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Meta: Congratulations! You just won millions of dollars in the lottery!

2020.09.16 17:05 DamnDam Meta: Congratulations! You just won millions of dollars in the lottery!

Congratulations! You just won millions of dollars in the lottery! That's great.
Now you're fucked.
No really.
You are.
You're fucked.
If you just want to skip the biographical tales of woe of some of the math-tax protagonists, skip on down to the next comment. To see what to do in the event you win the lottery.
You see, it's something of an open secret that winners of obnoxiously large jackpots tend to end up badly with alarming regularity. Not the $1 million dollar winners. But anyone in the nine-figure range is at high risk. Eight-figures? Pretty likely to be screwed. Seven-figures? Yep. Painful. Perhaps this is a consequence of the sample. The demographics of lottery players might be exactly the wrong people to win large sums of money. Or perhaps money is the root of all evil. Either way, you are going to have to be careful. Don't believe me? Consider this:
Large jackpot winners face double digit multiples of probability versus the general population to be the victim of:
1. Homicide (something like 20x more likely)
2. Drug overdose
3. Bankruptcy (how's that for irony?)
4. Kidnapping
And triple digit multiples of probability versus the general population rate to be:
1. Convicted of drunk driving
2. The victim of Homicide (at the hands of a family member) 120x more likely in this case, ain't love grand?
3. A defendant in a civil lawsuit
4. A defendant in felony criminal proceedings
Believe it or not, your biggest enemy if you suddenly become possessed of large sums of money is... you. At least you will have the consolation of meeting your fate by your own hand. But if you can't manage it on your own, don't worry. There are any number of willing participants ready to help you start your vicious downward spiral for you. Mind you, many of these will be "friends," "friendly neighbors," or "family." Often, they won't even have evil intentions. But, as I'm sure you know, that makes little difference in the end. Most aren't evil. Most aren't malicious. Some are. None are good for you.
Jack Whittaker, a Johnny Cash attired, West Virginia native, is the poster boy for the dangers of a lump sum award. In 2002 Mr. Whittaker (55 years old at the time) won what was, also at the time, the largest single award jackpot in U.S. history. $315 million. At the time, he planned to live as if nothing had changed, or so he said. He was remarkably modest and decent before the jackpot, and his ship sure came in, right? Wrong.
Mr. Whittaker became the subject of a number of personal challenges, escalating into personal tragedies, complicated by a number of legal troubles.
Whittaker wasn't a typical lottery winner either. His net worth at the time of his winnings was in excess of $15 million, owing to his ownership of a successful contracting firm in West Virginia. His claim to want to live "as if nothing had changed" actually seemed plausible. He should have been well equipped for wealth. He was already quite wealthy, after all. By all accounts he was somewhat modest, low profile, generous and good natured. He should have coasted off into the sunset. Yeah. Not exactly.
Whittaker took the all-cash option, $170 million, instead of the annuity option, and took possession of $114 million in cash after $56 million in taxes. After that, things went south.
Whittaker quickly became the subject of a number of financial stalkers, who would lurk at his regular breakfast hideout and accost him with suggestions for how to spend his money. They were unemployed. No, an interview tomorrow morning wasn't good enough. They needed cash NOW. Perhaps they had a sure-fire business plan. Their daughter had cancer. A niece needed dialysis. Needless to say, Whittaker stopped going to his breakfast haunt. Eventually, they began ringing his doorbell. Sometimes in the early morning. Before long he was paying off-duty deputies to protect his family. He was accused of being heartless. Cold. Stingy.
Letters poured in. Children with cancer. Diabetes. MS. You name it. He hired three people to sort the mail. A detective to filter out the false claims and the con men (and women) was retained.
Brenda, the clerk who had sold Whittaker the ticket, was a victim of collateral damage. Whittaker had written her a check for $44,000 and bought her house, but she was by no means a millionaire. Rumors that the state routinely paid the clerk who had sold the ticket 10% of the jackpot winnings hounded her. She was followed home from work. Threatened. Assaulted.
Whittaker's car was twice broken into, by trusted acquaintances who watched him leave large amounts of cash in it. $500,000 and $200,000 were stolen in two separate instances. The thieves spiked Whittaker's drink with prescription drugs in the first instance. The second incident was the handiwork of his granddaughter's friends, who had been probing the girl for details on Whittaker's cash for weeks.
Even Whittaker's good-faith generosity was questioned. When he offered $10,000 to improve the city's water park so that it was more handicap accessible, locals complained that he spent more money at the strip club. (Amusingly this was true).
Whittaker invested quite a bit in his own businesses, tripled the number of people his businesses employed (making him one of the larger employers in the area) and eventually had given away $14 million to charity through a foundation he set up for the purpose. This is, of course, what you are "supposed" to do. Set up a foundation. Be careful about your charity giving. It made no difference in the end.
To top it all off, Whittaker had been accused of ruining a number of marriages. His money made other men look inferior, they said, wherever he went in the small West Virginia town he called home. Resentment grew quickly. And festered. Whittaker paid four settlements related to this sort of claim. Yes, you read that right. Four.
His family and their immediate circle were quickly the victims of odds-defying numbers of overdoses, emergency room visits and even fatalities. His granddaughter, the eighteen year old "Brandi" (who Whittaker had been giving a $2100.00 per week allowance) was found dead after having been missing for several weeks. Her death was, apparently, from a drug overdose, but Whittaker suspected foul play. Her body had been wrapped in a tarp and hidden behind a rusted-out van. Her seventeen year old boyfriend had expired three months earlier in Whittaker's vacation house, also from an overdose. Some of his friends had robbed the house after his overdose, stepping over his body to make their escape and then returning for more before stepping over his body again to leave. His parents sued for wrongful death claiming that Whittaker's loose purse strings contributed to their son's death. Amazingly, juries are prone to award damages in cases such as these. Whittaker settled. Again.
Even before the deaths, the local and state police had taken a special interest in Whittaker after his new-found fame. He was arrested for minor and less minor offenses many times after his winnings, despite having had a nearly spotless record before the award. Whittaker's high profile couldn't have helped him much in this regard.
In 18 months Whittaker had been cited for over 250 violations ranging from broken tail lights on every one of his five new cars, to improper display of renewal stickers. A lawsuit charging various police organizations with harassment went nowhere and Whittaker was hit with court costs instead.
Whittaker's wife filed for divorce, and in the process froze a number of his assets and the accounts of his operating companies. Caesars in Atlantic City sued him for $1.5 million to cover bounced checks, caused by the asset freeze.
Today Whittaker is badly in debt, and bankruptcy looms large in his future.
But, hey, that's just one example, right?
Wrong.
Nearly one third of multi-million dollar jackpot winners eventually declare bankruptcy. Some end up worse. To give you just a taste of the possibilities, consider the fates of:
So, what the hell DO you do if you are unlucky enough to win the lottery?
This is the absolutely most important thing you can do right away: NOTHING.
Yes. Nothing.
DO NOT DECLARE YOURSELF THE WINNER yet.
Do NOT tell anyone. The urge is going to be nearly irresistible. Resist it. Trust me.
1. IMMEDIATELY retain an attorney.
Get a partner from a larger, NATIONAL firm. Don't let them pawn off junior partners or associates on you. They might try, all law firms might, but insist instead that your lead be a partner who has been with the firm for awhile. Do NOT use your local attorney. Yes, I mean your long-standing family attorney who did your mother's will. Do not use the guy who fought your dry-cleaner bill. Do not use the guy you have trusted your entire life because of his long and faithful service to your family. In fact, do not use any firm that has any connection to family or friends or community. TRUST me. This is bad. You want someone who has never heard of you, any of your friends, or any member of your family. Go the the closest big city and walk into one of the national firms asking for one of the "Trust and Estates" partners you have previously looked up on http://www.martindale.com from one of the largest 50 firms in the United States which has an office near you. You can look up attornies by practice area and firm on Martindale.
2. Decide to take the lump sum.
Most lotteries pay a really pathetic rate for the annuity. It usually hovers around 4.5% annual return or less, depending. It doesn't take much to do better than this, and if you have the money already in cash, rather than leaving it in the hands of the state, you can pull from the capital whenever you like. If you take the annuity you won't have access to that cash. That could be good. It could be bad. It's probably bad unless you have a very addictive personality. If you need an allowance managed by the state, it is because you didn't listen to point #1 above.
Why not let the state just handle it for you and give you your allowance?
Many state lotteries pay you your "allowence" (the annuity option) by buying U.S. treasury instruments and running the interest payments through their bureaucracy before sending it to you along with a hunk of the principal every month. You will not be beating inflation by much, if at all. There is no reason you couldn't do this yourself, if a low single-digit return is acceptable to you.
You aren't going to get even remotely the amount of the actual jackpot. Take our old friend Mr. Whittaker. Using Whittaker is a good model both because of the reminder of his ignominious decline, and the fact that his winning ticket was one of the larger ones on record. If his situation looks less than stellar to you, you might have a better perspective on how "large" your winnings aren't. Whittaker's "jackpot" was $315 million. He selected the lump-sum cash up-front option, which knocked off $145 million (or 46% of the total) leaving him with $170 million. That was then subject to withholding for taxes of $56 million (33%) leaving him with $114 million.
In general, you should expect to get about half of the original jackpot if you elect a lump sum (maybe better, it depends). After that, you should expect to lose around 33% of your already pruned figure to state and federal taxes. (Your mileage may vary, particularly if you live in a state with aggressive taxation schemes).
3. Decide right now, how much you plan to give to family and friends.
This really shouldn't be more than 20% or so. Figure it out right now. Pick your number. Tell your lawyer. That's it. Don't change it. 20% of $114 million is $22.8 million. That leaves you with $91.2 million. DO NOT CONSULT WITH FAMILY when deciding how much to give to family. You are going to get advice that is badly tainted by conflict of interest, and if other family members find out that Aunt Flo was consulted and they weren't you will never hear the end of it. Neither will Aunt Flo. This might later form the basis for an allegation that Aunt Flo unduly influenced you and a lawsuit might magically appear on this basis. No, I'm not kidding. I know of one circumstance (related to a business windfall, not a lottery) where the plaintiffs WON this case.
Do NOT give anyone cash. Ever. Period. Just don't. Do not buy them houses. Do not buy them cars. Tell your attorney that you want to provide for your family, and that you want to set up a series of trusts for them that will total 20% of your after tax winnings. Tell him you want the trust empowered to fund higher education, some help (not a total) purchase of their first home, some provision for weddings and the like, whatever. Do NOT put yourself in the position of handing out cash. Once you do, if you stop, you will be accused of being a heartless bastard (or bitch). Trust me. It won't go well.
It will be easy to lose perspective. It is now the duty of your friends, family, relatives, hangers-on and their inner circle to skew your perspective, and they take this job quite seriously. Setting up a trust, a managed fund for your family that is in the double digit millions is AMAZINGLY generous. You need never have trouble sleeping because you didn't lend Uncle Jerry $20,000 in small denomination unmarked bills to start his chain of deep-fried peanut butter pancake restaurants. ("Deep'n 'nutter Restaurants") Your attorney will have a number of good ideas how to parse this wealth out without turning your siblings/spouse/children/grandchildren/cousins/waitresses into the latest Paris Hilton.
4. You will be encouraged to hire an investment manager. Considerable pressure will be applied. Don't.
Investment managers charge fees, usually a percentage of assets. Consider this: If they charge 1% (which is low, I doubt you could find this deal, actually) they have to beat the market by 1% every year just to break even with a general market index fund. It is not worth it, and you don't need the extra return or the extra risk. Go for the index fund instead if you must invest in stocks. This is a hard rule to follow. They will come recommended by friends. They will come recommended by family. They will be your second cousin on your mother's side. Investment managers will sound smart. They will have lots of cool acronyms. They will have nice PowerPoint presentations. They might (MIGHT) pay for your shrimp cocktail lunch at TGI Friday's while reminding you how poor their side of the family is. They live for this stuff.
You should smile, thank them for their time, and then tell them you will get back to them next week. Don't sign ANYTHING. Don't write it on a cocktail napkin (lottery lawsuit cases have been won and lost over drunkenly scrawled cocktail napkin addition and subtraction figures with lots of zeros on them). Never call them back. Trust me. You will thank me later. This tactic, smiling, thanking people for their time, and promising to get back to people, is going to have to become familiar. You will have to learn to say no gently, without saying the word "no." It sounds underhanded. Sneaky. It is. And its part of your new survival strategy. I mean the word "survival" quite literally.
Get all this figured out BEFORE you claim your winnings. They aren't going anywhere. Just relax.
5. If you elect to be more global about your paranoia, use between 20.00% and 33.00% of what you have not decided to commit to a family fund IMMEDIATELY to purchase a combination of longer term U.S. treasuries (5 or 10 year are a good idea) and perhaps even another G7 treasury instrument. This is your safety net. You will be protected... from yourself.
You are going to be really tempted to starting being a big investor. You are going to be convinced that you can double your money in Vegas with your awesome Roulette system/by funding your friend's amazing idea to sell Lemming dung/buying land for oil drilling/by shorting the North Pole Ice market (global warming, you know). This all sounds tempting because "Even if I lose it all I still have $XX million left! Anyone could live on that comfortably for the rest of their life." Yeah, except for 33% of everyone who won the lottery.
You're not going to double your money, so cool it. Let me say that again. You're not going to double your money, so cool it. Right now, you'll get around 3.5% on the 10 year U.S. treasury. With $18.2 million (20% of $91.2 mil after your absurdly generous family gift) invested in those you will pull down $638,400 per year. If everything else blows up, you still have that, and you will be in the top 1% of income in the United States. So how about you not fuck with it. Eh? And that's income that is damn safe. If we get to the point where the United States defaults on those instruments, we are in far worse shape than worrying about money.
If you are really paranoid, you might consider picking another G7 or otherwise mainstream country other than the U.S. according to where you want to live if the United States dissolves into anarchy or Britney Spears is elected to the United States Senate. Put some fraction in something like Swiss Government Bonds at 3%. If the Swiss stop paying on their government debt, well, then you know money really means nothing anywhere on the globe anymore. I'd study small field sustainable agriculture if you think this is a possibility. You might have to start feedng yourself.
6. That leaves, say, 80% of $91.2 million or $72.9 million.
Here is where things start to get less clear. Personally, I think you should dump half of this, or $36.4 million, into a boring S&P 500 index fund. Find something with low fees. You are going to be constantly tempted to retain "sophisticated" advisers who charge "nominal fees." Don't. Period. Even if you lose every other dime, you have $638,400 per year you didn't have before that will keep coming in until the United States falls into chaos. Fuck advisers and their fees. Instead, drop your $36.4 million in the market in a low fee vehicle. Unless we have an unprecedented downturn the likes of which the United States has never seen, should return around 7.00% or so over the next 10 years. You should expect to touch not even a dime of this money for 10 or 15 or even 20 years. In 20 years $36.4 million could easily become $115 million.
7. So you have put a safety net in place.
You have provided for your family beyond your wildest dreams. And you still have $36.4 million in "cash." You know you will be getting $638,400 per year unless the capital building is burning, you don't ever need to give anyone you care about cash, since they are provided for generously and responsibly (and can't blow it in Vegas) and you have a HUGE nest egg that is growing at market rates. (Given the recent dip, you'll be buying in at great prices for the market). What now? Whatever you want. Go ahead and burn through $36.4 million in hookers and blow if you want. You've got more security than 99% of the country. A lot of it is in trusts so even if you are sued your family will live well, and progress across generations. If your lawyer is worth his salt (I bet he is) then you will be insulated from most lawsuits anyhow. Buy a nice house or two, make sure they aren't stupid investments though. Go ahead and be an angel investor and fund some startups, but REFUSE to do it for anyone you know. (Friends and money, oil and water - Michael Corleone) Play. Have fun. You earned it by putting together the shoe sizes of your whole family on one ticket and winning the jackpot.
submitted by DamnDam to PromptsJustforMe [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 11:47 SimNews_ MSFS Includes Hundreds of Photorealistic Cities

MSFS Includes Hundreds of Photorealistic Cities
As we have learned, the entire Earth of the next-generation Microsoft Flight Simulator is based on Bing Maps satellite imagery, filled with Blackshark.ai’s auto-generated objects, such as houses, trees, and windmills. A few hundreds of cities, strictly speaking of 341, mostly in North America and Europe, have been presented more accurately by using photogrammetry.
In some cities, the data may be a few years old, which can be seen as old commercials in some of the billboards. More highly modeled cities will come in the future as World Update for sure, although there is no confirmation on this yet. Below is the list of highly modeled cities, organized by countries and states (United States).
https://preview.redd.it/sh7jmidhkam51.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bbe72d114c968abb0a1d456996e4e32a3a34640c

Australia

  • Canberra
  • Darwin City
  • Gold Coast
  • Hobart
  • Newcastle
  • Wollongong

Belgium

  • Brussels

Canada

  • Calgary
  • Edmonton
  • Hamilton
  • London
  • Montreal
  • Ottawa
  • Quebec City
  • Toronto
  • Vancouver
  • Victoria
  • Winnipeg

Denmark

  • Copenhagen

France

  • Aix-en-Provence
  • Bordeaux
  • Lille
  • Marseille
  • Montpellier
  • Rennes
  • Rouen
  • Strasbourg

Germany

  • Aachen
  • Augsburg
  • Berlin
  • Bremen
  • Brunswick
  • Dresden
  • Duisburg
  • Halle (Saale)
  • Hamburg
  • Karlsruhe
  • Kiel
  • Leipzig
  • Magdeburg
  • Mannheim
  • Mönchengladbach
  • Munich
  • Münster
  • Nuremberg
  • Oberhausen

Italy

  • Bologna
  • Catania
  • Florence
  • Milan
  • Naples
  • Palermo
  • Rome
  • Venice
  • Verona

Spain

  • Alicante
  • Barcelona
  • Córdoba
  • Madrid
  • Marbella
  • Murcia
  • Pamplona
  • Seville
  • Valencia
  • Vigo

Switzerland

  • Zürich

United Kingdom

  • Portsmouth
  • Southampton

Alabama

  • Anniston
  • Auburn
  • Birmingham
  • Decatur
  • Dothan
  • Huntsville
  • Mobile
  • Montgomery
  • Spanish Fort

Arizona

  • Anthem
  • Carefree
  • Catalina Foothills
  • Drexel Heights
  • Flagstaff
  • Lake Havasu City
  • Mesa
  • Oro Valley
  • Peoria
  • Phoenix
  • Prescott
  • San Tan Valley
  • Tempe
  • Tucson
  • Yuma

Arkansas

  • Little Rock

California

  • Agua Caliente
  • Anaheim
  • Antioch
  • Bakersfield
  • Castro Valley
  • Chico
  • Concord
  • Davis
  • Desert Hot Springs
  • Downey
  • Elk Grove
  • Fairfield
  • Foster City
  • Fremont
  • Fresno
  • Glendale
  • Hanford
  • Hollister
  • Hollywood
  • Inglewood
  • La Habra
  • Lodi
  • Long Beach
  • Los Angeles
  • Los Gatos
  • Madera
  • Manteca
  • Modesto
  • Moreno Valley
  • Oceanside
  • Oxnard
  • Palm Springs
  • Palmdale
  • Perris
  • Porterville
  • Redding
  • Reedley
  • Richmond
  • Sacramento
  • Salinas
  • San Bernardino
  • San Diego
  • San Francisco
  • San Jose
  • Santa Ana
  • Santa Barbara
  • Santa Clarita
  • Santa Cruz
  • Santa Monica
  • Selma
  • Simi Valley
  • Stockton
  • Temecula
  • Ukiah
  • Visalia
  • Yuba City
  • Yucaipa

Colorado

  • Boulder
  • Colorado Springs
  • Denver

Connecticut

  • Bridgeport
  • New Haven
  • Stamford

Delaware

  • Dover
  • Wilmington

Florida

  • Brandon
  • Clermont
  • Daytona Beach
  • Deltona
  • Flagler Beach
  • Fort Lauderdale
  • Fort Myers
  • Gainesville
  • Gulf Breeze
  • Immokalee
  • Jacksonville
  • Key West
  • Lake City
  • Lakeland
  • Leesburg
  • Marco Island
  • Miami
  • New Smyrna Beach
  • Ocala
  • Okeechobee
  • Orange Park
  • Orlando
  • Pace
  • Palatka
  • Palm Bay
  • Palm Beach
  • Palmetto Bay
  • Panama City
  • Pensacola
  • Poinciana
  • Port Charlotte
  • Port St. Lucie
  • Sarasota
  • Sebring
  • Spring Hill
  • St. Petersburg
  • Tallahassee
  • Tampa
  • Tarpon Springs
  • Titusville
  • Universal Studios Florida
  • Venice
  • Walt Disney World Resort
  • Winter Haven
  • Winter Park
  • Zephyrhills

Georgia

  • Atlanta
  • Brunswick
  • Columbus
  • Gainesville
  • Griffin
  • LaGrange
  • Macon
  • Marietta
  • Peachtree City
  • Riverdale
  • Roswell
  • Savannah
  • Sea Island
  • St. Marys
  • Statesboro
  • Valdosta

Illinois

  • Carbondale
  • Champaign
  • Chicago
  • Kankakee
  • Marion
  • Rock Island
  • Springfield

Indiana

  • Fort Wayne
  • Indianapolis
  • Kokomo
  • Michigan City
  • South Bend

Iowa

  • Des Moines

Kansas

  • Topeka
  • Wichita

Kentucky

  • Louisville

Louisiana

  • Baton Rouge
  • Monroe
  • New Orleans
  • Shreveport

Maine

  • Augusta
  • Portland

Maryland

  • Baltimore

Massachusetts

  • Boston
  • Brockton
  • Lowell
  • Springfield
  • Worcester

Michigan

  • Ann Arbor
  • Detroit

Minnesota

  • Farmington
  • Minneapolis

Mississippi

  • Gulfport
  • Jackson
  • Laurel

Missouri

  • Columbia
  • Jefferson City
  • Kansas City
  • Springfield
  • St. Louis

Nebraska

  • Lincoln
  • Omaha

Nevada

  • Carson City
  • Las Vegas
  • Reno

New Hampshire

  • Concord

New Jersey

  • Edison
  • Middletown
  • Newark
  • Toms River
  • Trenton
  • Willingboro

New Mexico

  • Albuquerque
  • Bernalillo
  • Las Cruces
  • Los Lunas
  • Santa Fe

New York

  • New York
  • Niagara Falls
  • Syracuse

North Carolina

  • Durham
  • Greensboro
  • Raleigh
  • Winston-Salem

North Dakota

  • Bismarck
  • Fargo

Ohio

  • Cincinnati
  • Cleveland
  • Columbus
  • Dayton
  • Toledo

Oklahoma

  • Oklahoma City
  • Tulsa

Oregon

  • Beaverton
  • Portland

Pennsylvania

  • Abington
  • Harrisburg
  • McCandless
  • Norristown
  • Philadelphia
  • Pittsburgh

Rhode Island

  • Providence

South Carolina

  • Charleston
  • Columbia
  • Goose Creek
  • Greenville
  • Summerville

South Dakota

  • Pierre

Tennessee

  • Memphis
  • Nashville

Texas

  • Amarillo
  • Austin
  • Brownsville
  • Corpus Christi
  • El Paso
  • Fort Worth
  • Galveston
  • Houston
  • Kingwood
  • Laredo
  • Longview
  • Lubbock
  • McAllen
  • Midland
  • San Antonio
  • The Woodlands

Utah

  • Salt Lake City

Virginia

  • Norfolk
  • Richmond

Washington

  • Everett
  • Seattle
  • Tacoma

Wisconsin

  • Appleton
  • Fond du Lac
  • Green Bay
  • Janesville
  • Madison
  • Milwaukee
  • Oshkosh
  • Sheboygan

Wyoming

  • Cheyenne
submitted by SimNews_ to MicrosoftFlightSim [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 10:35 SimNews_ MSFS Includes Hundreds of Photorealistic Cities

MSFS Includes Hundreds of Photorealistic Cities

As we have learned, the entire Earth of the next-generation Microsoft Flight Simulator is based on Bing Maps satellite imagery, filled with Blackshark.ai’s auto-generated objects, such as houses, trees, and windmills. A few hundreds of cities, strictly speaking of 341, mostly in North America and Europe, have been presented more accurately by using photogrammetry.
In some cities, the data may be a few years old, which can be seen as old commercials in some of the billboards. More highly modeled cities will come in the future as World Update for sure, although there is no confirmation on this yet. Below is the list of highly modeled cities, organized by countries and states (United States).
https://preview.redd.it/7cfz2j2n7am51.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fc1c175d888f1f7ed140d8ff4b933209a383cd2d

Australia

  • Canberra
  • Darwin City
  • Gold Coast
  • Hobart
  • Newcastle
  • Wollongong

Belgium

  • Brussels

Canada

  • Calgary
  • Edmonton
  • Hamilton
  • London
  • Montreal
  • Ottawa
  • Quebec City
  • Toronto
  • Vancouver
  • Victoria
  • Winnipeg

Denmark

  • Copenhagen

France

  • Aix-en-Provence
  • Bordeaux
  • Lille
  • Marseille
  • Montpellier
  • Rennes
  • Rouen
  • Strasbourg

Germany

  • Aachen
  • Augsburg
  • Berlin
  • Bremen
  • Brunswick
  • Dresden
  • Duisburg
  • Halle (Saale)
  • Hamburg
  • Karlsruhe
  • Kiel
  • Leipzig
  • Magdeburg
  • Mannheim
  • Mönchengladbach
  • Munich
  • Münster
  • Nuremberg
  • Oberhausen

Italy

  • Bologna
  • Catania
  • Florence
  • Milan
  • Naples
  • Palermo
  • Rome
  • Venice
  • Verona

Spain

  • Alicante
  • Barcelona
  • Córdoba
  • Madrid
  • Marbella
  • Murcia
  • Pamplona
  • Seville
  • Valencia
  • Vigo

Switzerland

  • Zürich

United Kingdom

  • Portsmouth
  • Southampton

Alabama

  • Anniston
  • Auburn
  • Birmingham
  • Decatur
  • Dothan
  • Huntsville
  • Mobile
  • Montgomery
  • Spanish Fort

Arizona

  • Anthem
  • Carefree
  • Catalina Foothills
  • Drexel Heights
  • Flagstaff
  • Lake Havasu City
  • Mesa
  • Oro Valley
  • Peoria
  • Phoenix
  • Prescott
  • San Tan Valley
  • Tempe
  • Tucson
  • Yuma

Arkansas

  • Little Rock

California

  • Agua Caliente
  • Anaheim
  • Antioch
  • Bakersfield
  • Castro Valley
  • Chico
  • Concord
  • Davis
  • Desert Hot Springs
  • Downey
  • Elk Grove
  • Fairfield
  • Foster City
  • Fremont
  • Fresno
  • Glendale
  • Hanford
  • Hollister
  • Hollywood
  • Inglewood
  • La Habra
  • Lodi
  • Long Beach
  • Los Angeles
  • Los Gatos
  • Madera
  • Manteca
  • Modesto
  • Moreno Valley
  • Oceanside
  • Oxnard
  • Palm Springs
  • Palmdale
  • Perris
  • Porterville
  • Redding
  • Reedley
  • Richmond
  • Sacramento
  • Salinas
  • San Bernardino
  • San Diego
  • San Francisco
  • San Jose
  • Santa Ana
  • Santa Barbara
  • Santa Clarita
  • Santa Cruz
  • Santa Monica
  • Selma
  • Simi Valley
  • Stockton
  • Temecula
  • Ukiah
  • Visalia
  • Yuba City
  • Yucaipa

Colorado

  • Boulder
  • Colorado Springs
  • Denver

Connecticut

  • Bridgeport
  • New Haven
  • Stamford

Delaware

  • Dover
  • Wilmington

Florida

  • Brandon
  • Clermont
  • Daytona Beach
  • Deltona
  • Flagler Beach
  • Fort Lauderdale
  • Fort Myers
  • Gainesville
  • Gulf Breeze
  • Immokalee
  • Jacksonville
  • Key West
  • Lake City
  • Lakeland
  • Leesburg
  • Marco Island
  • Miami
  • New Smyrna Beach
  • Ocala
  • Okeechobee
  • Orange Park
  • Orlando
  • Pace
  • Palatka
  • Palm Bay
  • Palm Beach
  • Palmetto Bay
  • Panama City
  • Pensacola
  • Poinciana
  • Port Charlotte
  • Port St. Lucie
  • Sarasota
  • Sebring
  • Spring Hill
  • St. Petersburg
  • Tallahassee
  • Tampa
  • Tarpon Springs
  • Titusville
  • Universal Studios Florida
  • Venice
  • Walt Disney World Resort
  • Winter Haven
  • Winter Park
  • Zephyrhills

Georgia

  • Atlanta
  • Brunswick
  • Columbus
  • Gainesville
  • Griffin
  • LaGrange
  • Macon
  • Marietta
  • Peachtree City
  • Riverdale
  • Roswell
  • Savannah
  • Sea Island
  • St. Marys
  • Statesboro
  • Valdosta

Illinois

  • Carbondale
  • Champaign
  • Chicago
  • Kankakee
  • Marion
  • Rock Island
  • Springfield

Indiana

  • Fort Wayne
  • Indianapolis
  • Kokomo
  • Michigan City
  • South Bend

Iowa

  • Des Moines

Kansas

  • Topeka
  • Wichita

Kentucky

  • Louisville

Louisiana

  • Baton Rouge
  • Monroe
  • New Orleans
  • Shreveport

Maine

  • Augusta
  • Portland

Maryland

  • Baltimore

Massachusetts

  • Boston
  • Brockton
  • Lowell
  • Springfield
  • Worcester

Michigan

  • Ann Arbor
  • Detroit

Minnesota

  • Farmington
  • Minneapolis

Mississippi

  • Gulfport
  • Jackson
  • Laurel

Missouri

  • Columbia
  • Jefferson City
  • Kansas City
  • Springfield
  • St. Louis

Nebraska

  • Lincoln
  • Omaha

Nevada

  • Carson City
  • Las Vegas
  • Reno

New Hampshire

  • Concord

New Jersey

  • Edison
  • Middletown
  • Newark
  • Toms River
  • Trenton
  • Willingboro

New Mexico

  • Albuquerque
  • Bernalillo
  • Las Cruces
  • Los Lunas
  • Santa Fe

New York

  • New York
  • Niagara Falls
  • Syracuse

North Carolina

  • Durham
  • Greensboro
  • Raleigh
  • Winston-Salem

North Dakota

  • Bismarck
  • Fargo

Ohio

  • Cincinnati
  • Cleveland
  • Columbus
  • Dayton
  • Toledo

Oklahoma

  • Oklahoma City
  • Tulsa

Oregon

  • Beaverton
  • Portland

Pennsylvania

  • Abington
  • Harrisburg
  • McCandless
  • Norristown
  • Philadelphia
  • Pittsburgh

Rhode Island

  • Providence

South Carolina

  • Charleston
  • Columbia
  • Goose Creek
  • Greenville
  • Summerville

South Dakota

  • Pierre

Tennessee

  • Memphis
  • Nashville

Texas

  • Amarillo
  • Austin
  • Brownsville
  • Corpus Christi
  • El Paso
  • Fort Worth
  • Galveston
  • Houston
  • Kingwood
  • Laredo
  • Longview
  • Lubbock
  • McAllen
  • Midland
  • San Antonio
  • The Woodlands

Utah

  • Salt Lake City

Virginia

  • Norfolk
  • Richmond

Washington

  • Everett
  • Seattle
  • Tacoma

Wisconsin

  • Appleton
  • Fond du Lac
  • Green Bay
  • Janesville
  • Madison
  • Milwaukee
  • Oshkosh
  • Sheboygan

Wyoming

  • Cheyenne
Microsoft Flight Simulator is available as a digital purchase from Microsoft Store and Steam as well as a DVD box from Aerosoft. Prices are for Standard 69.99 EUR, Deluxe 89.99 EUR, and Premium Deluxe 119.99 EUR. Standard Edition is also included in Xbox Game Pass for PC monthly subscription.
submitted by SimNews_ to u/SimNews_ [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 07:06 BlancheFromage Monuments are always outdated and obsolete

Somehow I managed to put this in the wrong place O_O
It belongs here.
Someone in an interview on the radio a few days ago made that comment and it really struck me. It's true, you know. A monument is created, set up, for some purpose held by those actually doing that, and then there it sits, long after those feelings have passed. Many don't even remember what it means; its significance evaporates and there it sits, a lump of anachronism, a piece of the past that nobody cares about any more.
There's been a lot of talk of monuments in the wake of the most recent Black Lives Matter protests, and I've certainly learned a lot about monuments in the former colonies and the South. Monuments were a way of imposing dominance over society by way of elevating what was considered ideal and a way of reminding people what their place in society was. These were typically locally decided without any government approval or oversight - those with enough money just did it.
Most Confederate monuments were, in short, the result of private groups colonizing public space. Source
Pissing all over everyone's shared space just because you could and everything that goes along with that marking of territory.
It's also a way of immortalizing what's important to you - that you believe will outlive you and make sure posterity remembers your name.
That doesn't work, though - think of Carnegie Hall, the great opera house in NYC. How do we say it? "CAR-nuh-gee Hall". The person who paid for it and named it after himself, robber baron and magnate Andrew Carnegie, didn't say his own name that way, you know. HE pronounced it "car-NAY-gee". Does anyone say "Carnegie Hall" that way? Not that I've ever heard. It's just a name.
In Missouri there's a town called "Lee's Summit". Yeah, it's named after someone - sort of (I had to look it up):
"Lee's Summit was named for Dr. Pleasant Lea, the town's physician at that time, who was shot and killed during the Civil War near the present [1965] site of the Missouri Pacific Depot. Source
Others, claim that the town was named after famed Civil War General Robert E. Lee after Southerners began moving north into Missouri after the war due to the timing of General Lee's death compared to Dr. Lea's death. Attributed to a quote in the Louisville Journal, January 3, 1866. Source
Hmm! An earlier obviously problematical name that was sanitized into meaninglessness? The "summit" part is a joke - there are no mountains in Missouri. The height, 1050 feet above sea level, is lower than my house's (elevation: ~1,350 ft). Missouri is flat. But whatever.
My point is that monuments don't reflect the feelings or priorities of anyone now living. They are things of the past that in no way represent the SGI's supposed focus on "from this moment forward". WHERE is the consistency is telling people to have a "from this moment forward" spirit while naming eeeeverything after Ikeda and commemorating events from almost half a century ago, that happened to other people somewhere far away, to which modern people have no connection? See "SGI is commemorative Buddhism".
If the point and purpose of the SGI organization are to immortalize one man - and there is abundant evidence that this is the case - then he's a stupid, sad, deluded little poseur-wannabe. It take MORE to earn immortality than just throwing money around.
Has that dumb statue memorializing that one time Ikeda thought a real significant thought that impressed the hell out of himself (even though it was about an event that happened to someone else - Ikeda's bright idea was to insert himself into the scenario in that person's place) caused anyone to seek out and join the SGI?
No.
Ikeda memorials around the world are falling into disrepair because nobody cares. Oh, didn't anyone tell Ikeda about that? It's not enough to pay to set them up; you have to work constantly to keep them going. If YOU don't continue to pay for their maintenance and upkeep, they fall apart and THAT's not a good look, is it? Though it's an accurate reflection of how Ikeda has fallen apart - "esho funi", anyone? Ooh, karma's the bitch, all right...
Ikeda, de-legitimized by Japanese legislation, always fantasized that he could overcome that, take over Japan and FORCE everyone to knuckle under, have the last word and the last laugh, and be immortalized as a ruler of Japan, the restorer of Japan's samurai system, ruler of a new feudal era and self-defined theocracy centered on himself. Despite all his talky talk about how great "democracy" is, Ikeda didn't actually hold democracy in very high regard:
"When democracy is put into practice by the unthinking masses, liberty will be misinterpreted as license; rights will be claimed while duties remain unfulfilled; and the loss of order will allow evil to become rampant." - Complete Works of Daisaku Ikeda, page 176 Source
Rather than having a great number of irresponsible men gather and noisily criticize, there are times when a single leader who thinks about the people from his heart, taking responsibility and acting decisively, saves the nation from danger and brings happiness to the people. Moreover, if the leader is trusted and supported by all the people, one may call this an excellent democracy. - Ikeda, quoted in The Sokagakkai and the Mass Model, p. 238. Source
Ya see, after watching the HBO documentary "Going Clear", I was left with a hint that, the more the membership numbers drop, the more property/wealth the churches will amass in a desperate bid to fool itself and others; some sort of self-legitimization program backed with the money from the larger contributors, in this case, for kosen-rufu. Source
The Daly City ikeda Canyon was just money spent [donated] to the city. Everyone I knew who lived in that area had no idea it was called that. They just called it pallisades since that was the Main Street nearby.
And after a sufficient amount of time had passed, the city just renamed it something [everybody liked] better. Source
Has an Ikeda monument appeared in YOUR town?
submitted by BlancheFromage to sgiwhistleblowers [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 17:05 BlancheFromage Monuments are always outdated and obsolete

Someone in an interview on the radio a few days ago made that comment and it really struck me. It's true, you know. A monument is created, set up, for some purpose held by those actually doing that, and then there it sits, long after those feelings have passed. Many don't even remember what it means; its significance evaporates and there it sits, a lump of anachronism, a piece of the past that nobody cares about any more.
There's been a lot of talk of monuments in the wake of the most recent Black Lives Matter protests, and I've certainly learned a lot about monuments in the former colonies and the South. Monuments were a way of imposing dominance over society by way of elevating what was considered ideal and a way of reminding people what their place in society was. These were typically locally decided without any government approval or oversight - those with enough money just did it.
Most Confederate monuments were, in short, the result of private groups colonizing public space. Source
Pissing all over everyone's shared space just because you could and everything that goes along with that marking of territory.
It's also a way of immortalizing what's important to you - that you believe will outlive you and make sure posterity remembers your name.
That doesn't work, though - think of Carnegie Hall, the great opera house in NYC. How do we say it? "CAR-nuh-gee Hall". The person who paid for it and named it after himself, robber baron and magnate Andrew Carnegie, didn't say his own name that way, you know. HE pronounced it "car-NAY-gee". Does anyone say "Carnegie Hall" that way? Not that I've ever heard. It's just a name.
In Missouri there's a town called "Lee's Summit". Yeah, it's named after someone - sort of (I had to look it up):
"Lee's Summit was named for Dr. Pleasant Lea, the town's physician at that time, who was shot and killed during the Civil War near the present [1965] site of the Missouri Pacific Depot. Source
Others, claim that the town was named after famed Civil War General Robert E. Lee after Southerners began moving north into Missouri after the war due to the timing of General Lee's death compared to Dr. Lea's death. Attributed to a quote in the Louisville Journal, January 3, 1866. Source
Hmm! An earlier obviously problematical name that was sanitized into meaninglessness? The "summit" part is a joke - there are no mountains in Missouri. The height, 1050 feet above sea level, is lower than my house's (elevation: ~1,350 ft). Missouri is flat. But whatever.
My point is that monuments don't reflect the feelings or priorities of anyone now living. They are things of the past that in no way represent the SGI's supposed focus on "from this moment forward". WHERE is the consistency is telling people to have a "from this moment forward" spirit while naming eeeeverything after Ikeda and commemorating events from almost half a century ago, that happened to other people somewhere far away, to which modern people have no connection? See "SGI is commemorative Buddhism".
If the point and purpose of the SGI organization are to immortalize one man - and there is abundant evidence that this is the case - then he's a stupid, sad, deluded little poseur-wannabe. It take MORE to earn immortality than just throwing money around.
Has that dumb statue memorializing that one time Ikeda thought a real significant thought that impressed the hell out of himself (even though it was about an event that happened to someone else - Ikeda's bright idea was to insert himself into the scenario in that person's place) caused anyone to seek out and join the SGI?
No.
Ikeda memorials around the world are falling into disrepair because nobody cares. Oh, didn't anyone tell Ikeda about that? It's not enough to pay to set them up; you have to work constantly to keep them going. If YOU don't continue to pay for their maintenance and upkeep, they fall apart and THAT's not a good look, is it? Though it's an accurate reflection of how Ikeda has fallen apart - "esho funi", anyone? Ooh, karma's the bitch, all right...
Ikeda, de-legitimized by Japanese legislation, always fantasized that he could overcome that, take over Japan and FORCE everyone to knuckle under, have the last word and the last laugh, and be immortalized as a ruler of Japan, the restorer of Japan's samurai system, ruler of a new feudal era and self-defined theocracy centered on himself. Despite all his talky talk about how great "democracy" is, Ikeda didn't actually hold democracy in very high regard:
"When democracy is put into practice by the unthinking masses, liberty will be misinterpreted as license; rights will be claimed while duties remain unfulfilled; and the loss of order will allow evil to become rampant." - Complete Works of Daisku Ikeda, page 176 Source
Rather than having a great number of irresponsible men gather and noisily criticize, there are times when a single leader who thinks about the people from his heart, taking responsibility and acting decisively, saves the nation from danger and brings happiness to the people. Moreover, if the leader is trusted and supported by all the people, one may call this an excellent democracy. - Ikeda, quoted in The Sokagakkai and the Mass Model, p. 238. Source
Ya see, after watching the HBO documentary "Going Clear", I was left with a hint that, the more the membership numbers drop, the more property/wealth the churches will amass in a desperate bid to fool itself and others; some sort of self-legitimization program backed with the money from the larger contributors, in this case, for kosen-rufu. Source
The Daly City ikeda Canyon was just money spent [donated] to the city. Everyone I knew who lived in that area had no idea it was called that. They just called it pallisades since that was the Main Street nearby.
And after a sufficient amount of time had passed, the city just renamed it something [everybody liked] better. Source
Has an Ikeda monument appeared in YOUR town?
submitted by BlancheFromage to u/BlancheFromage [link] [comments]


2020.08.28 15:00 DarthEquus The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899

The History of Medicalized Circumcision Part 2: 1885-1899
In this brief period, circumcision rapidly transformed from an experimental procedure of antiquity into a nearly unquestioned cure-all for every ailment imaginable. Doctors also began to scrutinize the possible applications towards women as well.
In reference to the promotion of genital cutting by men like Remondino, Hutchinson, Johnson, Freeman, Lehman, and others, Jonathan Cohen (2011) wrote: "one of the most fascinating stories of the institutionalization of medical male circumcision is the discursive use of the Jews as racial proof of the benefits of circumcision, with a complete ignorance of sociological factors."

1885: ~10% of the American male population is circumcised

1887 Lewis Sayre, after promoting preventative circumcision for almost 20 years, finally limited his circumcision advocacy to therapeutic circumcision only rather than "indiscriminate" circumcision. His idea of therapeutic circumcision did still mean overdiagnosing infantile phimosis, but this was still an enormous improvement from his previous influential recommendations of totally non-therapeutic, preventative circumcision. [On the deleterious results of a narrow prepuce and preputial adhesions Trans. Ninth Internat. Med. Congress]
1887 M. A. Rust addressed circumcision in writing about the history of cultural mutilations:
"There is not a single tribe of savages on the face of the globe who do not disfigure parts of their bodies, and hardly a part of the body susceptible of disfigurement which has not been disfigured. This is not done in accordance with individual fancy, but in strict conformity to inexorable tribal rule.
Ornamentation lies at the root of many, but not of all of these mutilations. A great number of them entail such an amount of suffering and torture that, in order to establish them, to enforce submission and co-operation, potencies awful and mysterious must have been at work, striking fear into every individual heart. Once established, the obligation became as automatic as the daily walks of an ant.
Circumcision is the most ancient and widely spread mutilation in existence, and it is practiced in all the five parts of the world, though to the greatest extent in Asia, Africa, and among the savages of Australia. Of civilized nations we note about one hundred and thirty millions of Muhamedans, and about ten millions of Jews, and the Christians of Abyssinia. It was practiced in Mexico at the time of the conquest of Cortez, and, according to the accounts of modern travelers is still in use among Indian tribes in Nicaragua and on the Amazon.
No wonder that the origin of a mutilation so barbarous, so repulsive, and, at the same time, so widely spread and so tenaciously adhered to should have so repeatedly formed an object of inquiry and speculation. Muhamed found circumcision already an ancient usage among many of the Arabian tribes; he took it up for reasons akin to those for which Paul dropped it. It had prevailed, since time immemorial, among the Abyssinians, when they embraced Christianity. Travelers who make inquiries among savage tribes generally obtain for answer that it is a tribal custom which has always been; they cannot conceive why other reasons should be demanded."
[Mutilations. Gaillard's Medical Journal v. 45.]
1887 Angel Money writes:
"There can be no doubt of [masturbation's] injurous effect, and of the proneness to practice it on the part of children with defective brains. Circumcision should always be practiced. It may be necessary to make the genitals so sore by blistering fluids that pain results from attempts to rub the parts."
[Treatment of Disease In Children, Philidelphia: P. Blakiston, 1887. p.421.]
1888 John Harvey Kellogg (yes, the cereal guy) promoted irrational fear of masturbation and "spermatorrhoea." For girls, he warned that masturbation caused breast atrophy, uterine cancer, and insanity. He recommended circumcision and other surgical punishments for both boys and girls to punish and discourage masturbation. He also wrote positively of cauterizing the clitoris with acid to alleviate masturbation in girls. It's notable and often forgotten that he was promoting cutting the genitals of older children rather than infants. He wrote positively of the Jewish practice but also noted its tendency to scar the meatus (meatal stenosis). He advanced the propaganda that ancient genital surgery had always been performed for health. He also advocated the use of male chastity belts. The next entry after circumcision is castration as if to imply it was also the next genital surgical option should circumcision fail to produce the intended result. Like Kellogg, Hutchinson had also suggested castration as the next and more extreme option to cure masturbation.
"In younger children, with whom moral considerations will have no particular weight, other devices may be used. Bandaging the parts has been practiced with success. Tying the hands is also successful in some cases; but this will not always succeed, for they will often contrive to continue the habit in other ways, as by working the limbs, or lying upon the abdomen. Covering the organs with a cage has been practiced with entire success. A remedy which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision, especially when there is any degree of phimosis. The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anæsthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment, as it may well be in some cases. The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed."
"In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement, and preventing the recurrence of the practice in those whose will-power has become so weakened that the patient is unable to exercise entire self-control."
[Results of Secret Vice and Treatment for Self-abuse and Its Effects in Plain Facts for Old and Young, Burlington, Iowa, F. Segner & Co. — a longer excerpt from this work]

Chastity belts for boys and girls
1889 Peter Remondino, a San Diego physician and promoter of snake oil read his "A Plea for Circumcision; or, the Dangers that Arise from the Prepuce" at the meeting of the Southern California Medical Society.
"The subject of the paper was itself suggested by a long and personal observation of the changes made in man by circumcision. From the individual observation of cases, it was but natural to wish to enlarge the scope of our observation and comparison; this naturally led to a study of the physical characteristics of the only race that could practically be used for the purpose. This race is the Jewish race. On carefully studying into the subject, I plainly saw that much of their longevity could consistently be ascribed to their more practical humanitarianism, in caring for their poor, their sick, as well as in their generous provision for their unfortunate aged people. The social fabric of the Jewish family is also more calculated to promote long life, as, strangely as it may seem, family veneration and family love and attachment are far more strong and practical among this people than among Christians, this sentiment not being even as strong in the Christian races as it is in the Chinese or Japanese. … Actual observations show them [the Jews] to be exempt from many diseases which affect other races; so that it is not only that they recover more promptly, but that they are not, as a class, subjected to the loss of time by illness, or to the consequent sufferings due to illness or disease, in anything like or like ratio with other people. There is also a less tendency to criminality, debauchery, and intemperance in the race; this, again, can in a measure be ascribed to their family influence, which even in our day has not lost that patriarchal influence which tinges the home or family life in the Old Testament. Crimes against the person or property committed by Jews are rare. They likewise do not figure in either police courts or penitentiary records; they are not inmates of our poor-houses, but, what is also singular, they are never accused of many silly crimes, such as indecent exposures, assaults on young girls…."

1890: ~15% of the American male population is circumcised

1890 Herbert Snow, a London surgeon published a 57-page book, one of the first intactivist volumes of the modern era. He called for "the abolition of an antiquated practice involving the infliction of very considerable suffering upon helpless infants; and sanctioned, on very questionable grounds, by men of eminent authority.
"No sane man who possessed the advantages of a sound and entire prepuce would willingly sacrifice it without just and sufficient cause being shown."
[The Barbarity of Circumcision as a Remedy for Congenital Abnormality. London: J. & A. Churchill.]

The Orificial Surgical Society

1890 The Orificial Surgical Society "was founded by Edwin Hartley Pratt, a surgeon at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago. The organization was largely concerned with orifices below the waist, and provided training for surgery of the prepuce, clitoris, and rectum, the latter organ being given special emphasis. It was obsessed with the idea that most diseases were caused by tightness of the preputial or anal sphincters. … By the 1920s many of the member physicians had their licenses revoked." —Wallerstein Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy 1980:38 — See also: Rutkow IM. Edwin Hartley Pratt and orificial surgery: unorthodox surgical practice in nineteenth century United States. Surgery. 1993. and Moments in surgical history: orificial surgery. Arch Surg. 2001.
1890 William D. Gentry declared that phimosis in men and uterine disorders in women caused insanity, blindness, deafness, dumbness, epilepsy, paralysis and criminal behavior adding that "the genitals of either male or female are the centres of the nervous system". [Nervous derangements produced by sexual irregularities in boys. Trans American Institute of Homeopathy. v.43.]
1890 Jonathan Hutchinson wrote that the foreskin encouraged masturbation and "adds to the difficulties of sexual continence" and can even cause insanity. For evidence of the latter point, he pointed to the case of an anonymous surgeon committed to an insane asylum for compulsive masturbation. Adult circumcision was useful, he wrote, for breaking men of the habit of masturbation, but early childhood circumcision was ideal in his opinion. In closing, he wrote: "Measures more radical than circumcision would, if public opinion permitted their adoption, be a true kindness to many patients of both sexes" referring to the difficulty of getting the general public to accept the idea of doctor's electing to sterilize patients without their consent. [On circumcision as preventive of masturbation. Arch Surgery.]
1890 A review of Pogorelsky's Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews stated:
"As regards the predisposition to the acquirement of neuroses, the foreskin plays the same part in the male as the ovaries in the female." Sayre traced reflex paralysis and contracture of the lower extremeties; Erichsen, spasmodic diseases, to congenital phimosis.
Further, hypochondriacal persons with inclination to commit suicide, individuals who suffer from uro-paraplegia, nervous tremor, chorea minor, neuralgia, hysteria, hallucinations and paresis have been cured by circumcision.
Although circumcised persons contract gonorrhea more easily than uncircumcised, yet syphilis less often; the sexual desire is less in the former, hence crimes against morality are rarer."
Review of Pogorelsky M. Ritual circumcision of the Hebrews in The Medical Times. v.17. 1890.]
1891 Peter C. Remondino published a book of circumcision activism in which he vilified the foreskin at length as a malign influence and "moral outlaw." Repeating the false circumcision-prevents-masturbation meme, Remondino wrote, "the practice of [masturbation] can be asserted as being very rare among the children of circumcised races." According to Remondino excising foreskin would not only discourage boys from masturbating, but immunize them against tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, polio, idiocy, forgetfulness, impotence, unwanted erections, wet dreams and just about any medical problem you cared to mention.
"The prepuce seems to exercise a malign influence in the most distant and apparently unconnected manner: where, like some of the evil genii or sprites in the Arabian tales, it can reach from afar the object of its malignity, striking him down unawares in the most unaccountable manner; making him a victim to all manner of ills, sufferings, and tribulations; unfitting him for marriage or the cares of business; making him miserable and an object of continual scolding and punishment in childhood, through its worriments and nocturnal enuresis; later on, beginning to affect him with all kinds of physical distortions and ailments, nocturnal pollutions, and other conditions calculated to weaken him physically, mentally, and morally; to land him, perchance, in jail or even in a lunatic asylum. Man's whole life is subject to the capricious dispensations and whims of this Job's-comforts-dispensing enemy of man."
[Remondino PC. History of Circumcision… moral and physical reasons for its performance… and of the different operations practiced upon the prepuce Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. 1891.]
1891 Jefferson C. Crossland writes that:
"In consequence of circumcision the epithelial covering of the glans becomes dry, hard, less liable to excoriation and inflammation, and less pervious to venereal viruses. The sensibility of the glans is diminished, but not sufficiently to interfere with the copulative function of the organ or to constitute an objection...It is well authenticated that the foreskin...is a fruitful cause of the habit of masturbation in children... I conclude that the foreskin is detrimental to health, and that circumcision is a wise measure of hygiene."
[The Hygiene of Circumcision. NYMJ. 1891;53:484-485.]
1892 Circumcision was not the only proposed cure for masturbation. Some physicians such as David Yellowlee detailed another version of punitive and supposedly therapeutic preputial infibulation:
"Some direct operative interference, which shall prevent masturbation and show him that he can live without it, may be of much service. The best form of such interference is so to fix the foreskin that erection becomes painful and erotic impulses very unwelcome. To accomplish this, the prepuce is drawn well forward, the left forefinger inserted within it down to the root of the glans, and a nickel‐plated safety‐pin, introduced from the outside through skin and mucous membrane, is passed horizontally for half an inch or so past the tip of the left finger, and then brought out through mucous membrane and skin so as to fasten outside. Another pin is similarly fixed on the opposite side of the prepuce. With the foreskin thus looped up any attempt at erection causes a painful dragging on the pins, and masturbation is effectually prevented. In about a week some ulceration of the mucous membrane will allow greater movement and with less pain, when the pins can, if needful, be introduced into a fresh place."
It should be pointed out that Yellowlee's advocacy of infibulation was not limited to the treatment of inmates in lunatic asylums, and was, in fact, directed at parents, whose duty, he declared, was to prevent their children from adopting ‘the secret vice’.
[In Tuke DH ed. A Dictionary of Psychological Medicine. Vol. 2. London: J&A Churchill, 1892: 784 – 6]
1893 Mark J. Lehman claimed Jewish boys were healthier. He noted it was "an open question" whether tuberculosis, cancer, syphilis, and "scrofula" were not "one and the same disease," and whether "such a simple measure as general circumcision" would not be the answer to all "insidious and filthy diseases." He called for immediate universal circumcision of all male infants. [A plea for circumcision. Medical Review.]
1893 An unnamed author for The Journal de Medicine de Paris provided a look into popular thought of the day on female circumcision (meaning only non-excisive incision here) writing:
"A certain Dr. Morris, of Boston, the land of Yankee notions, has discovered an ingenious method of making the most waspish and shrewish women models of gentleness and modesty. He proves by statistics that eighty out of one hundred American women of Aryan origin in New England have the gland of the clitoris adherent, in part or totality, to the prepuce. The result of these adherences is an imperfect development of the gland, and to this is due a weakness of sexual desire and various nervous perturbations. These troubles are dependent, in the first place, on an irritation of the terminal branches of the erectile nerves of the gland brought on by the adherences, and in the second place to irritation caused by the retention of smegma. This double irritation leads to masturbation, to the perversion of sexual desire, and finally to reflex neuroses.The preputial adherences of the clitoris are, according to Dr. Morris, the only and direct cause of the reflex neuroses from which thousands of New England women suffer, and he adds: "We can now understand how the most irritable young girl, the one who is most disagreeable and hysterical, may be made gentle, charming, and become endowed with a thousand feminine graces, by the simple rupture of the bands that bind down the clitoris [clitoral incision]." The therapeutic deduction is perfect, and we do not doubt that all husbands in New England who have shrewish wives will now employ Dr. Morris to break up these adhesions of the clitoris, and bring peace to many a suffering Boston household."
[Adherent Clitoris in all Shrewish Women. Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic. Translated from J Med Paris.]
1894 Peter C. Remondino claimed circumcision would curb the "predisposition" of black men to rape white women. Remondino's proposal was supported by several medical journals including the Maryland Medical Journal and the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (now the New England Journal of Medicine).
"From our observations and experience in such cases, we feel fully warranted in suggesting the wholesale circumcision of the Negro race as an efficient remedy in preventing the predisposition to discriminate raping so inherent in that race. We have seen this act as a valuable preventive measure in cases where an inordinate and unreasoning as well as morbid carnal desire threatened physical shipwreck; if in such cases the morbid appetite has been removed or at least brought within manageable and natural bounds, we cannot see why it should not—at least in a certain beneficial degree—also affect the moral stamina of a race proverbial for the leathery consistency, inordinate redundancy, generous sebaceousness and general mental suggestiveness and hypnotizing influence of an unnecessary and rape, murder and lynching breeding prepuce."
[Negro rapes and their social problems. National Popular Review vol. 4 p. 3.]
1894 Darby (2005) wrote: “eleven boys confined in a Kansas mental institute were castrated for persistent masturbation.” When the press was critical of this, "the Kansas Medical Journal defended the institute's action” writing “this abuse weakened the already imbecile mind and destroyed the body” (Darby, 2005).
1895 Charles E. Fisher, a homeopathic doctor, wrote:
"In all cases in which male children are suffering nerve tension, confirmed derangement of the digestive organs, restlessness, irritability, and other disturbances of the nervous system, even to chorea, convulsions, and paralysis, or where through nerve waste the nutritive facilities of the general system are below par and structural diseases are occurring circumcision should be considered as among the lines of treatment to be pursued."
A like rule obtains with reference to female children. In general practice the sexual organs in both sexes should be carefully examined by the general practitioner in early infancy, and at various times throughout child-life, with reference to the correction of deformity or unnatural conditions that may be present. ...the clitoris is often firmly bound down by an adherent hood; numerous reflexes arising therefrom. It has become quite the rule the examine the sexual organs of male children at or soon after birth, but, on the other hand, it is equally the rule to neglect to examine girl babies. As children of the weaker sex grow their more delicate nervous systems begin to show the effect of genital irritations, and many a case of chorea, confirmed headache, nervous jactitations, paralytic weakness, unusual irritability, melancholia or other abnormal state of the nervous system long remains uncured because of the failure to make careful examination of the condition of the genitalia and relieve irritations and adhesions at this site."
[A Hand-Book On The Diseases of Children And Their Homeopathic Treatment. Chicago: Medical Century Co. 1895]
1895 Edgar J. Spratling began his article explaining that part of the great evil of masturbation was that it might lead to being sodomized in an insane asylum. He advocated tight circumcisions to prevent the skin from being able to move, a natural feature of the human penis which facilitates masturbation. If not tight circumcision, cutting the nerves to the penis could also be used to blunt the individual's sexuality, and he advocated that surgery as well, but it was a more delicate surgery compared to circumcision.
"In women the road to its cure is an endless and monotonous journey, for nothing short of ovariotomy will be found to deserve even the term palliative; clitoridectomy, anatomically and physiologically, could be but a failure, blistering [i.e., cauterization is] only [a] cruelty. Among men the case is not so hopeless, for there anatomy is partly in the operator's favor [meaning male erogenous sensitivity is easier to destroy]. Of the treatments we might speak of blistering the glans penis, but only to condemn it as an uncalled for cruelty; the possible beneficial effect is so transient, while the untoward effect is often so lasting upon the patient mentally in the way of a feeling of resentment, that it is doubtful if one could ever justify such a proceeding. Complete section of the dorsal nerves of the penis (as I have previously advocated) is a rational procedure, but rather too radical for constant routine practice. The cases require the greatest care in the selection for this operation, and even then with all due care one will generally have to encounter the most strenuous objections and later the bitterest reproach and condemnation from the patients and from their relatives—though the object sought may have been obtained [at the expense of causing penile numbness and impotence]. [In cases of masturbation] circumcision is undoubtedly the physicians' closest friend and ally.
"To obtain the best results one must cut away enough skin and mucous membrane to rather put it on the stretch when erections come later. There must be no play in the skin after the wound has thoroughly healed, but it must fit tightly over the penis, for should there be any play the patient will be found to readily resume his practice not begrudging the time and extra energy required to produce the orgasm. It is true, however, that the longer it takes to have an orgasm, the less frequently it will be attempted, consequently the greater the benefit gained.
"The younger the patient operated upon the more pronounced the benefit, though occasionally we find patients who were circumcised before puberty that require a resection of the skin, as it has grown loose and pliant after that epoch."
[Masturbation in the Adult. Med Rec.]
1895 T. Ritchie Stone strongly advocated circumcision for all male infants in his pro-surgery review. [Circumcision. Maryland Med J.]
1896 An editorial in a scientific journal lists reasons for circumcision as everything from bed wetting to elephantitis.
"Local indications for circumcision: Hygienic, phimosis, paraphimosis, redundancy (where the prepuce more than covers the glans), adhesions, papillomata, ecaema (acute and chronic), oedema, chancre, chancroid, cicatrices, inflammatory thickening, elephantitis, naevus, epithelioma, gangrene, tuberculosis, prepupital calculi, hip-joint disease, hernia. Systematic indication: Onanism [masturbation], seminal emissions, enuresis [bed wetting], dysuria, retention, general nervousness, impotence, convulsions, hystero-epilepsy."
[Medical Record, Circumscisus, Medical Record, vol. 49 (1896): p.430.]
1897 S. G. A. Brown of Pennsylvania repeated the same Semitophillic sentiment as Remondino:
"The Jews, who perform this operation on the eighth day after birth, are, from actual observations, known to be exempt from many diseases which afflict other races. Their children are hardy, and grow up to manhood and womanhood strangers to disease, perfect in body, sound in mind, and with a morality above condemnation. It is rare that they figure in silly crimes, police or divorce courts. That an appendage like the prepuce which under various conditions, as phimosis, short frenum or preputial adhesions, is the leading factor in the production of enuresis, dysuria, impotence, calculi, cancer, syphilis, phthisis or various other reflex neuroses, can be considered as a natural physiological appendage, is absurd in the extreme. In order to render the rising generation healthy, mentally morally and physically, we must pay attention to this redundant tissue, and advise its early removal. Fully three-fourths of all male babies have abnormal prepuces."
[A Plea for Circumcision. J Orificial Surgery quoted in The Medical World]
1898 T. Scott McFarland of Missouri reported on the circumcision of a two-year-old girl with precocious puberty and anomalous symptoms of irritation. In closing he added that he had "circumcised as many girls as boys, and always with happy results." Note that circumcision meant prepucectomy for either sex until the 1980s. The more severe form of genital cutting more familiar to people today as female circumcision/FGM meaning clitoridectomy was then called "[clitoral] excision" or the oddly overgeneralized, "operative procedure". [Circumcision of girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
1898 Edwin H. Pratt wrote:
"The condition of the foreskin of boys has received more or less attention, at least since the days of Moses, who is reported to have inaugurated the practice of circumcision of the male portion of the human race. But the girls have been neglected. Without presuming to pose as their Moses, I do feel an irresistible impulse to cry out against the shameful neglect of the clitoris and its hood, because of the vast amount of sickness and suffering, which could be saved the gentler sex, if this important subject received proper attention and appreciation at the hands of the medical profession.
All up-to-date doctors realize the importance of the proper condition of the foreskin in the male and of securing it during infancy. The foreskin must be completely loosened, if it is too long amputated and if it is too tight slit open, in order to avoid the dangers of infantile convulsions, of hip-joint disease, of kidney disease, of paralysis, of eczema universalis, of stammering, of dyspepsia, of pulmonary tuberculosis, of constipation, of locomotor ataxia, of rheumatism, of idiocy and insanity, and of lust and all its consequences. But the poor girls, who have an organ called the clitoris, anatomically corresponding to the penis of the male, with a hood corresponding to the foreskin of the male and just as sorely in need of [surgical] attention, and just as prolific of mischief when neglected as the corresponding parts of the male, have been permitted to suffer on in silence. The same list of diseases which have their start in nerve waste caused by a faulty foreskin in the male is duplicated by the female sex from identically the same cause, in addition to other troubles peculiar to the female organization from which, of course, the male are exempt, and yet it goes on almost entirely unrecognized. Chorea, so frequent in young girls, chlorosis, which comes a little later on, and hysteria, which is also a common affliction, in addition to the same diseases from which boys whose foreskin have been neglected are liable to suffer, have their organ almost invariably in faulty conditions of the hood of the clitoris. It is such a simple matter to secure a normal condition of the hood and its clitoris, and its neglect is fraught with so much and such serious mischief to the gentler sex, that the sin of omission which is being constantly and everywhere committed is painful to contemplate. Doctors are not easily educated out of their beaten tracks.
So let both sexes have a start in life and be entirely freed from the sexual self consciousness which inevitably comes from impinged nerve fibres about the clitoris and its hood as well as at the glans penis and its foreskin. ... A vigorous sympathetic nervous system means health and long life. What surgical interest have we in this fact? It can be told in just one sentence. The weakness and the power of the sympathetic nerve lies at the orifices of the body. Surgery must keep these orifices properly smoothed and dilated."
[Circumcision of Girls. J Orificial Surgery.]
Women suffering from \"hysteria\"
1898 N. Bergman wrote of "punishing" a chronic masturbator with circumcision:
"Clarence B. was addicted to the secret vise practiced among boys. I performed an orificial operation, consisting of circumcision... He needed the rightful punishment of cutting pains after his illicit pleasures."
[Report of a Few Cases of Circumcision. Journal of Orificial Surgery, vol. 7 (1898): pp.249-251.]
1898 Emmet L. Holt advocated for circumcision under the following reasoning:
"Circumcision should be done if phimosis exists, and even where it is not, the moral effect of the operation is sometimes of very great benefit."
[The Diseases Of Infancy And Childhood. New York: D. Appleton. 1897:696-698.]
1899 Denslow Lewis, a Chicago gynecologist, presented evidence for the benefits of female circumcision (prepucectomy) at a meeting of the AMA in 1899. In “a large percentage” of women who failed to find marital passion “there is a preputial adhesion, and a judicious circumcision, together with consistent advice, will often be successful.” He treated 38 women with circumcision reporting “reasonably satisfactory results in each instance.” [The Gynecologic consideration of the sexual act]

Previous: Early 1800's-1884

Next: 1900-1939

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2020.08.26 21:52 SyrtisSolutions1 PRESCRIPTION DRUG COSTS RESULT IN OHIO CARVE-OUT

PRESCRIPTION DRUG COSTS RESULT IN OHIO CARVE-OUT

https://preview.redd.it/xp048gr4iej51.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a2c699dda68d7e00ca27b6402ab87789f93edff8
Aside from the pandemic driven economic downturn and the consequential surge in Medicaid enrollment, rising prescription drug costs in the Medicaid program have created significant fiscal pressure on state budgets over the years. In 2017, pharmaceutical drugs accounted for 5.1 percent of Medicaid benefit spending, and this expense continues to increase. States typically utilize managed care organizations and pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) to deliver pharmacy benefits and curb prescription drug costs. However, a handful of states have decided to carve-out pharmacy benefits and switch to a fee-for-service (FFS) model. In July, Ohio became the most recent state to shift from its managed care model and released a RFP for a single pharmacy benefit manager (SPBM).
The carve-out strategy lowers drug costs by centralizing a state's purchasing power, allowing it to take advantage of the size of its population to negotiate prescription drug prices with pharmaceutical manufacturers directly. Currently, Tennessee, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Missouri have carved-out their pharmacy benefits. Because of the potential savings from FFS models, various other states are now considering carve-outs and other methods to drive pharmacy costs down.

OHIO RFP FOR SPBM

Over the last five years, there has been criticism of how Ohio Medicaid PBMs oversee the state's prescription drug program. After complaints of overcharging, double-dipping, anti-competitive practices, and transparency concerns, the state legislature required that the state selects a SPBM to manage prescription drugs. In addition, the SPBM would contract with the state directly to increase transparency.
Last month, the Ohio Department of Medicaid released a request for proposal to change the agency's managed care program and carve-out pharmacy benefits. The state expects to improve and build on administrative efforts that will increase transparency and financial accountability. According to the department, implementing a SPBM will help the Medicaid program by reducing costs, alleviating administrative burdens, and improving fiscal oversight.

CALIFORNIA Rx CARVE-OUT

California's Governor, Gavin Newsom, authorized an executive order at the beginning of the year to move all of Medi-Cal's pharmacy benefits from managed care to a FFS model starting January 2021. According to California, the carve-out is an economical way to negotiate prices and purchase drugs. State officials believe that the new model will also standardize drug access for all of Medi-Cal's beneficiaries.
California's FFS move has been contentious, and there are concerns over its possible impact on MCOs, PBMs, pharmacies, and the coordination of care. Critics argue that it will make the coordination of care challenging. While buying in bulk directly from manufacturers could drive down prices, it's unclear how drugs will be dispensed and how local pharmacies will maintain profitability.

MICHIGAN GOES FROM CARVE-OUT TO SINGLE PDL

In October, Michigan's Department of Health and Human Services announced that outpatient prescription drug coverage would no longer be a Michigan Health Plan (MHP) benefit. MHP would turn to a FFS model. The state projected to save $10 million in general funds with the FFS model through Rx rebates and the elimination of MHP administrative capitation costs.
At that time, healthcare payers and PBMs opposed the decision. They claimed that the move would hinder the delivery of whole-person integrated care by raising out-of-pocket costs, and members wouldn't have the appropriate overview of their prescriptions.
Five months later, the state decided against the carve-out and instead chose to implement a single Medicaid preferred drug list while at the same time increasing MHP's dispensing fee to $3 for independent pharmacies.
State budgets are experiencing fiscal pressure from the public health crisis and skyrocketing prescription drug costs. Every year pharmacy spend consumes more and more of state budgets. Because of this, some Medicaid plans are carving-out pharmacy benefits and transitioning to FFS models to lower costs. While this is one approach to save money, states should also look for opportunities to improve efficiency and cost avoid in their Medicaid plans.
Click here to learn more.
#SyrtisSolutions #Medicaid #FFS #CarveOut #PrescriptionDrugCosts #Ohio
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2020.08.10 12:17 f00dl3 Slight risk for severe weather

There is a slight risk for severe weather today.

https://www.spc.noaa.gov/products/outlook/day1otlk.html

Thunderstorms may or may not be ongoing across the area today. Several scenarios may play out. As of 5 AM there is a area of rain and thunderstorms near Wichita growing gradually northeast. 6z NAM3KM does not show this. 6z NAM 3KM keeps the entire area relatively calm until later this afternoon, then fires thunderstorms over Northwest Missouri and they race into the Kansas City area as a squall line with damaging winds.
https://climate.cod.edu/data/forecast/NAMNST/2020081006/CGP/NAMNSTCGP_prec_precacc_031.png

The HRRR has the activity and keeps activity scattered through the day. Severe weather risk would be much lower per the 6z HRRR as it shows absolutely no real organization to any of the activity across the area. And rain totals.

https://climate.cod.edu/data/forecast/HRR2020081006/CGP/HRRRCGP_prec_precacc_024.png

Euro HD appears to sort of agree with the NAM 3KM about the squall line though.
https://www.pivotalweather.com/model.php?m=ecmwf_full&p=prateptype_cat_ecmwf&rh=2020081000&fh=24&r=us_c&dpdt=&mc=

Also - saw there was a "sponsored post" in this subreddit a few days ago when I logged in this morning, but now no longer see it after actually signing in. I may dig around to see if there is any way to get rid of those ads.
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2020.08.04 21:31 PrincessCadance4Prez What we're seeing in Cottonwood Heights is political policing at it's finest. Cottonwood Heights, meet Portland.

From Alex Vitale's "End of Policing:"
Page 201 "Despite our concerns about political liberty, the US police have a long history of similarly abusive practices. The myth of policing in a liberal democracy is that the police exist to prevent political activity that crosses the line into criminal activity, such as property destruction and violence. But they have always focused on detecting and disrupting movements that threaten the economic and political status quo, regardless of the presence of criminality. While on a few occasions this has included actions against the far right, it has overwhelmingly focused on the left, especially those movements tied to workers and racial minorities and those challenging American foreign policy."
Pages 214-216 "Another form of protest policing, the 'Miami model,' emerged nationally in response to the disruptive protestors at the World Trade Organization meetings in Seattle in 1999. It is named for the Miami Police Department's handling of protests at the Free Trade Area of the America's meetings in 2003. This style is characterized by the creation of no-protest zones, heavy use of less lethal weaponry, surveillance of protest organizations, negative advance publicity about protest groups, preemptive arrests, preventative detentions, and extensive restrictions on protest timing and locations. This set of tactics is reserved for groups that the police believe cannot be controlled through micromanagement [the "command and control" techniques], such as those who do not apply for permits and threaten direct action or civil disobedience not coordinated with the police. Such groups are arrested while lawfully gathering and held in detention for long periods while awaiting arraignment, often in poor conditions. They are also likely to be the subjects of extensive police surveillance and to be accused of planning violence. They are often met with high levels of force in the form of 'less lethal' weaponry such as pepper spray, tear gas, and rubber bullets. The Miami model has also been driven in part by the broad militarization of civilian policing, as described in previous chapters.
"Some argue that militarized riot control is merely prudent preparation - for example, in Ferguson, Missouri. Shouldn't authority take whatever steps they can to protect life and property? There are two major problems with this line of thinking. First, it is not all clear that these measures advance public safety; second, the right to protest cannot be abridged because of the threat of illegal activity or even the commission of violence nearby. All of this militarized posturing failed to prevent widespread looting and property destruction in Ferguson....
"People have the right to protest despite the presence of violence or property destruction nearby. Even when there is isolated criminal conduct within a demonstration, police have an obligation to target those engaged in the illegal behavior without criminalizing or brutalized the entire demonstration, as long as its primary character remains peaceful. The First Ammendment guarantees the right to protest and American criminal law requires the police to act on individualized suspicion. Collectively punishing protesters because they are protesting while others are setting fires is an abridgement of fundamental rights."
Edit: mobile typos
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2020.07.31 19:16 anthonywllingson211 Green Hope Looks to Change Views on Medical Marijuana Distributors in Missouri

[31-July-2020]–Green Hope took notice of degrading views on Medical Marijuana dispensaries and MMJ card authorizers in light of the recent situation in Missouri. The company has been a strong player in the industry since its establishment in 2018, issuing over 50,000 MMJ recommendations legally and successfully, offering free education, patient consultations, and help finding a safe place for them to get their cannabis once they get their card. These facts reflect the strong trust customers and partners have in the company.
“In addition to a well-known MMJ recommendation center, Green Hope quickly became a highly-regarded and influential brand in the Oklahoma cannabis industry. Our focus is on patient safety & well-being” – Renee’ Harper RN
The founder of Green Hope, Renee’ Harper, wants to assure the people of Missouri that her company will be bringing to their state the same dedication and strict, law-abiding practices present at their Oklahoma branch. The Wellness Clinic and MMJ Recommendation Center wants to counter any negativity toward dispensaries and MMJ card authorizers by bringing light to their own successful work in the past. Renee’ Harper is also aware of the gofundme page collecting money for the patients’ recommendations. She has reached out and offered to help through reduced rate, or even free recommendations.
In Oklahoma, Green Hope Wellness Clinic became more than just a dispensary. They built their company around becoming a one-stop shop for their patients looking for MMJ solutions. They have provided OMMA-authorized application forms for MMJ cards, organized clinic days with trusted doctors being present on-site or via telemedicine, and given customers the best possible recommendations for their conditions and needs.
Green Hope has gone a step further and developed a mobile app, set for a release in the summer of 2020. This app will be the first of its kind and aims to connect users with an cannabis coach to guide them through their journey. Apart from that, the app will also serve as a nationwide resource center, where it will connect users to reputable and trusted businesses that are certified Green Hope partners. Patients will have access to our education, resources, MMJ cards & renewals, and we even help with filing everything for a small fee.
With this successful model in place, Renee’ Harper has set out to expand the Green Hope name to Missouri and Arkansas. These expansion plans are a response to the gap in the market for effective one-stop solutions that are reliable and trustworthy.
The dangers brought on by this gap are all too real. Recently, the people of Missouri were hoodwinked by someone who was handing out MMJ cards with an unauthorized signature. 600 patients were denied Medical Marijuana recommendations because of the imposter’s actions, leaving them unable to receive their treatment.
“DHSS said at this time, there's no evidence to indicate the affected patients were aware the physician listed was not the physician who met with them. However, the physician certification for these patients was not valid.” – Springfield News-Leader
These patients were not only denied their treatment, but they were shorted the money that they handed over for their cards, leaving them devastated and suffering. This act of injustice has made patients wary of new doctors and dispensaries, and this should not be the case when trusted industry leaders like Green Hope have worked over the years to provide legal solutions to their customers.
“The state health department said that patients whose doctor paperwork had the fake signatures will be notified and allowed 30 days to submit a valid physician certification to the health department. Patients will be responsible for paying a doctor a new physician certification fee, if the doctor charges one” – Department of Health and Senior Services spokesperson Lisa Cox to Springfield News-Leader
Green Hope has asked to be on the list of places that will help these patients but have not received a response. Through years of working and learning in the industry, Green Hope has built a reputable name, becoming one of the most trusted companies when it comes to Medical Marijuana. They have strived to be the best solution provider for patients looking for alternative treatments and are always present to support them in their efforts to manage their conditions.
With that in mind, Green Hope wants to state their disappointment at the events that unfolded in Missouri. In light of the situation, they want to send a reminder to patients only to use reputable clinics such as their own and advise researching before committing to a doctor or clinic. By choosing trusted names in MMJ, patients can fret less about being duped, while still getting better service than unknown dispensaries and clinics.
Renee' Harper, RN is the owner and founder of Green Hope. She has developed a business model focusing on patient awareness, safety, and education to acquire a research license. Green Hope is committed to creating awareness among patients, physicians, and the public about the benefits of cannabis. For more information, visit GreenHopeWellness.com or download our app at XXXX.
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2020.07.25 03:10 JoelWHarper I've been working on this research paper, it explains neatly how masks work, and why they dont for influenza...

I've been working on this research paper, it explains neatly how masks work, and why they dont for influenza...
It's killing me. I'm really struggling with it. Any help and encouragement appreciated.
The BLOCK CAPITALS are notes to myself to do work.

The Two Transmission Model of SARS-CoV-2

Abstract

This short paper proposes a novel two transmission model for the spread of viral airborne disease, specifically COVID-19.
It explains neatly the observed phenomenon of COVID-19 transmission, the cotton mask paradox, as well as describing experiments that can prove or disprove the theory.
The purpose is to build a better paradigm on which future airborne viral disease transmission research can be carried out, and improve public health and safety.

How COVID-19 is Transmitted

THIS SECTION NEEDS TO BE REWRITTEN
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease which is dispersed as free floating virion particles and as virion particles dissolved in droplets. Droplets are released in large numbers in coughs and sneezes, but also by talking, singing, and in (very small numbers) by breathing. CITATION WITH NUMBERS. The droplets evaporate releasing virion particles into the air, and the larger droplets rapidly fall under gravity.
The free floating virion particles can travel long distances on air currents. CITATION

The Cotton Mask Paradox

Cotton masks shouldn’t provide full SARS-CoV-2 protection. Airborne virion particles such as SARS-CoV-2 with a diameter of 0.125μm will readily penetrate the holes between cotton fibres.
An experiment with nurses during a flu pandemic found 23.6% with surgical masks and 22.9% with N95 respirators became infected (Loeb M, Dafoe N, Mahony J, et al. 2009). The implication being that neither offered good protection against influenza.
Yet cotton masks appear to provide a very effective barrier to SARS-CoV-2. The evidence is circumstantial and anecdotal, but also extremely compelling;
  • Countries in SE Asia with mask wearing regulations and cultural norms had very low rates of COVID-19 infection. The same is true for Western countries which pursued mask wearing, such as the Czech Republic and Argentina. The data is noisy, and difficult to separate from other national policies like contact tracing. CT Leffler et al (2020) carried out a multivariate analysis in 194 countries and found those with cultures and regulations supporting public mask-wearing had per-capita mortality increasing on average by only 7.2% each week, as compared with 55.0% each week in remaining countries.
  • To date there are no examples of superspreader events with the superspreader wearing a mask. Hendrix MJ et al, (2020) studied two asymptomatic hair stylists with confirmed COVID-19. Both the stylists and the clients wore face masks (either cloth or medical), among 139 clients no symptomatic secondary cases were reported. Among 67 clients tested for SARS-CoV-2 all test results were negative. The researchers concluded the mask wearing, “likely mitigated spread of SARS-CoV-2”.
Cotton masks efficiently block large virion carrying droplets, but not free floating virion particles. The implication is virion particles are not infectious, while the droplets carrying virion particles are. The question is why?

Penetrating the Mucus Barrier

The whole of the respiratory tract is coated with a layer of 1~10 μm thick mucus. (Michael D Vahey, Daniel A Fletcher, 2019). Immediately behind this is the epithelial layer with ACE2 receptors vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. Therefore to cause infection the SARS-CoV-2 virions must penetrate the mucus layer.
The mucins that make up respiratory mucus are highly complex, not fully understood and differ slightly between species. One constituent are sialic acids, which are the target cell receptors for some viruses and, in the mucus, act as decoy receptors to potentially infectious viruses (Zanin M et al, 2016).
DESCRIBE INFLUENZA A BREAKING THROUGH THE MUCUS LAYER
Researchers found the human influenza virions could diffuse through mucus by chemically breaking the bonds that hold the mucus layer together. It’s worth noting that this appears to be an example of tropism, and is a sign of an evolved trait, which is also a sign that influenza A has been around humans for a significant length of time. SAR-CoV-2 should have had no comparable time to have evolved any such ability.

The Two Transmission Model of Airborne Infection

What’s proposed is there are two ways in which airborne viral diseases are transmitted;
  • Virion particle + virion droplet for virions which have adapted to actively penetrate the host mucus layer. The virion particles can actively penetrate the mucus barrier, Influenza A, Influenza A is an example.
  • Virion droplet only where they have not, and have only recently (in evolutionary terms) jumped species. The virion containing droplet would break through the mucus layer by colliding with it, merging with it and physically pushing the protective mucus layer aside. SARS-CoV-2 is in the latter group.

Predictions

The main difference in how virion particle plus droplet or virion droplet would express itself is in terms of infectious distances. Virion particles can persist in the air for long periods of time and travel long distances downwind, while droplets can only travel very short distances, depending on the nature of their emission.
COVID-19 wouldn’t be able to spread long distances because the droplets they required to infect people would evaporate or fall under gravity.
Another difference would be in mask wearing, which would stop larger virion droplet, but not airborne virus particle infection. While the virion particles could travel long distances, they would be stopped by the respiratory tract’s mucus layer.
In COVID-19 we don’t observe downwind infection. There have been numerous outdoor events at beaches, BLM protests, CITATION etc but no recorded corresponding spike in infections which would infer long distance virion infection taking place.
EXAMPLE OF INFLUENZA TRAVELLING DOWNWIND.
We would also expect COVID-19 droplets to readily infect other mammals as they have similar respiratory systems. They too would be impervious to airborne virion particles for the same reason stated.

Experiments to Confirm If airborne COVID-19 Virion Particles are Infectious

Passing through a Physical Barrier Test
Ferrets have human-like respiratory mucus and are also susceptible to COVID-19. Kim et al (2020) conducted an experiment to determine if SARS-CoV-2 infected ferrets could transmit it by airborne means:
https://preview.redd.it/m38b3svykwc51.png?width=1264&format=png&auto=webp&s=176d22707ad7bc3faf321c8c463d7987007d1c82
They demonstrated that ferrets readily caught COVID-19 across a physical barrier, which could only be explained by airborne transmission.
Repeat the experiment with a double layer fine woven cotton sheet between the two cages, and gentle air flow to move air between them. The double layer of fine woven cotton layer would stop droplet transmission. A virus catching filter on the far side of the ferret, where the air is extracted would confirm with a test that the ferret had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2.
If the ferret does not get infected we’ll know SARS-CoV-2 virions are not infective when inhaled, and can therefore infer inhaled droplets must be responsible for all transmission.
Repeated with increasing filter sizes separating the ferrets would allow us to determine the minimum size of infectious droplets for ferret infection.
Observing SARS-CoV-2 Mucus Barrier Penetration
Studies into SARS-CoV-2 transmission usually implicitly assume the virus diffuses across the mucus barrier, but so far this has never been observed for SAR-CoV-2.
In an experiment designed to observe the penetration of mucus
Human respiratory mucus was exposed to influenza virion particles. The experiment can be repeated for SARS-Co-V-2 virions to see if they can penetrate the human mucus layer, if they cannot we can infer only virion carrying droplets are infectious, virion particles are not.

Other Observations

The differing means of infection would make comparing R numbers for influenza and COVID-19 impossible as they have different means of infection.
For COVID-19 R numbers would be more a function of transmission distance, and less an innate property of the SARS-CoV-2 virions.
It also explains the lack of any confirmed cases of fomite or contact COVID-19 infections. When the virion droplets strike a surface, they stick to it and can no longer be inhaled.

Further Research

Topics to investigate further include:
  • Droplet mucus layer penetration. There’s no research on how droplets interact with thin liquid layers that focus on the droplet penetrating the layer. Observing mucous impacts in the respiratory tract, in the laboratory and in computer simulations would be useful here. The droplets can impact with lateral momentum - corresponding to breathing in or out - and this may aid in the droplet penetrating the mucus layer. When we know how big the infectious droplets are we’ll be able to specify mask design parameters very accurately - very useful information for creating cheap, comfortable and safe masks.
  • Investigating the possibility of virions becoming infectious if added to airborne droplets. For the ferret experiment add droplets to the virion laden air to observe its effect on infectivity.
  • It might be possible to detect the origin species by exposing SARS-CoV-2 to different types of creature (especially bat) respiratory mucus. Bats could be chosen from the Wuhan district of China to see whether the virion particles can actively penetrate the mucus layer. Active penetration may indicate the origin species of SARS-CoV-2.

References

Loeb M, Dafoe N, Mahony J, et al. Surgical Mask vs N95 Respirator for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Workers: A Randomized Trial. JAMA. 2009;302(17):1865–1871. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1466
Hendrix MJ, Walde C, Findley K, Trotman R. Absence of Apparent Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from Two Stylists After Exposure at a Hair Salon with a Universal Face Covering Policy — Springfield, Missouri, May 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. ePub: 14 July 2020. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6928e2external icon.
Michael D Vahey, Daniel A Fletcher. Influenza A virus surface proteins are organized to help penetrate host mucus eLife 2019;8:e43764 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.43764
Mark Zanin, Pradyumna Baviskar, Robert Webster, Richard Webby, The Interaction between Respiratory Pathogens and Mucus Cell Host and Microbe, vol 19, Issue 2, P159-168, February 10, 2016
Christopher T Leffler, Edsel B Ing, Joseph D. Lykins V, Matthew C. Hogan, Craig A. McKeown, Andrzej Grzybowski. Association of country-wide coronavirus mortality with demographics, testing, lockdowns, and public wearing of masks. Update July 2, 2020. medRxiv 2020.05.22.20109231; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.22.20109231
Cohen, M., Zhang, X., Senaati, H.P. et al. Influenza A penetrates host mucus by cleaving sialic acids with neuraminidase. Virol J 10, 321 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-10-321
Kim et al., 2020, Infection and Rapid Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Ferrets Cell Host & Microbe 27, 704–709 May 13, 2020 ª 2020 Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.03.023
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2020.07.19 21:14 spummydue [SUMMARY] United States Military Sales 2034: Its All Fucked Now So You Might As Well

United States Department of Defense,
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Commonwealth of Virginia
 
Foreign Military Sales Catalogue
 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) is the United States Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, training, and equipment to our international partners and international organizations. The FMS program is funded by administrative charges to foreign purchasers and is operated at no cost to American taxpayers. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the organization responsibility for the administration of the FMS program, acts as an agent for procurement mostly for American defense and aerospace companies. Current fees / administrative charges equal the sum of $15,000 USD and 3.8 percent of the purchased item(s).
Under FMS, the United States government uses the Department of Defense’s acquisition system to procure defense articles and services on behalf of its partners. Eligible countries may purchase defense articles and services with their own funds or with funds provided through United States government-sponsored assistance programs.
This year theres some new stuff
Note that equipment listed here is not exhaustive and additional products are available, a large amount of US surplus is also available to buy.
 
New Stuff
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A3 4th Gen MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Very chad tank $13,450,000 USD
F-15X Shadow Eagle 4.5++ Gen Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri Closest to an F-22 ill sell $55,000,000 USD
BGM-225 "Vortex" Hypersonic cruise missile Raytheon Currently banned for sale $2,200,000 USD
AIM-220A ARHAAM Hypersonic air-to-air missile Raytheon Currently banned for sale $1,860,000 USD
AB-1A Cherokee New gen attack helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $63,000,000 USD
UB-1A Gray Hawk New gen transport helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $33,000,000 USD
THAAD-ER Anti-ballistic missile system Lockheed Martin THAAD with more range $1,600,000,000 USD
Griffin III Infantry Fighting Vehicle General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan IFVC with some fancy bits $4,500,000 USD
M5 Contender Light Tank BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington Advanced Light Tank $5,500,000 USD
MIM-066 Freedom SAM Raytheon, Waltham, Massachusetts Patriot replacement, super chad $1,000,000,000 USD
 
Armoured Vehicles
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A1 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $3,000,000.00 USD
M1A2 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $7,000,000.00 USD
IAV Stryker Wheeled AFV General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Different variants available $4,000,000.00 USD
M113 APC FMC Corporation, Philly $1,000,000.00 USD
M2 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $2,000,000.00 USD
M3 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $3,000,000.00 USD
 
MISSILES
 
Equipment Type Unit Cost ($) Notes
AIM-7M Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile 125,000
AIM-9X Sidewinder Short-range air-to-air missile 200,000 Infrared homing
AIM-120C AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 400,000
AIM-120D AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 1.8 million Limited exports
AGM-65H/K Maverick Air-to-surface missile 50,000
AGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
AGM-88D HARM Anti-radiation missile 284,000
AGM-88E HARM Anti-radiation missile 870,000 Upgrade of AGM-88D with passive radar and mm wave seeker to counter radar shutdown
AGM-114R Hellfire Romeo Air-to-surface missile 100,000
AGM-158A JASSM Air-launched cruise missile 850,000
AGM-158B/C JASSM-ELRASM Air-launched cruise missile/anti-ship missile 1.4 million
AGM-182 Air-to-surface missile 100,000
BGM-71F TOW AT missile 50,000
RGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise missile 1.9 million
FGM-148F Javelin Man-portable AT missile 250,000
FIM-92G Stinger MANPAD 38,000
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Medium-range SAM 1 million
RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 SAM/ASM/BMD 4 million
RUM-139 VL-ASROC Standoff Anti-Submarine Weapon 1.7 million
 
Air Defence Systems
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger Short-range SAM Boeing Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $31,000,000.00 USD
MIM-104 Patriot Long-range SAM/ABM Raytheon PAC-3 MSE Variant, Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,000,000,000.00 USD
MEADS Medium SAM ~ Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,200,000,000.00 USD
THAAD Anti-ballistic Missile System Lockheed-Martin Price per battery, each battery contains 6 batteries $1,500,000,000.00 USD
 
Fighter Aircraft
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
F-35A Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $75,000,000.00 USD
F-35B Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $101,000,000.00 USD
F-35C Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $89,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $79,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18F/E Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $70,500,000.00 USD
F/A-18A/B Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $27,400,000.00 USD
F/A-18C/D Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $29,700,000.00 USD
F-16A/B 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $22,740,000.00 USD
F-16C/D 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $29,200,000.00 USD
F-16E/F 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $38,800,000.00 USD
F-16V 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $48,000,000.00 USD
F-15C/D 4th Generation Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $42,000,000.00 USD
F-15E Strike Eagle 4th Generation Strike Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $45,000,000.00 USD
 
Any additional requests can be handled as they come in. There may be many vehicles not listed, but which are still available to purchase. Any small arms or equipment purchases are to be routed through here as well. NOTE: ALL PRICES ARE NOT FINAL AND ONLY INCLUDE THE BASE EQUIPMENT, PRICES MAY RISE IN THE FINAL BILL TO ACCOUNT FOR KIT AND LOGISTICS
[M] Credit to me and shah for the groundwork
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2020.07.06 19:45 spummydue [SUMMARY] United States Military Sales 2033: 12x More $$ In Sales Than Everyone Else Combined Since 2020

United States Department of Defense,
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Commonwealth of Virginia
 
Foreign Military Sales Catalogue
 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) is the United States Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, training, and equipment to our international partners and international organizations. The FMS program is funded by administrative charges to foreign purchasers and is operated at no cost to American taxpayers. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the organization responsibility for the administration of the FMS program, acts as an agent for procurement mostly for American defense and aerospace companies. Current fees / administrative charges equal the sum of $15,000 USD and 3.8 percent of the purchased item(s).
Under FMS, the United States government uses the Department of Defense’s acquisition system to procure defense articles and services on behalf of its partners. Eligible countries may purchase defense articles and services with their own funds or with funds provided through United States government-sponsored assistance programs.
This year theres some new stuff
Note that equipment listed here is not exhaustive and additional products are available, a large amount of US surplus is also available to buy.
 
New Stuff
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A3 4th Gen MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Very chad tank $13,450,000 USD
F-15X Shadow Eagle 4.5++ Gen Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri Closest to an F-22 ill sell $55,000,000 USD
BGM-225 "Vortex" Hypersonic cruise missile Raytheon Currently banned for sale $2,200,000 USD
AIM-220A ARHAAM Hypersonic air-to-air missile Raytheon Currently banned for sale $1,860,000 USD
AB-1A Cherokee New gen attack helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $63,000,000 USD
UB-1A Gray Hawk New gen transport helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $33,000,000 USD
THAAD-ER Anti-ballistic missile system Lockheed Martin THAAD with more range $1,600,000,000 USD
Griffin III Infantry Fighting Vehicle General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan IFVC with some fancy bits $4,500,000 USD
M5 Contender Light Tank BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington Advanced Light Tank $5,500,000 USD
MIM-066 Freedom SAM Raytheon, Waltham, Massachusetts Patriot replacement, super chad $1,000,000,000 USD
 
Armoured Vehicles
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A1 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $3,000,000.00 USD
M1A2 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $7,000,000.00 USD
IAV Stryker Wheeled AFV General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Different variants available $4,000,000.00 USD
M113 APC FMC Corporation, Philly $1,000,000.00 USD
M2 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $2,000,000.00 USD
M3 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $3,000,000.00 USD
 
MISSILES
 
Equipment Type Unit Cost ($) Notes
AIM-7M Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile 125,000
AIM-9X Sidewinder Short-range air-to-air missile 200,000 Infrared homing
AIM-120C AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 400,000
AIM-120D AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 1.8 million Limited exports
AGM-65H/K Maverick Air-to-surface missile 50,000
AGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
AGM-88D HARM Anti-radiation missile 284,000
AGM-88E HARM Anti-radiation missile 870,000 Upgrade of AGM-88D with passive radar and mm wave seeker to counter radar shutdown
AGM-114R Hellfire Romeo Air-to-surface missile 100,000
AGM-158A JASSM Air-launched cruise missile 850,000
AGM-158B/C JASSM-ELRASM Air-launched cruise missile/anti-ship missile 1.4 million
AGM-182 Air-to-surface missile 100,000
BGM-71F TOW AT missile 50,000
RGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise missile 1.9 million
FGM-148F Javelin Man-portable AT missile 250,000
FIM-92G Stinger MANPAD 38,000
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Medium-range SAM 1 million
RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 SAM/ASM/BMD 4 million
RUM-139 VL-ASROC Standoff Anti-Submarine Weapon 1.7 million
 
Air Defence Systems
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger Short-range SAM Boeing Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $31,000,000.00 USD
MIM-104 Patriot Long-range SAM/ABM Raytheon PAC-3 MSE Variant, Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,000,000,000.00 USD
MEADS Medium SAM ~ Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,200,000,000.00 USD
THAAD Anti-ballistic Missile System Lockheed-Martin Price per battery, each battery contains 6 batteries $1,500,000,000.00 USD
 
Fighter Aircraft
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
F-35A Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $75,000,000.00 USD
F-35B Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $101,000,000.00 USD
F-35C Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $89,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $79,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18F/E Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $70,500,000.00 USD
F/A-18A/B Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $27,400,000.00 USD
F/A-18C/D Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $29,700,000.00 USD
F-16A/B 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $22,740,000.00 USD
F-16C/D 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $29,200,000.00 USD
F-16E/F 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $38,800,000.00 USD
F-16V 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $48,000,000.00 USD
F-15C/D 4th Generation Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $42,000,000.00 USD
F-15E Strike Eagle 4th Generation Strike Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $45,000,000.00 USD
 
Any additional requests can be handled as they come in. There may be many vehicles not listed, but which are still available to purchase. Any small arms or equipment purchases are to be routed through here as well. NOTE: ALL PRICES ARE NOT FINAL AND ONLY INCLUDE THE BASE EQUIPMENT, PRICES MAY RISE IN THE FINAL BILL TO ACCOUNT FOR KIT AND LOGISTICS
[M] Credit to me and shah for the groundwork
submitted by spummydue to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2020.06.29 12:21 spummydue [SUMMARY] United States Military Sales 2032: More Sales Than Everyone Else Combined Since 2020

United States Department of Defense,
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Commonwealth of Virginia
 
Foreign Military Sales Catalogue
 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) is the United States Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, training, and equipment to our international partners and international organizations. The FMS program is funded by administrative charges to foreign purchasers and is operated at no cost to American taxpayers. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the organization responsibility for the administration of the FMS program, acts as an agent for procurement mostly for American defense and aerospace companies. Current fees / administrative charges equal the sum of $15,000 USD and 3.8 percent of the purchased item(s).
Under FMS, the United States government uses the Department of Defense’s acquisition system to procure defense articles and services on behalf of its partners. Eligible countries may purchase defense articles and services with their own funds or with funds provided through United States government-sponsored assistance programs.
This year theres some new stuff
Note that equipment listed here is not exhaustive and additional products are available, a large amount of US surplus is also available to buy.
 
New Stuff
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A3 4th Gen MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Very chad tank $13,450,000 USD
F-15X Shadow Eagle 4.5++ Gen Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri Closest to an F-22 ill sell $55,000,000 USD
BGM-225 "Vortex" Hypersonic cruise missile Raytheon Hypersonic Tomahawk replacement $2,200,000 USD
AIM-220A ARHAAM Hypersonic air-to-air missile Raytheon Shoots down 5th gens all day son $1,860,000 USD
AB-1A Cherokee New gen attack helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $63,000,000 USD
UB-1A Gray Hawk New gen transport helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $33,000,000 USD
THAAD-ER Anti-ballistic missile system Lockheed Martin THAAD with more range $1,600,000,000 USD
Griffin III Infantry Fighting Vehicle General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan IFVC with some fancy bits $4,500,000 USD
M5 Contender Light Tank BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington Advanced Light Tank $5,500,000 USD
 
Armoured Vehicles
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A1 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $3,000,000.00 USD
M1A2 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $7,000,000.00 USD
IAV Stryker Wheeled AFV General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Different variants available $4,000,000.00 USD
M113 APC FMC Corporation, Philly $1,000,000.00 USD
M2 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $2,000,000.00 USD
M3 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $3,000,000.00 USD
 
MISSILES
 
Equipment Type Unit Cost ($) Notes
AIM-7M Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile 125,000
AIM-9X Sidewinder Short-range air-to-air missile 200,000 Infrared homing
AIM-120C AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 400,000
AIM-120D AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 1.8 million Limited exports
AGM-65H/K Maverick Air-to-surface missile 50,000
AGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
AGM-88D HARM Anti-radiation missile 284,000
AGM-88E HARM Anti-radiation missile 870,000 Upgrade of AGM-88D with passive radar and mm wave seeker to counter radar shutdown
AGM-114R Hellfire Romeo Air-to-surface missile 100,000
AGM-158A JASSM Air-launched cruise missile 850,000
AGM-158B/C JASSM-ELRASM Air-launched cruise missile/anti-ship missile 1.4 million
AGM-182 Air-to-surface missile 100,000
BGM-71F TOW AT missile 50,000
RGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise missile 1.9 million
FGM-148F Javelin Man-portable AT missile 250,000
FIM-92G Stinger MANPAD 38,000
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Medium-range SAM 1 million
RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 SAM/ASM/BMD 4 million
RUM-139 VL-ASROC Standoff Anti-Submarine Weapon 1.7 million
 
Air Defence Systems
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger Short-range SAM Boeing Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $31,000,000.00 USD
MIM-104 Patriot Long-range SAM/ABM Raytheon PAC-3 MSE Variant, Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,000,000,000.00 USD
MEADS Medium SAM ~ Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,200,000,000.00 USD
THAAD Anti-ballistic Missile System Lockheed-Martin Price per battery, each battery contains 6 batteries $1,500,000,000.00 USD
 
Fighter Aircraft
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
F-35A Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $75,000,000.00 USD
F-35B Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $101,000,000.00 USD
F-35C Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $89,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $79,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18F/E Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $70,500,000.00 USD
F/A-18A/B Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $27,400,000.00 USD
F/A-18C/D Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $29,700,000.00 USD
F-16A/B 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $22,740,000.00 USD
F-16C/D 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $29,200,000.00 USD
F-16E/F 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $38,800,000.00 USD
F-16V 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $48,000,000.00 USD
F-15C/D 4th Generation Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $42,000,000.00 USD
F-15E Strike Eagle 4th Generation Strike Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $45,000,000.00 USD
 
Any additional requests can be handled as they come in. There may be many vehicles not listed, but which are still available to purchase. Any small arms or equipment purchases are to be routed through here as well. NOTE: ALL PRICES ARE NOT FINAL AND ONLY INCLUDE THE BASE EQUIPMENT, PRICES MAY RISE IN THE FINAL BILL TO ACCOUNT FOR KIT AND LOGISTICS
[M] Credit to me and shah for the groundwork
submitted by spummydue to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2020.06.23 00:51 Robo_Ross A Deep Dive into the Impacts of Fashion on the Environment and Human Health.

I initially started writing this as a small post but it just kind of blew up as I dug through the state of fashion and its environmental and social impacts. I know this topic is brought up fairly regularly in this community, but I think as we move forward as a community it is important to have this information ready and available for new converts to MFA. Like the basic bastard wardrobe or the recurring rundowns on specific pieces (this recent one on chore coats is one of my personal favorites it gives fashion novices a roadmap to understand the space and dip their toe into this wonderful world of fits and fashion. I would love to do something similar for sustainable fashion and the crazy, convoluted world of certifications, greenwashing, and actually reducing your footprint in environmental and human misery. I’ve broken impacts down into 3 categories: Environmental Impacts, Social Impacts, and Certifications.
Environmental Impacts: Ok, so I think the majority of the posts I’ve come across on this topic have to do with the environmental impacts of fast fashion and the fashion world at large. With companies like Patagonia mounting large campaigns around the environment, ‘green’ fashion has become a popular point with both consumers and producers. While some producers are making some good initial steps in the right direction, others are merely using the hype to sell more product. The world resources institute did a great article on the impacts of fast fashion with some fantastic infographics on how it’s changed our consumption habits and how those affect the environment. In this section I’ll be diving into six categories: farming (land conversion/pollution/runoff), material extraction, pollution, shipping impacts, ‘unwilding’ (like deforestation and wetlands loss), and total carbon footprint. Before I jump into these topics, I want to define some terms as there can be a lot of jargon in this area that can be used to purposely confuse or trick consumers into thinking a product is ‘good’ for earth. I want to throw a caveat that while I am hard on recycling and organics, they are still the processes we should be moving toward and are decent steps in the right direction. It is not a reason to ignore those options, but just to think critically about how beneficial they are and how reducing consumption overall might be better than relying on those bandages.
Green Washing: I think most people are familiar with ‘green washing’ but if you’re not, it just means that brands are using marketing to say they are doing something beneficial for the planet while ignoring or covering up their largely problematic practices. Many of the big names, like Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo, are attempting to do it.
Recycling: Here is a term I thought I understood but it might surprise you how recycling works and what the outcomes are. I was raised in the age of Captain Planet and the recycling boom so I assumed recycling is a great catch all for reducing landfill waste. As just a quick overview, while recycling can be better than using virgin material sources, common recycling methods are inefficient and in many cases end up as trash themselves. This is a decent paper on the efficiency of recycling when it does work and this article on the issue facing our current supply chain limitations.
Micro Plastic: Plastics have really become the scapegoat of the 21st century, however they are indeed still an issue. Micro plastics are waste that escape from all types of plastic goods but what we’re concerned about is the role of polyester clothing. Polyester clothing makes up nearly 60% of all clothing produced. In every load of polyester clothing washed, millions of plastic microfibers make their way into our waterways and oceans. In some studies, up to 80% of ocean micro plastics are polyester microfibers.
Carbon Footprint: Carbon footprint just means the total amount of carbon(C02) spent to produce the product and get it into your hands. That means the total spend making the cotton, polyester, or wool, shipping it to a textile factory, creating the garment, creating the packaging for the garment, shipping that off to the distribution center, storing the garment, trucking that off to a specific store, selling that garment, and having you take it home. All of the touch points that one piece went through had a cost, both financial and environmentally, to get it there. There are many organizations dedicated to understanding the carbon footprint of products like ISO or Carbon Trust. Organic: I’ll start out the textbook definition of organic agriculture written by The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM)
An integrated farming system that strives for sustainability, the enhancement of soil fertility and biological diversity while, with rare exceptions, prohibiting synthetic pesticides, antibiotics, synthetic fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, and growth hormones.
Within the United States organic certification is undertaken by the USDA. The specifications effectively call for a halt in the use of traditionally farmed (ei. agro-chemically) land for three years to lay fallow before the production of ‘organic’ produce can begin. This is one of the biggest hurdles for farmers to convert. However there are subsidies available from both the government and non-profit sector. Effectively organic reduces the amount of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers that can be used on a plot of land to a near negligible amount. There are still negative impacts of farming associated with organic farms that will never go away namely: water usage, organic fertilizer runoff, and monoculture degradation of topsoil. That said they are a huge leap forward from standard, chemical heavy farming.
Now that we have that out of the way let’s jump into the meat of the issue.
1.) Farming: Farming and the production of the raw materials for garments is the single biggest issue associated with them. I’ll talk about shipping and carbon footprint later, but this is where the majority of environmental damage happens. I’m going to do a TLDR first and then dive deeper into each issue. TLDR: The big takeaways from the environmental impacts of farming are that with increased demand come increased farming (which means destruction of native habitat like woodlands or wetlands), removal of water for crop irrigation from river watersheds (that compound the effects of increasing droughts from climate change (shout out to my other Californian’s feeling this particularly hard)), the runoff from agriculture cause huge algae blooms and create dead zones in the rivers, lakes, and oceans downstream (not even pollutants, I’m talking like fertilizer and nutrients), and pesticides used during production add to the reduction in insects that drives biodiversity loss. (I’m even leaving out the transportation of fertilizer, water, and the product itself as that will be addressed in shipping but remember that is still part of the problem with farming)
Ok that was a big TLDR, but I think it reflects the big impacts farming has on our environment. Remember this is only one of six total impacts of garment production on our environment.
-1. Destruction of ecological habitats: Globally there are over 35 million hectares of cotton are under cultivation. That is the size of Germany, 351127 km². This land is distributed primarily across the United States, China, India, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Brazil, and Turkey in habitats like flood plains, forests, and chaparral. Remember, any land used for agriculture was once a healthy native habitat.
-2. Excessive water removal: This is one of the best understood impacts of cotton production. One standard cotton shirt takes around 2,700 liters of water to produce. That is enough for you to stay hydrated for 2.5 years! National Geographic has a good short minute long video on it here. I think that metric makes it easier to understand how much water we are removing from already stressed systems. I actually learned a new word in researching this topic, gigameters. It turns out we use 256 gigameters of water to produce cotton globally. Every year the fashion industry uses 93 billion cubic meters of water — enough to meet the consumption needs of five million people. There are many examples of what happens when water extraction decimates native ecosystems but the Aral Sea is the best example. The Aral Sea, once the world 4th largest lake, now completely dried due to cotton production and climate change.
-3. Runoff and effluent: Another huge impacting factor from cotton production is the runoff of fertilizer and nutrients into our surrounding waterways. These additional nutrient loads drive excessive algae growth that remove oxygen from waterways and suffocate life in impacted habitat. While there are great examples across the world, one of the most visible examples is the runoff from the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers that chokes out the coastal waters of the Caribbean Sea. This map, look specifically at coastal dead zones, shows the dead zones caused by agricultural runoff. The majority of runoff is caused by meat production, however in areas like Monterey, California showcase how fertilizer runoff is an additional compounding factor.
-4. Pesticides: While cotton account for 2.5% of the total agricultural land use, cotton accounts for 24% of the world’s insecticides and insecticides/pesticide use is a key driver of biodiversity loss.. Excessive pesticide is responsible for making 41% of insects in decline, 33% are at risk of extinction. However their impacts extend beyond insects, pesticides also harm wildlife in habitats where it is discharged by runoff like river watersheds, wetlands, and forests. Bird populations, amphibians, and mammals including humans. Human health is a huge element and has been studied at depth, but I’ll dive into that more during the social impacts of fashion. All I’ll say for now is that it affects nearly every system in our bodies, from reproductive to nervous to circulatory systems.
If you want some very extended reading on the impacts of cotton production, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has very detailed guidelines. Ok, we’re through farming, let’s keep going!
2.) Material Extraction: Ok, so we’ve now seen the impacts of cotton production on the environment, but as they only make up 40% of the total textile market in fashion let’s take a look at synthetics that make up 60% of the total fashion market. Every year [the fashion industry uses over 70 million barrels of oils to make polyester each year]((https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2015/12/03/making-climate-change-fashionable-the-garment-industry-takes-on-global-warming/#19b72da479e4). To put that in perspective, that’s almost that same as two weeks worth of the total United States transportation usage. Every single car, truck, and train in the United States. Leading experts now believe that polyester is the single largest contributor of micro plastics. Each load of wash sends around 1,900 individual plastic fibers into our waterway and oceans. One of the most positive aspects of polyester is that it is completely recyclable, and it is also possible to manufacture polyester from recycled plastics. This means that we can access the benefits of polyester without needing to manufacture from virgin petroleum stocks. However, be wary of ‘recycled polyester’ as this will often be an attempt at green washing. In some cases the 5% recycled materials will just mean a longer tag made of the material while the actual shirt remains all virgin materials.
3.) Pollution: I think pollution is the specter of environmental destruction we were all taught about. It featured heavily in captain planet, pokemon, and Fern Gully. It is environmental damage incarnate. But that being said, I think our illustrations of pollution miss some of the biggest implications of carbon emissions (10% of global total), impacts to drinking water and watershed habitats, and insect death.
Total Carbon Footprint: Carbon emissions, as part of increasing greenhouse gasses, are the leading cause of climate change. Globally, the fashion industry is responsible for 10% of those emissions. Unlike all other sections, I think that might be enough said on the topic.
Social Impacts: While the social implications of the fashion industry pop onto our radar every now and then, particularly when something catastrophic happens like the 2013 factory collapse or [2012 fire](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2012_Dhaka_garment_factory_fire] in Bangladesh, outrage is often quickly forgotten and ew return to business as usual. For this post I’m defining the social impacts of fast fashion are any negative impacts the production of the textile products in question have on the surrounding communities or company workforce. There is an argument that the degradation of the adjacent environment is a negative impact, but as I’ve addressed that in environmental impacts I’ll be focusing on slavery, wages, working conditions, and human health.
Slavery: Today slavery takes a variety of forms, but here I’m going to address the three main issues: The Chinese created Uyghur concentration camps, the United States prison system, and human trafficking at large. I’m sure there are more examples of it, but these are the stars in the spotlight and that’s what I’m going to focus on.
Chinese Concentration Camps: While horrible working standards and the use of slave labor have been rife within China for decades, the new creation of Uyghur concentration camps is the most recent atrocity. These ‘re-education’ camps are now functioning as effective slave labor loan programs. The article linked above explains the heart of the issue so much more succinctly than I could.
Here is a list of fashion brands that are currently engaged in Uyghur forced labor contracts: Gap Nike Uniqlo H&M Adidas Abercrombie and Fitch Amazon Calvin Klein Fila Jack and Jones LL Bean Lacoste The North Face Polo Ralph Lauren Puma Sketchers Tommy Hilfiger Zara
United States Prison System: I’m sure some of you have tuned into 13th on Netflix that dives into the continuation of the slavery in the United States through our prison system. I’ll be the first one to embarrassingly admit, I knew about prison labor, but I assumed it was for government equipment such as license plates. I’m not sure it is much better, but I was shocked to see how many companies are using and abusing our system in the search for even greater profits. A group to be aware of is the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), a group that promoted mandatory minimum sentencing and the three-strikes law, which drastically increases the length of sentencing for people convicted of more than two serious crimes. Many corporations who back their policies also profit from the use of prison laborers.
Here is a list of fashion brands that are currently engaged in US prison system contracts: Fruit of the Loom Target Walmart - Saying it won’t use prison labor on products, but uses it to dispose of returns and excess inventory. JCPenny Macy’s KMart
Here is a list of fashion brands that have engaged in US prison system contracts in the past: Nordstroms - Sold jeans made in prisons, now pledged to no longer do so Eddie Bauer (Not as relevant to male fashion but adding it incase anyone purchases for gifts) Victoria’s Secret - used prison labor in the 90s
More articles (1, 2, 3) on labor abuses built into the fabric of the US prison system.
Human Trafficking: [Human traffed slave labor can be used to pick the cotton, sew the garment, and even to model the finished product(https://www.dressember.org/blog/dressemberreadingday22)]. Convoluted supply chains allow for brands to deny responsibility or culpability for enabling these practices while the pursuit of cheap prices drive them to be more and more common. There have been a number of examples in the news from the big case around Nikein the 90sto more recently with messages for help on Zara tags. According to the Global Slavery Index, $127 billion worth of garments are created by slave labor and imported annually to G20 countries (like the United States and Canada). In many cases these slaves are children and their hands are better for fine detail work and picking cotton. There are too many examples of how the fashion industry benefits from loose labor and slavery laws.
Human Health: The human health impacts from fashion production are huge so I won’t be able to tackle everything but with the highlights I’ll cover here and some of the points I touched on it throughout the other sections I think we should get a pretty good understanding of it.
Production: Most polyester is produced in countries such as China, Indonesia and Bangladesh where environmental regulations are lax, and air and water pollution is often discharged untreated, resulting in significant pollution and harm to communities in the vicinity of (as well as downstream and downwind of) manufacturing plants.
Distribution: Pollution impacts aren’t just from the production of clothes. The shipping and distribution of fashion products also contribute to the negative health effects of our global transportation system. At our current pace, the fashion industry’s greenhouse gas emissions will surge more than 50% by 2030](https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2019/09/23/costo-moda-medio-ambiente).
End of Garment Life: When clothes reach the end of their life, [which for not a small number of clothes happens without ever being worn. In 2018, H&M had a surplus of 4.8 billion dollars worth of unsold merchandise that was eventually burned. Likewise, Burberry admitted to burning 37 million dollars worth of product, rather than selling them at reduced rates. Our pollution is not just driven by utility but by brands actively and purposefully wasting product.
Certification Agencies: Ok, with so many different impacts to both humans and the environment it’s nice that we have some certifications that can signal us which brands are putting their bottom line where their marketing team is, but unfortunately this gets a little complicated too. With convoluted supply chains, diverse impacts, and an insane number of stakeholders, the certification market is kind of like the wild west. This is good for fast fashion, as it makes it easy to give yourself some random certification and who can tell if it is a legitimate or bogus certification (think of Chevy and the J.D.Power Awards). This convoluted space also makes it hell for consumers. It is hard to be a continuous consumer. A company that works with all sustainably raised, organic cotton might be made with slave labor. The made in America brand could be using sweatshops in Los Angeles paying their workers two to six dollars an hour. With that in mind, let’s dive in.
I’d like to start by giving a big shout out to Ecocult, particularly this article. I’m really just reformatting their legwork to make it more consumable. They have even more info on who gets certified and more guidelines in the original article.
Material Specific Certifications:
Cotton - Better Cotton Initiative (BCI)
Leather - Leather Working Group (LWG)LWG approves and/or rates (Gold, Silver, or Bronze) leather tanneries and leather traders based on how their production processes affect the environment. Audits can be done by several third parties using the same set of standards. They take into account things like waste management, energy consumption, water usage, traceability, restricted substances, and more.
Timber- Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)FSC is a global not-for-profit organization that ensures that companies using timber from an FSC-certified forest meet their standards along the entire supply chain.
Wool - Climate Beneficial Developed by the non-profit Fibershed, Climate Beneficial wool comes from animals that were raised in such a way that more carbon was sequestered than emitted! Right now, the project is focused on wool, but in the future they may expand to other materials.
Vegan - PETA The PETA-Approved Vegan label signifies that the brand or product has signed PETA’s statement of assurance verifying that their product is vegan. This is based only on self-reporting and brands are not audited to confirm what they state is true. Also, you should know that just because something is vegan doesn’t mean it’s good for the environment. In fact, it’s often the opposite; many vegan leather alternatives such as PU are toxic to humans and the earth.
Environmental Certifications:
Global Organic Textile Standard: GOTS is one of the most trustworthy and wholistic certifications. It covers the processing, manufacturing, packaging, labeling, trading, and distribution of all textiles made from at least 70% certified organic natural fibers. The textiles must meet a certain set of environmental standards (toxicity, wastewater, etc.) as well as social criteria in accordance with the International Labor Organization.
OEKO-TEX: This certification is based on the chemicals found in the product. This certification tests for substances like toxic chemicals that are harmful to humans. Well respected and trusted. Bluesign: Bluesign is a common certification given to textile manufacturers who are producing in a way that is safe for both humans and the environment. They take into consideration everything from water waste to dye toxicity to worker and consumer safety and more.
Cradle to Cradle: Since it’s focused primarily on circularity rather than just the ethics of production on the front end, the Cradle to Cradle process and certification could have the potential to transform the way we think about and manufacture consumer goods. Organic Content Standard: Originally developed for cotton but later expanded to other types of textiles, the OCS provides a strict chain of custody system from the organic raw material source to your finished product. The OCS Certification was written by the Textile Exchange (originally named Organic Exchange), an international, member-supported, non-profit organization.
United State Department of Agriculture Organic: USDA Organic products are certified by the US government if they meet strict standards in their growing and harvesting process. They cannot be treated with any pesticides, synthetics, fertilizers, hormones, or other types of additives. Regenerative Organic Certified: Still a pretty new certification that is pilot testing, Regenerative Organic Certification goes beyond organic to be a holistic agriculture certification encompassing pasture-based animal welfare, fairness for farmers and workers, and robust requirements for soil health and land management.
EcoCert: ECOCERT is an independent inspection and certification company that specializes in organic agriculture products. For textiles, the ECOCERT label means the fabric is either GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard), OCS (Organic Content Standard), and/or Ecological & Recycled Textiles (Ecocert Standard) certified.
Human/Environment Certifications: National Sanitation Foundation (NSF): Originally called the National Sanitation Foundation, NSF is a third-party certification that ensures human and environmental safety across several different industries.
Social/Labor Certifications:
SA8000: Established by Social Accountability International (SAI), SA8000 is a social certification standard for factories and organizations across the globe. Standards are in line with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Labour Organization (ILO): conventions and include things like child labor, forced labor, health and safety, discrimination, working hours, and more.
Worldwide Responsible Accredited Production (WRAP): WRAP is a social compliance certification that works with facilities primarily in apparel, footwear, and sewn goods . Factories are audited in categories such as forced labor, benefits, and discrimination, and then given a platinum, gold, or silver certification.
NEST: While there are several great certifications that audit labor standards in factories (see above), there wasn’t one that ensured ethical working standards for all of the labor that’s done within homes (where some estimates say as much as 60% of production takes place, according to Nest).
Fairtrade International: Fairtrade International works with small farmers, producers, and traders around the globe who meet strict standards. Though the specifics of these standards vary by industry, they include factors like fair wages, safe working conditions, and supply chain transparency, all audited by FLOCERT.
FLOCERT: FLOCERT is the B2B certifying body that audits for Fair Trade International. They also have a couple other programs: EDGE (Economic Dividends for Gender Equality) and SMETA (Sedex Members Ethical Trade Audit) Social Audits for supply chains.
Fair Trade USA: It’s a bit confusing because Fairtrade International and Fair Trade USA used to be the same entity; however, they separated when Fair Trade USA wanted to give large farms the opportunity to be certified as well. Fair Trade USA uses many of the same labor standards as Fair Trade International, while also including certain environmental standards like the prohibition of GMOs and toxic chemicals. This is the body that certified certain Madewell and J.Crew denim styles as Fair Trade, in fact.
Ethical Clothing Australia: ECA is an accreditation body that works with local textile, clothing, and footwear businesses to ensure their Australian supply chains are legally compliant. That means workers are being paid appropriately, receiving all their legal minimum entitlements, and working in safe conditions throughout the entire supply chain.
Business Model Ethics Certifications:
B Corp: B Corp Certification is the only certification that measures a company’s entire social and environmental performance, from supply chain and input materials to employee benefit and more. Each company gets a B Impact score, indicating how much room there is for improvement. B Corp’s long term goal is not just to certify companies, but to usher in a new economy where companies are legally required to balance purpose and profit.
Eco-Age: Eco-Age is a consultancy that awards their brandmark to brands that have been validated by Eco-Age and meet the Eco-Age Principles for Sustainable Excellence. These principles include a wide range of areas, including fair work, community, diversity and inclusion, environmental management, leadership, animal welfare, and more.
Member Networks:
Ethical Trading Initiative: ETI is a network. In order to be a member, companies must adhere to ETI’s Base Code, which ensures that works have freely chosen their employment, are being paid fairly, are working in safe conditions, and more. Companies are required to submit annual reports to prove compliance. ETI also works to play a key role in lobbying governments to set and enforce fair labor laws.
Canopy: Canopy is an international nonprofit organization that works with over 750 companies to protect ancient and endangered forests. When it comes to clothing, modal, which is a rayon/viscose fabric, is often used as a ‘sustainable’ alternative to synthetics and more resource-intense natural fibers like cotton. However, Canopy states that using these materials is leading to deforestation, so it’s important to make sure the ‘eco-friendly’ fabrics in your clothing are actually being sourced sustainably.
Higgs Index: Developed by the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC), the Higg Index is a suite of tools that enables brands, retailers, and facilities of all sizes — at every stage in their sustainability journey — to accurately measure and score a company or product’s sustainability performance. The Higg Index delivers a holistic overview that empowers businesses to make meaningful improvements that protect the well-being of factory workers, local communities, and the environment.
Fair Trade Federation: Fair Trade Federation is also a network. In order for a company to be a member, they must meet strict ethical standards—like safe working conditions, living wages, and environmental stewardship—the way they would be a certification. Fair Trade Federation membership is based on self-reporting and is not audited by a third party.
Fair Labor Association: When companies or suppliers sign on to become FLA compliant, they begin a two or three year implementation process during which they work toward bringing their supply chains into compliance with the FLA Workplace Code of Conduct, which ensures safety and health for workers. At the end of the implementation period, FLA evaluates whether the company can be considered for accreditation.
Fair Wear Foundation: The Fair Wear Foundation is a membership that’s focused specifically on labor standards in the garment industry. The non-profit organization works with garment brands, factories, trade unions, NGOs, and governments to improve working conditions for garment workers to audit and educate based on a set of standards that ensure worker welfare.
1% For the Planet: 1% For the Planet is a network that includes companies of any shape or size from any industry who are committed to giving back 1% of their gross sales to help the planet. 1% For the Planet provides advice and helps pair organizations with trusted nonprofits and certifies all donations annually to ensure compliance.
Good on You: Good On You is a rating system. It helps you identify which fashion brands are the “least” and “most” ethical and sustainable based on things like transparency, fair working conditions, environmental production practices, and animal welfare. Each brand gets a rating from worst (“We Avoid”) to best (“Great”). In order for brands to display the “Good On You Rated” label, they must achieve a “Good” or “Great.”
Suggestions
Total Consumption: Reduce your total consumption, if this means spending more money on clothes that will last longer and look better, great. But the big takeaway is to buy less. If you still need that extra thrill of the purchase, thrift as much as you can. A reused item saves a garment from heading to the dump and fills the place of a potential virgin item. If a garment has hit the end of its life, there are a number of things you can do and it all depends on why you are getting rid of the clothes. Is it a high fashion piece you’re sick of? Great, sell it on grailed, ebay, or give it to a friend. Is it a garment that wouldn’t have resale value but still has life left? Donate it to your local Goodwill, Salvation Army, or favorite thrift shop. Is it just too far gone to pass on? Sounds like it’s ready to be recycled or turned into the perfect cleaning rag! Recycled rags are a great way to cut down on single use cleaning materials like Swifers, paper towels, or synthetic sponges.
Materials: This is a complicated beast that will take some research to understand each individual producer. Looking for some of the certifications we talk about earlier will help, but there are some key hints that can help you. Organic natural materials are a huge step forward as far as reducing pesticides, so always try to go that route over standard industrial cotton. Right now only 1% of cotton is organic so you will have to pay a premium but it will help move the dial in the right direction. Wool, hemp, and linen are great alternatives. They are more water efficient (hemp is the most water efficient, then linen) and require fewer pesticides. Polyester is it’s own confounding issue. I love sport wear, so when it comes to polyester I understand buying it for it’s sweat wicking and quick drying properties. I think the key here is to buy quality that will last a long time. If you are looking at more expensive options, look at how many years they are likely to last. At companies like Patagonia you can call customer service and ask how many sessions they anticipate a jacket will last. If they say 1-2 years, do not buy it. For non-waterproof gear, again just go for quality that will last and learn how to repair your clothes.
Real Cost: Lastly, remember to think about the true cost of an item. I know a lot of us don’t have much money, but a $5.00 three pack of plain cotton or polyester tees from Walmart has a much larger ecological and social cost to them. It’s important to take these things into consideration when making purchases and think about alternatives when you can. Plus, who doesn’t love a little patina on their gym or hiking tees. It’ll make it look like you’ve been doing it longer ;) I am aware how much easier this is for wealthy consumers, but there are options for everyone!
Brands: To be honest, researching this was incredibly difficult. There are many brands that are positioning themselves as sustainable or eco-conscious, however most take on one component of the overall problem or a small initiative at a huge corporation. It makes me reticent to give out any green lights on who to buy as it likely won’t be a cover all for the brand's products. My suggestion, do your research and buy products you really like that will last a long time and buy less.
TLDR: There are tons of negative impacts from fashion, particularly fast fashion, and while I don’t want to demonize the whole industry I think it’s important to understand where your clothes come from, where/how they are produced, and know the practices of the companies you’re supporting with your purchases. As the old adage goes: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle IN THAT ORDER! Take time and go watch the Lorax
submitted by Robo_Ross to malefashionadvice [link] [comments]


2020.06.22 11:09 spummydue [SUMMARY] United States Military Sales 2031, Give Me Even More Money Right Now

United States Department of Defense,
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Commonwealth of Virginia
 
Foreign Military Sales Catalogue
 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) is the United States Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, training, and equipment to our international partners and international organizations. The FMS program is funded by administrative charges to foreign purchasers and is operated at no cost to American taxpayers. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the organization responsibility for the administration of the FMS program, acts as an agent for procurement mostly for American defense and aerospace companies. Current fees / administrative charges equal the sum of $15,000 USD and 3.8 percent of the purchased item(s).
Under FMS, the United States government uses the Department of Defense’s acquisition system to procure defense articles and services on behalf of its partners. Eligible countries may purchase defense articles and services with their own funds or with funds provided through United States government-sponsored assistance programs.
This year theres some new stuff
Note that equipment listed here is not exhaustive and additional products are available, a large amount of US surplus is also available to buy.
 
New Stuff
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A3 4th Gen MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Very chad tank $13,450,000 USD
F-15X Shadow Eagle 4.5++ Gen Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri Closest to an F-22 ill sell $55,000,000 USD
BGM-225 "Vortex" Hypersonic cruise missile Raytheon Hypersonic Tomahawk replacement $2,200,000 USD
AIM-220A ARHAAM Hypersonic air-to-air missile Raytheon Shoots down 5th gens all day son $1,860,000 USD
AB-1A Cherokee New gen attack helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $63,000,000 USD
UB-1A Gray Hawk New gen transport helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $33,000,000 USD
THAAD-ER Anti-ballistic missile system Lockheed Martin THAAD with more range $1,600,000,000 USD
Griffin III Infantry Fighting Vehicle General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan IFVC with some fancy bits $4,500,000 USD
M5 Contender Light Tank BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington Advanced Light Tank $5,500,000 USD
 
Armoured Vehicles
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A1 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $3,000,000.00 USD
M1A2 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $7,000,000.00 USD
IAV Stryker Wheeled AFV General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Different variants available $4,000,000.00 USD
M113 APC FMC Corporation, Philly $1,000,000.00 USD
M2 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $2,000,000.00 USD
M3 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $3,000,000.00 USD
 
MISSILES
 
Equipment Type Unit Cost ($) Notes
AIM-7M Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile 125,000
AIM-9X Sidewinder Short-range air-to-air missile 200,000 Infrared homing
AIM-120C AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 400,000
AIM-120D AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 1.8 million Limited exports
AGM-65H/K Maverick Air-to-surface missile 50,000
AGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
AGM-88D HARM Anti-radiation missile 284,000
AGM-88E HARM Anti-radiation missile 870,000 Upgrade of AGM-88D with passive radar and mm wave seeker to counter radar shutdown
AGM-114R Hellfire Romeo Air-to-surface missile 100,000
AGM-158A JASSM Air-launched cruise missile 850,000
AGM-158B/C JASSM-ELRASM Air-launched cruise missile/anti-ship missile 1.4 million
AGM-182 Air-to-surface missile 100,000
BGM-71F TOW AT missile 50,000
RGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise missile 1.9 million
FGM-148F Javelin Man-portable AT missile 250,000
FIM-92G Stinger MANPAD 38,000
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Medium-range SAM 1 million
RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 SAM/ASM/BMD 4 million
RUM-139 VL-ASROC Standoff Anti-Submarine Weapon 1.7 million
 
Air Defence Systems
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger Short-range SAM Boeing Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $31,000,000.00 USD
MIM-104 Patriot Long-range SAM/ABM Raytheon PAC-3 MSE Variant, Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,000,000,000.00 USD
MEADS Medium SAM ~ Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,200,000,000.00 USD
THAAD Anti-ballistic Missile System Lockheed-Martin Price per battery, each battery contains 6 batteries $1,500,000,000.00 USD
 
Fighter Aircraft
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
F-35A Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $75,000,000.00 USD
F-35B Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $101,000,000.00 USD
F-35C Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $89,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $79,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18F/E Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $70,500,000.00 USD
F/A-18A/B Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $27,400,000.00 USD
F/A-18C/D Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $29,700,000.00 USD
F-16A/B 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $22,740,000.00 USD
F-16C/D 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $29,200,000.00 USD
F-16E/F 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $38,800,000.00 USD
F-16V 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $48,000,000.00 USD
F-15C/D 4th Generation Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $42,000,000.00 USD
F-15E Strike Eagle 4th Generation Strike Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $45,000,000.00 USD
 
Any additional requests can be handled as they come in. There may be many vehicles not listed, but which are still available to purchase. Any small arms or equipment purchases are to be routed through here as well. NOTE: ALL PRICES ARE NOT FINAL AND ONLY INCLUDE THE BASE EQUIPMENT, PRICES MAY RISE IN THE FINAL BILL TO ACCOUNT FOR KIT AND LOGISTICS
[M] Credit to me and shah for the groundwork
submitted by spummydue to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2020.06.17 09:39 spummydue [SUMMARY] United States Arms Sales 2030, We've Sold 10x More Than Russia And China Combined

United States Department of Defense,
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Commonwealth of Virginia
 
Foreign Military Sales Catalogue
 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) is the United States Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, training, and equipment to our international partners and international organizations. The FMS program is funded by administrative charges to foreign purchasers and is operated at no cost to American taxpayers. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the organization responsibility for the administration of the FMS program, acts as an agent for procurement mostly for American defense and aerospace companies. Current fees / administrative charges equal the sum of $15,000 USD and 3.8 percent of the purchased item(s).
Under FMS, the United States government uses the Department of Defense’s acquisition system to procure defense articles and services on behalf of its partners. Eligible countries may purchase defense articles and services with their own funds or with funds provided through United States government-sponsored assistance programs.
This year theres some new stuff
Note that equipment listed here is not exhaustive and additional products are available, a large amount of US surplus is also available to buy.
 
New Stuff
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A3 4th Gen MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Very chad tank $13,450,000 USD
F-15X Shadow Eagle 4.5++ Gen Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri Closest to an F-22 ill sell $55,000,000 USD
BGM-225 "Vortex" Hypersonic cruise missile Raytheon Hypersonic Tomahawk replacement $2,200,000 USD
AIM-220A ARHAAM Hypersonic air-to-air missile Raytheon Shoots down 5th gens all day son $1,860,000 USD
AB-1A Cherokee New gen attack helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $63,000,000 USD
UB-1A Gray Hawk New gen transport helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $33,000,000 USD
THAAD-ER Anti-ballistic missile system Lockheed Martin THAAD with more range $1,600,000,000 USD
Griffin III Infantry Fighting Vehicle General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan IFVC with some fancy bits $4,500,000 USD
M5 Contender Light Tank BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington Advanced Light Tank $5,500,000 USD
 
Armoured Vehicles
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A1 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $3,000,000.00 USD
M1A2 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $7,000,000.00 USD
IAV Stryker Wheeled AFV General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Different variants available $4,000,000.00 USD
M113 APC FMC Corporation, Philly $1,000,000.00 USD
M2 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $2,000,000.00 USD
M3 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $3,000,000.00 USD
 
MISSILES
 
Equipment Type Unit Cost ($) Notes
AIM-7M Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile 125,000
AIM-9X Sidewinder Short-range air-to-air missile 200,000 Infrared homing
AIM-120C AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 400,000
AIM-120D AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 1.8 million Limited exports
AGM-65H/K Maverick Air-to-surface missile 50,000
AGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
AGM-88D HARM Anti-radiation missile 284,000
AGM-88E HARM Anti-radiation missile 870,000 Upgrade of AGM-88D with passive radar and mm wave seeker to counter radar shutdown
AGM-114R Hellfire Romeo Air-to-surface missile 100,000
AGM-158A JASSM Air-launched cruise missile 850,000
AGM-158B/C JASSM-ELRASM Air-launched cruise missile/anti-ship missile 1.4 million
AGM-182 Air-to-surface missile 100,000
BGM-71F TOW AT missile 50,000
RGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise missile 1.9 million
FGM-148F Javelin Man-portable AT missile 250,000
FIM-92G Stinger MANPAD 38,000
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Medium-range SAM 1 million
RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 SAM/ASM/BMD 4 million
RUM-139 VL-ASROC Standoff Anti-Submarine Weapon 1.7 million
 
Air Defence Systems
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger Short-range SAM Boeing Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $31,000,000.00 USD
MIM-104 Patriot Long-range SAM/ABM Raytheon PAC-3 MSE Variant, Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,000,000,000.00 USD
MEADS Medium SAM ~ Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,200,000,000.00 USD
THAAD Anti-ballistic Missile System Lockheed-Martin Price per battery, each battery contains 6 batteries $1,500,000,000.00 USD
 
Fighter Aircraft
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
F-35A Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $75,000,000.00 USD
F-35B Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $101,000,000.00 USD
F-35C Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $89,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $79,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18F/E Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $70,500,000.00 USD
F/A-18A/B Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $27,400,000.00 USD
F/A-18C/D Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $29,700,000.00 USD
F-16A/B 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $22,740,000.00 USD
F-16C/D 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $29,200,000.00 USD
F-16E/F 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $38,800,000.00 USD
F-16V 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $48,000,000.00 USD
F-15C/D 4th Generation Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $42,000,000.00 USD
F-15E Strike Eagle 4th Generation Strike Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $45,000,000.00 USD
 
Any additional requests can be handled as they come in. There may be many vehicles not listed, but which are still available to purchase. Any small arms or equipment purchases are to be routed through here as well. NOTE: ALL PRICES ARE NOT FINAL AND ONLY INCLUDE THE BASE EQUIPMENT, PRICES MAY RISE IN THE FINAL BILL TO ACCOUNT FOR KIT AND LOGISTICS
[M] Credit to me and shah for the groundwork
submitted by spummydue to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2020.06.08 16:30 spummydue [SUMMARY] United States Arms Sales 2029: Prepare For The Apocalypse In Style And Quality

United States Department of Defense,
The Pentagon, Arlington County, Commonwealth of Virginia
 
Foreign Military Sales Catalogue
 
Foreign Military Sales (FMS) is the United States Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, training, and equipment to our international partners and international organizations. The FMS program is funded by administrative charges to foreign purchasers and is operated at no cost to American taxpayers. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA), the organization responsibility for the administration of the FMS program, acts as an agent for procurement mostly for American defense and aerospace companies. Current fees / administrative charges equal the sum of $15,000 USD and 3.8 percent of the purchased item(s).
Under FMS, the United States government uses the Department of Defense’s acquisition system to procure defense articles and services on behalf of its partners. Eligible countries may purchase defense articles and services with their own funds or with funds provided through United States government-sponsored assistance programs.
This year theres some new stuff
Note that equipment listed here is not exhaustive and additional products are available, a large amount of US surplus is also available to buy.
 
New Stuff
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A3 4th Gen MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Very chad tank $13,450,000 USD
F-15X Shadow Eagle 4.5++ Gen Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri Closest to an F-22 ill sell $55,000,000 USD
BGM-225 "Vortex" Hypersonic cruise missile Raytheon Hypersonic Tomahawk replacement $2,200,000 USD
AIM-220A ARHAAM Hypersonic air-to-air missile Raytheon Shoots down 5th gens all day son $1,860,000 USD
AB-1A Cherokee New gen attack helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $63,000,000 USD
UB-1A Gray Hawk New gen transport helo Sikorsky/Boeing and Bell Helicopter Stealth whirly boi $33,000,000 USD
THAAD-ER Anti-ballistic missile system Lockheed Martin THAAD with more range $1,600,000,000 USD
Griffin III Infantry Fighting Vehicle General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan IFVC with some fancy bits $4,500,000 USD
M5 Contender Light Tank BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington Advanced Light Tank $5,500,000 USD
 
Armoured Vehicles
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
M1A1 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $3,000,000.00 USD
M1A2 Abrams MBT General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan $7,000,000.00 USD
IAV Stryker Wheeled AFV General Dynamics Land Systems, Michigan Different variants available $4,000,000.00 USD
M113 APC FMC Corporation, Philly $1,000,000.00 USD
M2 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $2,000,000.00 USD
M3 Bradley IFV BAE Systems Land & Armaments, Arlington $3,000,000.00 USD
 
MISSILES
 
Equipment Type Unit Cost ($) Notes
AIM-7M Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile 125,000
AIM-9X Sidewinder Short-range air-to-air missile 200,000 Infrared homing
AIM-120C AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 400,000
AIM-120D AMRAAM Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air missile 1.8 million Limited exports
AGM-65H/K Maverick Air-to-surface missile 50,000
AGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
AGM-88D HARM Anti-radiation missile 284,000
AGM-88E HARM Anti-radiation missile 870,000 Upgrade of AGM-88D with passive radar and mm wave seeker to counter radar shutdown
AGM-114R Hellfire Romeo Air-to-surface missile 100,000
AGM-158A JASSM Air-launched cruise missile 850,000
AGM-158B/C JASSM-ELRASM Air-launched cruise missile/anti-ship missile 1.4 million
AGM-182 Air-to-surface missile 100,000
BGM-71F TOW AT missile 50,000
RGM-84 Harpoon Block II Anti-ship missile 1.2 million
BGM-109 Tomahawk Cruise missile 1.9 million
FGM-148F Javelin Man-portable AT missile 250,000
FIM-92G Stinger MANPAD 38,000
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Medium-range SAM 1 million
RIM-174 Standard Missile 6 SAM/ASM/BMD 4 million
RUM-139 VL-ASROC Standoff Anti-Submarine Weapon 1.7 million
 
Air Defence Systems
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
AN/TWQ-1 Avenger Short-range SAM Boeing Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $31,000,000.00 USD
MIM-104 Patriot Long-range SAM/ABM Raytheon PAC-3 MSE Variant, Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,000,000,000.00 USD
MEADS Medium SAM ~ Price per battery, each battery contains 6 fire units $1,200,000,000.00 USD
THAAD Anti-ballistic Missile System Lockheed-Martin Price per battery, each battery contains 6 batteries $1,500,000,000.00 USD
 
Fighter Aircraft
 
Model Roles Origin Notes Cost
F-35A Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $75,000,000.00 USD
F-35B Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $101,000,000.00 USD
F-35C Lightning II 5th Generation Stealth Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $89,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18E/F Advanced Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $79,000,000.00 USD
F/A-18F/E Super Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $70,500,000.00 USD
F/A-18A/B Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $27,400,000.00 USD
F/A-18C/D Hornet 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $29,700,000.00 USD
F-16A/B 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $22,740,000.00 USD
F-16C/D 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $29,200,000.00 USD
F-16E/F 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $38,800,000.00 USD
F-16V 4th Generation Multirole Fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company, Fort Worth, Texas ~ $48,000,000.00 USD
F-15C/D 4th Generation Air Superiority Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $42,000,000.00 USD
F-15E Strike Eagle 4th Generation Strike Fighter Boeing Defense, Berkeley, Missouri ~ $45,000,000.00 USD
 
Any additional requests can be handled as they come in. There may be many vehicles not listed, but which are still available to purchase. Any small arms or equipment purchases are to be routed through here as well. NOTE: ALL PRICES ARE NOT FINAL AND ONLY INCLUDE THE BASE EQUIPMENT, PRICES MAY RISE IN THE FINAL BILL TO ACCOUNT FOR KIT AND LOGISTICS
[M] Credit to me and shah for the groundwork
submitted by spummydue to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2020.06.08 04:10 MrJawelsh [OFFER] LIST of Engineering/Business/etc. Textbooks, Solutions Manuals, and Test Banks

Below is a list of some textbooks that I have access to PDF textbooks, solutions manuals, and test banks. Comment below or PM me to ask about any specific book (on this list or not) to find instructor resources for you.

~ ~ The list:
College Physics
Second Edition ©2018
Roger A. Freedman; Todd Ruskell; Philip R. Kesten; David L. Tauck
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Physical Models of Living Systems
©2015
Philip Nelson
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Extended Version, 2020 Media Update
Sixth Edition ©2020
Paul A. Tipler; Gene Mosca
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Thermal Physics
Second Edition ©1980
Charles Kittel, University of California; Herbert Kroemer, University of California
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Molecular Cell Biology
Eighth Edition ©2016
Harvey Lodish; Arnold Berk; Chris A. Kaiser; Monty Krieger; Anthony Bretscher; Hidde Ploegh; Angelika Amon; Kelsey C. Martin
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Molecular Biology Principles and Practice
Second Edition ©2015
Michael M. Cox; Jennifer Doudna; Michael O'Donnell
Textbook, Test Bank
--
Introduction to Genetic Analysis
Twelfth Edition ©2020
Anthony Griffiths; John Doebley; Catherine Peichel; David A. Wassarman
Test Bank
--
Kuby Immunology
Eighth Edition ©2019
Jenni Punt; Sharon Stranford; Patricia Jones; Judy Owen
Textbook, Test Bank
--
Chemical Principles, The Quest for Insight
Seventh Edition ©2016
Peter Atkins; Loretta Jones; Leroy Laverman
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry
Sixth Edition ©2014
Geoff Rayner-Canham; Tina Overton
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
21st Century Chemistry
©2015
Kimberley Waldron
Textbook, Test Bank
--
21st Century Chemistry
Second Edition ©2019
Kimberley Waldron
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Organic Chemistry, Structure and Function
Eighth Edition ©2018
Peter Vollhardt; Neil Schore
Textbook, Test Bank
--
Filmmaking in Action
©2016
Adam Leipzig; Barry S. Weiss; with Michael Goldman
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
News Reporting and Writing
Thirteenth Edition ©2020
The Missouri Group
Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Media Essentials
Fifth Edition ©2020
Richard Campbell; Christopher Martin; Bettina Fabos; Shawn Harmsen
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Practice of Statistics for Business and Economics
Fifth Edition ©2020
Layth C. Alwan; Bruce A. Craig; George P. McCabe
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Economics of Education
©2018
Michael Lovenheim; Sarah Turner
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Macroeconomics
Tenth Edition ©2019
N. Gregory Mankiw
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomics
Second Edition ©2016
Austan Goolsbee, Steven Levitt, Chad Syverson
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Money, Banking and Financial Markets
Second Edition ©2012
Laurence Ball
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Microeconomics: Principles for a Changing World
Fifth Edition ©2020
Eric Chiang
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Principles of Microeconomics
©2020
Betsey Stevenson; Justin Wolfers
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomic Principles, A Business Perspective
©2019
Stephen Rubb, Scott Sumner
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomics in Modules
Fourth Edition ©2019
Paul Krugman; Robin Wells
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Modern Principles: Microeconomics
Fourth Edition ©2018
Tyler Cowen; Alex Tabarrok
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomics
Fifth Edition ©2018
Paul Krugman; Robin Wells
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Principles of Macroeconomics
©2020
Betsey Stevenson; Justin Wolfers
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Macroeconomics: Principles for a Changing World
Fifth Edition ©2020
Eric Chiang
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Macroeconomics in Modules
Fourth Edition ©2019
Paul Krugman; Robin Wells
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomic Principles, A Business Perspective
©2019
Stephen Rubb, Scott Sumner
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Public Finance and Public Policy
Fifth Edition ©2016New Edition Available
Jonathan Gruber
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Calculus: Early Transcendentals
Fourth Edition ©2019
Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Calculus
Early Transcendentals
Second Edition ©2019
Michael Sullivan, Kathleen Miranda
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Vector Calculus
Sixth Edition ©2013
Jerrold E. Marsden; Anthony Tromba
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Linear Algebra with Applications
Second Edition ©2017
Jeffrey Holt
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Introduction to Applied Partial Differential Equations
©2013
John M. Davis
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Introduction to Probability
©2016
Mark Ward; Ellen Gundlach
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
STAT2, Modeling with Regression and ANOVA
Second Edition ©2019
Ann Cannon; George W. Cobb; Bradley A. Hartlaub; Julie M. Legler; Robin H. Lock; Thomas L. Moore; Allan J. Rossman; Jeffrey A. Witmer
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning
©2006
Christopher Bishop
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Understanding Analysis
©2015
Stephen Abbott
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Neural Networks and Deep Learning
©2018
Aggarwal, Charu C.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Numerical Optimization
©2006
Nocedal, Jorge, Wright, S.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
A Modern Introduction to Probability and Statistics
©2005
Dekking, F.M., Kraaikamp, C., Lopuhaä, H.P., Meester, L.E.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Advanced Organic Chemistry
©2006
Carey, Francis A., Sundberg, Richard J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Time Series Analysis and Its Applications
©2017
Shumway, Robert H., Stoffer, David S..
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Stochastic Calculus for Finance I
©2004
Shreve, Steven
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Advanced Organic Chemistry
©2007
Carey, Francis A., Sundberg, Richard J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Modern Mathematical Statistics with Applications
©2012
Devore, Jay L., Berk, Kenneth N.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Quantum Physics, An Introduction Based on Photons
©2018
Lvovsky, Alexander
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Applied Linear Algebra
©2018
Olver, Peter J., Shakiban, Chehrzad
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Understanding Analysis
©2015
Abbott, Stephen
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography
©2014
Hoffstein, Jeffrey, Pipher, Jill, Silverman, Joseph H.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Introduction to Partial Differential Equations
©2014
Olver, Peter J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Advanced Calculus, A Geometric View
©2010
Callahan, James J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Numerical Optimization
©2006
Nocedal, Jorge, Wright, S.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
A Modern Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Understanding Why and How
©2005
Dekking, F.M., Kraaikamp, C., Lopuhaä, H.P., Meester, L.E.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Stochastic Calculus for Finance I, The Binomial Asset Pricing Model
©2004
Shreve, Steven
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Structural Dynamics, Theory and Computation
©2019
Paz, Mario, Kim, Young Hoon
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Concrete Structures
©2017
Setareh, Mehdi, Darvas, Robert
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Electronic Properties of Materials
©2011
Hummel, Rolf E.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science
©2017
Was, Gary S.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
An Introduction to Biomechanics, Solids and Fluids, Analysis and Design
©2015
Humphrey, Jay D., O’Rourke, Sherry L.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
International Business Management, Succeeding in a Culturally Diverse World
©2019
Fatehi, Kamal, Choi, Jeongho
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Biotransport: Principles and Applications
©2011
Roselli, Robert J., Diller, Kenneth R.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
submitted by MrJawelsh to textbook_piracy [link] [comments]


2020.06.08 00:08 MrJawelsh [OFFER] LIST of Engineering/Business/etc. Textbooks, Solutions Manuals, and Test Banks

Below is a list of some textbooks that I have access to PDF textbooks, solutions manuals, and test banks. Comment below or PM me to ask about any specific book (on this list or not) to find instructor resources for you.

~ ~ The list:
College Physics
Second Edition ©2018
Roger A. Freedman; Todd Ruskell; Philip R. Kesten; David L. Tauck
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Physical Models of Living Systems
©2015
Philip Nelson
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Extended Version, 2020 Media Update
Sixth Edition ©2020
Paul A. Tipler; Gene Mosca
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Thermal Physics
Second Edition ©1980
Charles Kittel, University of California; Herbert Kroemer, University of California
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Molecular Cell Biology
Eighth Edition ©2016
Harvey Lodish; Arnold Berk; Chris A. Kaiser; Monty Krieger; Anthony Bretscher; Hidde Ploegh; Angelika Amon; Kelsey C. Martin
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Molecular Biology Principles and Practice
Second Edition ©2015
Michael M. Cox; Jennifer Doudna; Michael O'Donnell
Textbook, Test Bank
--
Introduction to Genetic Analysis
Twelfth Edition ©2020
Anthony Griffiths; John Doebley; Catherine Peichel; David A. Wassarman
Test Bank
--
Kuby Immunology
Eighth Edition ©2019
Jenni Punt; Sharon Stranford; Patricia Jones; Judy Owen
Textbook, Test Bank
--
Chemical Principles, The Quest for Insight
Seventh Edition ©2016
Peter Atkins; Loretta Jones; Leroy Laverman
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry
Sixth Edition ©2014
Geoff Rayner-Canham; Tina Overton
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
21st Century Chemistry
©2015
Kimberley Waldron
Textbook, Test Bank
--
21st Century Chemistry
Second Edition ©2019
Kimberley Waldron
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Organic Chemistry, Structure and Function
Eighth Edition ©2018
Peter Vollhardt; Neil Schore
Textbook, Test Bank
--
Filmmaking in Action
©2016
Adam Leipzig; Barry S. Weiss; with Michael Goldman
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
News Reporting and Writing
Thirteenth Edition ©2020
The Missouri Group
Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Media Essentials
Fifth Edition ©2020
Richard Campbell; Christopher Martin; Bettina Fabos; Shawn Harmsen
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Practice of Statistics for Business and Economics
Fifth Edition ©2020
Layth C. Alwan; Bruce A. Craig; George P. McCabe
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Economics of Education
©2018
Michael Lovenheim; Sarah Turner
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Macroeconomics
Tenth Edition ©2019
N. Gregory Mankiw
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomics
Second Edition ©2016
Austan Goolsbee, Steven Levitt, Chad Syverson
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Money, Banking and Financial Markets
Second Edition ©2012
Laurence Ball
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Microeconomics: Principles for a Changing World
Fifth Edition ©2020
Eric Chiang
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Principles of Microeconomics
©2020
Betsey Stevenson; Justin Wolfers
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomic Principles, A Business Perspective
©2019
Stephen Rubb, Scott Sumner
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomics in Modules
Fourth Edition ©2019
Paul Krugman; Robin Wells
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Modern Principles: Microeconomics
Fourth Edition ©2018
Tyler Cowen; Alex Tabarrok
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomics
Fifth Edition ©2018
Paul Krugman; Robin Wells
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Principles of Macroeconomics
©2020
Betsey Stevenson; Justin Wolfers
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Macroeconomics: Principles for a Changing World
Fifth Edition ©2020
Eric Chiang
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Macroeconomics in Modules
Fourth Edition ©2019
Paul Krugman; Robin Wells
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Microeconomic Principles, A Business Perspective
©2019
Stephen Rubb, Scott Sumner
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Public Finance and Public Policy
Fifth Edition ©2016New Edition Available
Jonathan Gruber
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Calculus: Early Transcendentals
Fourth Edition ©2019
Jon Rogawski; Colin Adams; Robert Franzosa
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Calculus
Early Transcendentals
Second Edition ©2019
Michael Sullivan, Kathleen Miranda
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Vector Calculus
Sixth Edition ©2013
Jerrold E. Marsden; Anthony Tromba
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Linear Algebra with Applications
Second Edition ©2017
Jeffrey Holt
Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Introduction to Applied Partial Differential Equations
©2013
John M. Davis
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Introduction to Probability
©2016
Mark Ward; Ellen Gundlach
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
STAT2, Modeling with Regression and ANOVA
Second Edition ©2019
Ann Cannon; George W. Cobb; Bradley A. Hartlaub; Julie M. Legler; Robin H. Lock; Thomas L. Moore; Allan J. Rossman; Jeffrey A. Witmer
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning
©2006
Christopher Bishop
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Understanding Analysis
©2015
Stephen Abbott
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Neural Networks and Deep Learning
©2018
Aggarwal, Charu C.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Numerical Optimization
©2006
Nocedal, Jorge, Wright, S.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
A Modern Introduction to Probability and Statistics
©2005
Dekking, F.M., Kraaikamp, C., Lopuhaä, H.P., Meester, L.E.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Advanced Organic Chemistry
©2006
Carey, Francis A., Sundberg, Richard J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Time Series Analysis and Its Applications
©2017
Shumway, Robert H., Stoffer, David S..
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Stochastic Calculus for Finance I
©2004
Shreve, Steven
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Advanced Organic Chemistry
©2007
Carey, Francis A., Sundberg, Richard J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Modern Mathematical Statistics with Applications
©2012
Devore, Jay L., Berk, Kenneth N.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Quantum Physics, An Introduction Based on Photons
©2018
Lvovsky, Alexander
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Applied Linear Algebra
©2018
Olver, Peter J., Shakiban, Chehrzad
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Understanding Analysis
©2015
Abbott, Stephen
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography
©2014
Hoffstein, Jeffrey, Pipher, Jill, Silverman, Joseph H.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Introduction to Partial Differential Equations
©2014
Olver, Peter J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Advanced Calculus, A Geometric View
©2010
Callahan, James J.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Numerical Optimization
©2006
Nocedal, Jorge, Wright, S.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
A Modern Introduction to Probability and Statistics, Understanding Why and How
©2005
Dekking, F.M., Kraaikamp, C., Lopuhaä, H.P., Meester, L.E.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Stochastic Calculus for Finance I, The Binomial Asset Pricing Model
©2004
Shreve, Steven
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Structural Dynamics, Theory and Computation
©2019
Paz, Mario, Kim, Young Hoon
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Concrete Structures
©2017
Setareh, Mehdi, Darvas, Robert
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Electronic Properties of Materials
©2011
Hummel, Rolf E.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
Fundamentals of Radiation Materials Science
©2017
Was, Gary S.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
An Introduction to Biomechanics, Solids and Fluids, Analysis and Design
©2015
Humphrey, Jay D., O’Rourke, Sherry L.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
--
International Business Management, Succeeding in a Culturally Diverse World
©2019
Fatehi, Kamal, Choi, Jeongho
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual, Test Bank
--
Biotransport: Principles and Applications
©2011
Roselli, Robert J., Diller, Kenneth R.
Textbook, Instructor Solutions Manual
submitted by MrJawelsh to textbookrequest [link] [comments]


2020.06.06 04:18 finnagains Hong Kong: No to Counterrevolutionary Rampage! Expropriate the Capitalist Tycoons! Defend China! Imperialists Hands Off! - September 2019

SEPTEMBER 2—For three months, anti-Communist mobs have rampaged through Hong Kong. They have blocked roads and stopped public transport, beaten opponents and Chinese mainlanders and bombarded police with bricks and Molotov cocktails. Protesters have raised mass-distributed placards with the appeal, “President Trump: Please Liberate Hong Kong” while singing the U.S. national anthem and waving American flags. Anti-China demonstrators have vandalized the Legislative Council building and raised the British flag, demanding the return of Hong Kong’s former colonial master. Aiming to end China’s control over its capitalist Hong Kong enclave, protesters are openly calling for imperialist intervention.
The U.S. State Department has repeatedly declared its support to the counterrevolutionary protests, as have the British and Canadian foreign offices. Democratic Congressional leader Nancy Pelosi joined with an array of Republicans in demanding U.S. intervention and pushing punitive legislation against Beijing. The U.S. rulers have funded, advised and helped organize the protesters as part of their strategic goal of overturning the 1949 Revolution and returning China to capitalist enslavement, with themselves as the chief robber barons.
China is not a capitalist country but a workers state. However, the workers state has been deformed from its inception by the rule of a parasitic bureaucratic caste that politically suppresses the working class. Since taking power through peasant-based guerrilla war, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has followed the Stalinist dogma of “socialism in one country” and its corollary, “peaceful coexistence” with imperialism. The CCP regime from Mao Zedong’s time to today has opposed the revolutionary internationalist program of Marxism. But despite bureaucratic mismanagement and corruption, the overthrow of capitalism led to historic social advances. While four decades of “market reforms” have led to large-scale foreign investment and the emergence of individual capitalists on the mainland, the economy remains controlled by Beijing, with the most important sectors collectivized and owned by the state.
Today in Hong Kong, we have a military side with the forces of the Chinese deformed workers state, including the police, against the anti-Communist mobilizations. This position stems from our unconditional military defense of China against imperialism and domestic counterrevolution. Such defense does not imply the least political support to the Beijing bureaucracy, whose backing of capitalism in Hong Kong under its “one country, two systems” rubric bears no small responsibility for the current crisis. As Trotskyists who seek to make the working class conscious of its historic task to bring about a socialist future, our perspective is the mobilization of the working people of Hong Kong and mainland China to stop the counterrevolutionary forces.
In 1997, the International Communist League (Fourth Internationalist) joined in cheering as the British imperialists relinquished their Hong Kong colony. At the same time, we warned that the CCP’s pledge to maintain capitalism there was a dagger aimed at the Chinese workers state (see “British Colonialist Rulers Leave, Finally—Beijing Stalinists Embrace Hong Kong Financiers”, Workers Vanguard No. 671, 11 July 1997). In 1984, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping explicitly promised British prime minister Margaret Thatcher that the “previous capitalist system and life-style” would remain unchanged.
Since 1997, Hong Kong has been integrated into the People’s Republic of China as a capitalist Special Administrative Region, where every decisive aspect of the government is under Beijing’s control. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA), garrisoned in the enclave, guarantees that. Hong Kong’s Basic Law was established by China’s National People’s Congress, and the territory’s principal executive officers are appointed by the central government in Beijing. The members of its highest court are in turn appointed by the Beijing-approved chief executive. The CCP has made itself directly responsible for maintaining capitalism in Hong Kong, where the capitalist class is politically organized, with its own parties, newspapers and other media. Beijing’s policy has nurtured Hong Kong as a breeding ground for counterrevolution and an outpost for imperialist spying and intrigue. Upholding the interests of the Hong Kong bourgeoisie against those they exploit and oppress is a massive betrayal by the CCP of the working people there and on the mainland itself. We say: Expropriate the tycoons!
The fight against the filthy rich capitalists in Hong Kong is directly linked to the struggle of the proletariat throughout China against the corruption and inequality fostered by the Stalinist bureaucracy, which acts as a transmission belt for the pressures of the capitalist world market onto the workers state. What’s needed is a proletarian political revolution that sweeps away the Stalinist bureaucracy and puts power in the hands of workers, peasants and soldiers councils. Such a regime would be based on a perspective of international proletarian revolution, preparing the groundwork for eliminating scarcity in a world socialist order.
Imperialist Machinations
Who pays the piper calls the tune, as the saying goes. The U.S. government’s National Endowment for Democracy (NED) has poured millions of dollars into organizations behind the protests, from the Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor and the parties of the “pan-democratic” camp to the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions, affiliate of the anti-Communist International Trade Union Confederation. Such organizations are the main components of the Civil Human Rights Front, the chief organizer of the current protests. Joshua Wong, the Western media’s poster boy for anti-China protests, is also tied to the NED.
As journalist Dan Cohen described in a useful Grayzone (17 August) exposé, a key fixture at (and bankroller of) the protests is Hong Kong tycoon Jimmy Lai. Known as the Rupert Murdoch of Asia, Lai built a media empire based on scandalmongering, celebrity gossip, anti-Communism and anti-China bigotry. His press is notorious for waging a chauvinist campaign against “anchor babies” from mainland China, depicting mainlanders as hordes of locusts descending to devour Hong Kong’s resources. In July, Lai traveled to the U.S. for meetings with National Security Advisor John Bolton, Vice President Mike Pence and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, among others, requesting continued U.S. assistance for “resisting” Beijing. He later declared: “We in Hong Kong are fighting for the shared values of the U.S. against China. We are fighting their war in the enemy camp” (CNN, 28 August).
The U.S. and other imperialist powers pursue a multipronged strategy for capitalist counterrevolution in China. One approach is financing and promoting reactionary mobilizations like the Hong Kong protests. Washington also seeks to use its economic might like a battering ram, as in the current tariff war through which the Trump administration, with solid backing from the Democrats, aims to thwart China’s economic and technological development (see “U.S. Imperialists Ramp Up Trade/Tech War”, Workers Vanguard No. 1157, 21 June). At the same time, the U.S. is increasing military pressure on China, conducting regular military exercises near the Chinese coast, flying bombers over the South China Sea and repeatedly sending Navy warships through the Taiwan Strait. These moves are all part of a strategy of military encirclement of China by the U.S. and its allies.
The State Department recently approved Taiwan’s requests to buy $2.2 billion dollars’ [R32 billion] worth of tanks and missiles and $8 billion in advanced fighter jets. From the time of the 1949 Revolution, when the Chinese capitalist regime fled to Taiwan, and the onset of the Korean War the following year, the U.S. has viewed the island as its “unsinkable aircraft carrier”, the front line in a future war. The ICL stands for the revolutionary reunification of Taiwan with China, through social revolution to overthrow capitalism in Taiwan and workers political revolution against the CCP bureaucracy on the mainland.
As revolutionaries in the world’s predominant imperialist power, the Spartacist League/U.S. is dedicated to forging a Leninist vanguard party that can lead the multiracial American working class in the struggle for a workers government that would expropriate the capitalist exploiters. Central to this perspective is winning the most advanced layers of the proletariat to oppose its rulers’ machinations around the world, not least those directed against the Chinese deformed workers state. Workers can’t win new gains without defending those already won!
“One Country, Two Systems”: Danger to the Chinese Revolution
To launch the current wave of anti-China protests, organizers in late spring seized on an extradition bill being debated in Hong Kong’s Legislative Council, claiming that it would undermine the territory’s autonomy. The proposed law would have done no such thing. The measure, which was suspended in June, would have simply established an extradition process—not just between Hong Kong and the rest of China but also between Hong Kong and every country in the world that did not already have such an agreement. By treating mainland China like a foreign country, the law fell entirely within the CCP’s framework of maintaining a distinct capitalist administration in Hong Kong. The ICL has no position on this legislation because we do not seek to advise the Beijing bureaucracy on how best to administer capitalism in Hong Kong, since we oppose it remaining a capitalist enclave.
The Hong Kong demonstrators and their spin doctors in the bourgeois media have raised holy hell about supposed police violence. From the likes of the New York Times, this is sheer hypocrisy. In reality, the Hong Kong police have been highly restrained, focused on containing and dispersing protests rather than stopping them. Compare their conduct with the brutal cop state of siege that descended on Ferguson, Missouri, after protests broke out over the racist police killing of Michael Brown in 2014!
In Hong Kong, the restraint of the police expresses the policy of the CCP bureaucracy. The organizers of the protests are aiming for the overthrow of the Chinese deformed workers state. But Beijing is at pains to respect Hong Kong’s formal autonomy, which is written into its “one country, two systems” pact with the enclave’s capitalists and their imperialist masters. However, rather than appeasing the protesters, the CCP bureaucrats’ concessions have only emboldened them.
The Hong Kong bourgeoisie is not of one mind concerning the protests. While Jimmy Lai and his ilk openly support the mobilizations, Li Ka-shing, the richest man in Hong Kong, as well as several real estate tycoons and some banking interests have recently called for calm. They worry that the chaos around the protests is harming business. More broadly, several bourgeois financial analysts have warned that intervention by the PLA—or by the People’s Armed Police stationed across the border in Shenzhen—to stop the unrest would cause capital flight and other damage to Hong Kong’s economy.
Hong Kong under the tycoons has well earned its reputation as a white-collar sweatshop, where office workers routinely slave away for 12 hours a day with eight hours’ pay. With the CCP’s blessing, a frenzy of land speculation has driven up rents to the extent that working adults are unable to leave their parents’ homes, often sharing tiny rooms with several people. In one of the most expensive cities in the world, full of designer shops and luxury hotels, a fifth of the population falls below the poverty line. “Immigrants” from the mainland constitute some of the most oppressed sectors of the population, while the plight of Hong Kong’s hundreds of thousands of domestic workers, overwhelmingly from the Philippines and Indonesia, shines an especially harsh light on the enclave’s class divide. Meanwhile, venal CCP bureaucrats and their cronies and relations use Hong Kong to park their money or channel it out of China, and also as a venue for shopping sprees.
Hong Kong’s toilers should be a natural ally of the powerful and combative proletariat on the mainland. An authentic communist party in China would mobilize the working class against the counterrevolutionary protests on the basis of the workers’ class interests, championing as well the interests of the oppressed petty bourgeoisie. Expropriating the tycoons and converting their property holdings into low-cost public housing would resonate deeply with the population, as would replacing the luxury shops and restaurants with canteens and cooperatives run by and for working people.
These demands cut against the CCP’s class collaboration with the Hong Kong bourgeoisie, which has been the political basis for the relatively small pro-China counterprotests that have taken place in Hong Kong and internationally. The counterprotests have been designed to be compatible with the interests of the tycoons, whose “patriotism” hinges on their ability to reap profits from their investments on the mainland. The CCP also appeals to patriotism in calling for an end to protests. The Stalinists do not call on the working class to act: As a brittle ruling caste, the Beijing bureaucracy fears that workers’ mobilizations would represent a challenge to its rule.
For the CCP, maintaining capitalism in Hong Kong serves to promote foreign investment on the mainland by reassuring overseas capitalists that it’s safe to do business with China. Hong Kong remains a major hub connecting China with the global capitalist economy. Beijing’s policy toward Hong Kong is in keeping with its opening of whole areas of China to investment by the offshore Chinese bourgeoisie and the imperialist powers, including in the Special Economic Zones.
Any isolated workers state would need to seek foreign investment. Under revolutionary leadership, this would be done under the democratic control of the working class organized in soviets (councils), supported in countries like China by peasants councils. A revolutionary workers and peasants government in China would renegotiate the terms of foreign investment in the interests of working people. The domestic capitalists, on the other hand, would simply be expropriated and their property used in the interests of society as a whole. To defend and extend the gains of the 1949 Revolution, such a regime would strengthen central economic planning and re-establish a state monopoly of foreign trade.
Which Class Will Rule?
In Hong Kong, one of the most ardent champions of “democratic” counterrevolution is Socialist Action (SA), which fraudulently passes itself off as Trotskyist. (Along with the U.S. Socialist Alternative, SA is part of the self-declared majority of the recently split Committee for a Workers’ International, CWI.) [The CWI is represented in South Africa by the Marxist Workers Party, which split off last year from the Workers and Socialist Party.] Writing off China as capitalist, SA has issued a series of leaflets offering tactical advice to the protest organizers and calling “for united mass struggle of Hong Kong and China people against the CCP dictatorship” (chinaworker.info, 19 July). SA’s main “contribution” has been to agitate for a one-day general strike to bring down the Hong Kong government and defeat the CCP regime. Their program, in short, is to sell out the workers to their direct class enemies: the Hong Kong bourgeoisie and its imperialist godfathers.
In fact, the counterrevolutionary protests have been overwhelmingly based on the petty bourgeoisie and hostile to the working class. The much-touted August 5 “general strike”, preceded by a “bankers strike” on August 1, was primarily a mobilization of students, lawyers, accountants, teachers and other professionals. Many employers encouraged their staff to take the day off and participate. The city was paralyzed as protesters blocked traffic and stopped public transport, threatening transport workers. Likewise, workers were attacked during the airport occupation of August 12-13, when hundreds of flights were stopped at one of the world’s busiest airports. Protesters have also vandalized the offices of the pro-Beijing Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions.
Embracing the call for free elections, which is aimed at toppling the Beijing-loyal local administration, SA is solidly in the camp of counterrevolution in Hong Kong. There it unites with people demanding that the enclave either become a protectorate of U.S. imperialism or return to the days of British rule, when the mass of the Chinese population lived in squalid slums and slaved away as dirt-poor laborers while Communists and trade-union militants were systematically repressed. Only in the lead-up to the handover to China did the British rulers grant a modicum of democratic rights, to be used as a weapon against the Chinese workers state.
SA’s program for Hong Kong and China is in line with the sordid history of the CWI, which avidly supported the imperialists’ campaigns against the Soviet degenerated workers state. In August-September 1991, the CWI’s forebears in the Militant tendency joined the capitalist restorationists on Boris Yeltsin’s barricades in Moscow. In contrast, our Trotskyist international tendency fought in defense of the workers state, distributing tens of thousands of leaflets calling on Soviet workers to crush the counterrevolutionary forces led by Yeltsin and backed by the George H.W. Bush White House.
The question posed by the crisis in Hong Kong is not “dictatorship or democracy” but “which class will rule?” In their drive to destroy the Soviet Union and the bureaucratically deformed workers states of East and Central Europe, the imperialists promoted all manner of reactionary forces, including those who waved the banner of “democracy” against Stalinist “totalitarianism”. The purpose was to overthrow the Communist regimes by one means or another, including using elections in which peasants and other petty-bourgeois layers as well as politically backward workers could be mobilized against the workers states.
A glimpse of what awaits China’s toiling masses if the 1949 Revolution were to be overturned can be seen today in the countries of the former Soviet bloc, where living standards have been massively thrown back and where such “democracy” as exists is a paper-thin facade for the class dictatorship that defines all capitalist societies. A quarter-century after capitalist counterrevolution in the Soviet Union, China is the largest of the remaining countries where capitalist rule has been overthrown. Capitalist counterrevolution in China would be a further massive victory for world imperialism and a defeat for workers and the oppressed across the globe.
The call for bourgeois democracy is a call for counterrevolution. We are for proletarian democracy—a government of elected workers, peasants and soldiers councils that would make decisions about the development of the economy and the organization of society. Under the leadership of China’s massive working class, non-proletarian sectors such as the peasants and Hong Kong’s office workers would in fact have far more of a voice in how society is run than they do in any capitalist republic. As Lenin explained of the 1917 October Revolution that brought the working class to power in Russia:
“The bureaucratic machine has been completely smashed, razed to the ground; the old judges have all been sent packing, the bourgeois parliament has been dispersed—and far more accessible representation has been given to the workers and peasants; their Soviets have replaced the bureaucrats, or their Soviets have been put in control of the bureaucrats, and their Soviets have been authorised to elect the judges. This fact alone is enough for all the oppressed classes to recognise that Soviet power, i.e., the present form of the dictatorship of the proletariat, is a million times more democratic than the most democratic bourgeois republic.”
—The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky (1918)
The True Legacy of Tiananmen
SA and the CIA-backed protesters as a whole falsely link their counterrevolutionary efforts with the specter of “June 4”, the 1989 proletarian upheaval centered on Beijing’s Tiananmen Square that was bloodily suppressed by the CCP regime of Deng Xiaoping. SA & Co. present the 1989 upheaval as a mass movement for (bourgeois) democracy. It was nothing of the kind! The events began with students demanding more political freedoms and protesting the corruption of top CCP bureaucrats. The protests were joined first by individual workers, then by contingents from factories and other workplaces. Workers were driven to act by the high inflation and growing inequality that accompanied the CCP’s program of building “socialism” through market reforms. While some youth looked to Western-style capitalist democracy, the protests were dominated by the singing of the “Internationale”, the international working-class anthem, and other expressions of pro-socialist consciousness.
Various workers organizations that appeared during the protests had the character of embryonic organs of working-class rule. “Workers picket corps” and factory-based “dare to die” groups, organized to protect the students against repression, defied Deng’s declaration of martial law. Workers’ groups began to take on responsibility for public safety after the Beijing government all but disappeared and the police vanished from the streets. It was the entry of the Chinese proletariat into the protests, in Beijing and around the country, that marked an incipient proletarian political revolution. After weeks of paralysis, the CCP regime launched a bloody crackdown on June 3-4 in Beijing, driven by fear not of the student protesters but of the mobilized working class. Even after the massacre, millions of workers across China continued to wage strikes and protests.
The workers showed enormous bravery and willingness to fight, and they forged links with soldiers, who viewed themselves as the defenders of socialism. Seven senior PLA commanders signed a petition opposing the martial law measures that were ordered against the population. On their own, however, the working class could not come to understand the need for political revolution to overturn the deforming rule of the bureaucracy. To imbue the working class with such consciousness requires the intervention of a revolutionary Marxist vanguard party. We honor the memory of the proletarian heroes of 1989, whose struggle vividly demonstrated the revolutionary potential of the working class.
SA and its ilk spit on the legacy of Tiananmen as they serve the imperialist drive for capitalist counterrevolution in China. Seventy years after its revolution, China is not the country it was in 1949—a desperately backward, overwhelmingly peasant society plundered by the imperialist powers and ravaged by decades of civil war. Yet despite China’s enormous advances since then, it remains economically backward in many respects compared to the imperialist countries that dominate the world economy. With its program of appeasing the imperialists and the Chinese bourgeoisie and its political suppression of the proletariat, the CCP bureaucracy constantly undermines the gains of the 1949 Revolution.
The achievement of socialism—a classless society based on material abundance—requires an international planned economy that harnesses and goes well beyond the technology and productive capacity of the most advanced capitalist countries today. The road to socialism lies in proletarian revolutions throughout the capitalist world, crucially including the imperialist centers of the U.S., Japan and West Europe. This perspective is necessarily linked to the fight to mobilize the Chinese proletariat to sweep away its bureaucratic misrulers. But revolutionary struggle needs revolutionary leadership. Our historic model is the Bolshevik Party that, under V.I. Lenin and Leon Trotsky, led the October 1917 Russian Revolution as the opening shot of the fight for world proletarian revolution. The ICL is committed to reforging Trotsky’s Fourth International to carry the Bolshevik banner forward.
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La Plata, Missouri, USA  Virtual Railfan LIVE - YouTube 1904 and 1928 Hinners organs in Southeast Missouri - YouTube Ken Griffin At The Organ - YouTube Quilt Tutorials - YouTube Braves Organist

Full text of 'Bonniers konversations lexikon'

  1. La Plata, Missouri, USA Virtual Railfan LIVE - YouTube
  2. 1904 and 1928 Hinners organs in Southeast Missouri - YouTube
  3. Ken Griffin At The Organ - YouTube
  4. Quilt Tutorials - YouTube
  5. Braves Organist
  6. Charlotte Harris & Bob Ralstan - 'The Missouri Waltz ...
  7. 1928 Wurlitzer Fox Special Organ, Fox Theatre, St. Louis ...

Quilts only! Although we have tons great tutorials, this playlist is dedicated specifically to making quilts! There are tutorials for beginner, intermediate ... This is a live stream of La Plata, Missouri, USA, for people who enjoy watching trains. Actual start date: May 19, 2017 The PTZ camera is sponsored by Duane ... Yesterday Matt Kaminski, famed organist for the Atlanta Braves, stopped by to practice with the Mighty Mo organ. Matt and Mo will be performing this Thursday night prior to our screening of Field ... Brent Johnson talks with Steven Ball about the 1928 IV/36 Wurlizter Fox Special at the Fox Theatre in St. Louis, Missouri. This is the first of a two-part se... Lawrence Welk Show 1971 - Salute to the USA. First Show produced on the new Lawrence Welk Network, after being canceled by ABC. -The Missouri Waltz Bob Ralst... Brent Johnson talks with Matt Palisch about two more Hinners organs, one from 1904 in Zion Lutheran Church in Gordonville, Missouri, and St. John's Lutheran ... Ken Griffin (1909-1956) played some great music on the organ, and this playlist captures a variety of samples of his music. Here in 2015, 1956 is 59 years ag...