had escaped from the rout of the Syrians in David's expedition against Zebah, and at the head of a band of freebooters established himself in Damascus. These, with possibly attempts at insurrection on the part of the old Canaanite population, must be the up- heavings which gave occasion to the 2d Psalm. "Why "do the heathen imagine a vain thing, and the rulers "of the earth stand up together against JEHOVAH and "against His anointed?" All these tumultuary move- ments were waiting their time to break out as soon as Solomon was removed; but "to him was given the hea- "then for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the "earth for a possession. He broke them with a rod of "iron, and dashed them in pieces like a potter's vessel;" and over that vast dominion, with mingled joy and fear he was served till the close of his magnificent career. 1. In the north and northeast, Hamath, which ap- parently had thrown off the yoke on David's death, as recovered. Fortresses were estab- lished along the heights of Lebanon, and stations along the desert towards the Euphrates. Of these establish- ments two remain, which, partly by tradition, partly by resemblance of name, are connected with Solomon. One is Baalbec; the great sanctuary, which commanded the valley of Cœlesyria, on the way to Hamath, and of which the enormous substructions appear to date from an age far anterior to the Syro-Greek or Syro-Roman temples built upon them. Eastward his dominion ex- tended to Thapsacus (Tiphsach), and on the way to this is the other probable memorial of his greatness, Tadmor in the wilderness;" if we may trust the native name which has clung to the famous city of Zenobia, in spite of its Roman appellation, by which it has been translated. Its situation, in what must have been a palm-grove, at the point where the wide barren valley, enclosed between two parallel ranges of hills, opens on the still wider desert, and where the abundant springs gather round it in a circle of vegetation, would naturally have pointed it out to Solomon as a site for a city, or a halting-place for caravans halfway between Damascus and Babylon. The ruins which now attract the travel- er's attention, are of a time long posterior to the Jewish monarchy. But even as late as the twelfth century, Benjamin of Tudela describes its walls as being built of stones equally gigantic with those which form the glory of Baalbec. They have disappeared; and of the ancient city, if so be, of Solomon, there are now no vestiges but mounds of rubbish and ruin, unless, as at Baalbec, some of the larger stones forming the substructions of the Temple of the Sun are of that date, and the columns of Egyptian granite ascribed to Solomon at the entrance of the Temple. 2. But the most important influence brought to bear on the development of the kingdom were those of Egypt, Arabia, and Tyre. Now, for the first time since the Exodus, Israel was again brought into contact with the kingdom of the Pharaohs. The Egyptian sovereign at this time was probably reigning at Tanis. His Queen's name (Tah- penes is preserved to us. A correspondence with him, under the name of Vaphres, is preserved in heathen records. From the first moment of Solomon's accession, the Egyptian King was so favorably disposed towards the young Prince as to withdraw all countenance from the designs of Hadad, who had become his nephew by mar- riage. Not long afterwards, his daughter became Solo- mon's Queen. He had attacked and conquered the refractory Canaanite kingdom of Gezer, which had re- mained independent, on the southwestern frontier of Palestine, and resisted the arms of all the Israelite chiefs from Joshua down to David, and which thus became the dowry of the Egyptian Princess. Besides the indirect influences which this connection exercised, as we shall see, on the architecture, the man- ners, the literature, and the religion of Israel, it led at once to the reëstablishment of an intercourse, which would have been inconceivable to the Hebrews who, standing on the shores of the Red Sea, seemed to have parted with the Egyptians forever. Horses and chariots, before almost unknown in Palestine, were now brought in as regular articles of commerce from Egypt. Stables were established on an enormous scale,——both for horses and dromedaries. Four miles out of Jerusalem, under the King's own patronage, a celebrated caravanserai for travellers into Egypt——the first halting-place on their route——was founded by Chimham, son of Barzillai, on the property granted to him by David out of the pater- nal patrimony of Bethlehem. That caravanserai re- mained with Chimham's name for at least four centu- ries, and, according to the immovable usages of the East, it probably was the same which, at the time of the Christian era, furnished shelter for two travellers with their infant child, when "there was no room in the inn," and when they too from that spot fled into Egypt. 3. Doubtless through the same Egyptian influence was secured a still more important outlet of commerce on the southeast. Through the es- tablishment of a port at the head of the gulf of Elath, Palestine at last gained and access to the Indian Ocean. Ezion-geber, "the Giant's Backbone," so called probably from the huge range of mountains on each side of it, became an emporium teeming with life and activity; the same, on the eastern branch, that Suez has in our own time become on the western branch of the Red Sea. Beneath that line of palm-trees which now shelters the wretched village of Akaba, was then heard the stir of ship-builders and sailors. Thence went forth the fleet of Solomon, manned by Tyrian sailors, on its myste- rious voyage——to Ophir, in the far East, on the shores of India or Arabia. From Arabia also, near or distant, came a constant traffic of spices, both from private indi- viduals and from the chiefs. So great was Solomon's interests in the expeditions, that he actually travelled himself to the gulf of Akaba to see the port. 
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. II: From Samuel to the Captivity, by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, 1879; pp. 182 - 202
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